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SJC
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I believe the solar/hydrogen route will be the first low hanging fruit. One scientist had a solar cell he put in water and exposed to sunlight. The hydrogen bubbles were coming off the cell profusely. Lots of good ideas, the problem with sun only solutions is 2000 hours per year instead of 8000, much harder to pay back the investment quickly. It was once said in the future people will be for maximizing human potential to help society, cost will be irrelevant.
Question assumptions. Many assume that battery prices will come way down, but that has to do with economies of scale driven by marginal cost. The curve may not be as attractive as many assume. Will batteries go from $400 per kWh to $200 to $100 in the next 10 years? Maybe, but probably not for the reasons everyone assumes. A 2X,3X or 4X improvement in energy density will do more to reduce costs. You go from 6000 cells, to 3000, to 1500 cells per car.
One of the factors in making electricity with heat engines is cooling. Power plants take a LOT of cooling which requires a LOT of water. So when you calculate total cost, consider all factors.
Rather than methanogens making methane to reform for hydrogen, modify the organism to produce hydrogen, then you can produce 24/7 instead of during only 6 hours of sunlight. "Policies for sustainable mobility" involves more than arguing about valve timing, it will take a whole new way of looking at things. The past and present views may be inadequate, so a change of thinking will be required.
"FirstElement Fuel is providing a vital piece of what is needed for a successful launch of fuel-cell vehicles..." It is good to see Honda, Toyota and others getting involved, the public sector can not do it all. That would be like everyone expecting Federal and State government to build all the fueling stations 100 years ago, not realistic.
Audi/VW have beautiful engine compartments, they take pride in the layout and appearance. IMO fuel cells will always be a bit expensive, they got the platinum content down, but you still have hundreds of cells and each cell costs. These are nice announcements, Audi/VW have not said much up until now, they have maintained a low profile but kept working in the engineering labs. Good for them, they knew 2015 was going to be show time and they got there.
Oil companies used to scoff at NG, then they longed to get into NG. Car companies could have gotten into NG decades ago when the getting was good. Chevron and Exxon now have large positions in NG, but many producers are smaller companies who can be acquired. Sure refineries make H2 to crack with, but they do not have H2 refueling stations, refineries are not in the business, but they could be. Petcoke can easily be reformed into fuels, H2 or both, but they would rather sell boat loads to India where it is thrown into furnaces to make electricity.
Some say oil companies are behind hydrogen, I don't think so. For the first time Honda, Hyundai, Daimler and others can get a piece of the fuel business. In 5-10 years the car owner can spend as much for fuel as for the car. If I were a car maker, I would want to sell the fuel as well. Decades ago oil could have gotten into ethanol, whether grain, then cellulose or synthesizing from natural gas...but NO..they had to fight it with expensive lobbyists. Some times capitalist activity makes no sense, they work AGAINST their better interests in favor of short term dull so called "thinking".
Wireless charging in parking lots and on street parking could be popular, you might pay as much as fuel, but it is cleaner, more convenient using less imported oil. Audi could follow on with a reformed diesel FCEV, they offer diesel engines, so this could be popular. You reform diesel to hydrogen for use in a PEM with 12 kWh battery capacity. While the reformer is starting, the heat can be used to warm the stack more quickly.
"Methanol, which is a product of natural gas..." It can also be synthesized from gasified biomass.
An FCEV can run the reformer\PEM in parking lots with no problem.
Range extender engines can have different characteristics from conventional gear/drive train types. Torque and horsepower that can do the job of driving the alternator under load is required. I prefer reforming liquid fuels then using fuel cells as a range extender, but we are not there on cost yet. With fuel cells, there is no combustion, the CO2 from oxidation can be neutral if we use bio fuels. Cellulose E100 would be one candidate.
Yuasa is the company who made the 787 batteries that caught fire, let's hope they do a better job going forward. BTW, for those interested in the topic, there is a documentary on Al Jazeera called "Broken Dreams" about the quality problems on the 787. If any of you like Frontline, you will like this. http://www.aljazeera.com/investigations/boeing787/
The DOE has assessed feedstock availability in The Billion Ton Study and Son of Billion Ton — bottom line conclusion, not much to worry about in terms of land availability, as a billion tons would cover 1000 biorefineries three times over, or more. http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/09/15/a-looming-cellulosic-feedstock-shortage/
Electric private aviation could be done with E100 or synthetic diesel by reforming the fuel to hydrogen then using it in a PEM fuel cell. The beauty of an FCEV plane is if the fuel ran out, the pilot would have 20 minutes of batteries to find a place to land.
In gasification you water-gas shift the CO to CO2 producing H2 from water. You can use the CO2 to get more oil from fields.
BTW, car sites like Cars.com and KBB.com list the Total Cost of Ownership and Operation for most cars, so if you want to see for the first five years, they list that including depreciation. Imagine the depreciation of a 10 year old EV with the same battery. Would YOU buy that car knowing you will have to pay for a new battery pack? How much would you pay? The depreciation will be HUGE on that one. As far as wars for oil, I will let you do the accounting on that one, you brought it up.
Account for ALL costs for ALL cars is what I am saying, you are the one whining. Stop whining and start accounting, this is what I am saying, but you are too busy trying to change the subject.
Daimler to cease production of Li-ion battery cells http://www.greencarcongress.com/2014/11/20141116.html
Corn based distillers grains from the ethanol industry are commonly sold as a high protein livestock feed that increases efficiency and lowers the risk of subacute acidosis in beef cattle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillers_grains God help anyone who is your "bro".
EP just repeats what people say in italics, but does not come up with his own solutions. Narcissists must destroy others so they stand out.
Tree, I don't know about the world, but the U.S. has more than 400 million acres in production and another 100 million that can be put into production. Using the starch in corn grain and sorghum makes ethanol while it still makes distillers grain feed for livestock minus the starch which is healthier for the animals. Now you can take the corn and sorghum stalks to make cellulose ethanol then you gasify the lignin that remains to make bio synthetic "drop in" fuels like green gasoline. Using those methods and double cropping sorghum you can get 1000 gallons of fuel per acre. Using 100 million of the 500 million acres we can make 100 billion gallons of fuel, more than enough for half the transportation fuel with NO extra land NOR extra water. Keep in mind you are still making feed for the livestock, healthier feed. I have pointed out these facts many times here, no one can dispute them because they are facts. The Department of Energy supports these facts, the Department of Agriculture supports these facts. People can believe what they want, fact free or not.
Bernard, Your arguments do nothing to advance "sustainable mobility" which is the charter of this site. Just because you think you are right and everyone else is wrong, that is not advancing the cause nor purpose of this site.
This is why we offset with incentives. The world subsidizes coal and oil more than $100 billion per year with tax breaks and depletion allowances. Reduce subsidies for coal and oil and use that to produce incentives for wind, solar and bio refineries. Over time, business will realize where the profits are.
Account for ALL the costs of operating a vehicle, Total Cost of Ownership is not "F.U.D." but keep repeating that lie, someone may believe you. NO, the battery will NOT last the life of the car, an even BIGGER lie electric car dud. Take your web page ad and move along, I have had enough of your lies.