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SJC
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This is great stuff a city bus can cost a lot to buy and maintain. Paying for the large pack is not a big problem in this application.
Bio synthetic methanol, gasoline, kerosene or diesel can be reformed on the FVC/EV for more independent and sustainable transport.
This is why the U.S. should eliminate all oil imports from OPEC.
Cellulose to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel can be done now. If we had reasonable taxes, the price floor would allow substitutes for more energy independence.
"FuelCell Energy high-temperature carbonate fuel cell systems internally reform readily available fuels such as natural gas and renewable biogas within the fuel cell itself." They reform natural gas to synthesis gas internally, then synthesis gas can used to catalytically synthesize methanol. This should be a modular scalable unit that can convert at point of distribution, so transit trucks are not necessary. Just pipe the natural gas to the station and put the methanol in the vehicles.
Rigs can be powered by the methane in the field. Methane is burned in turbines creating heat and electricity, or use SOFCs. Up until now, the drillers have been too short sighted to do so.
"..to make drop-in biofuels more accessible and affordable" If the federal gasoline tax were increased to 50 cents per gallon, we could afford to repair and build roads instead of the phony patchwork farces the Congress comes up with in the name of a Highway Bill. In 1992 Ross Perot recommended a 5 cent increase in the tax every year for 10 years, he was right. Europe pays more than twice what we in the U.S. pay for gasoline. A higher price makes substitutes possible and energy independence a reality.
Concentrated solar PV at 30+% efficiency used in 80+% efficient electrolysis produces 24+% efficient hydrogen. You get lots of oxygen which can be used to gasify biomass to produce lots of bio synthetic hydrocarbon liquid fuels to use in the 200 million engine vehicles in the U.S.
"..up to ten times the value of natural gas on an energy basis." It would be convenient to turn natural gas to methanol at the fueling station to power cars and fuel cell vehicles.
"..replaces all the platinum in the fuel cell’s cathode, which usually requires four times as much platinum as the anode." That would be quite an improvement. If a EV has almost 8000 battery cells, but a fuel cell might have 400 cell plates, there can be an economy with a hybrid fuel cell/EV.
I saw a program where they said the Tesla Model S has about 440 pounds of aluminum in the chassis. That would be quite a bit heavier if done with steel.
Think of 8,000 cells per car then how many need to be made to get to 1 million EVs per year. Manufacturing is THE big deal.
It looks like big corporations are preparing for the $20B battery by 2020.
Digest biomass to make methane, create methanol from the methane then reform methanol on vehicle to hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.
Fast neutron reactors can burn the 700,000 tons of depleted uranium and leave no long term waste.
Create methanol to hydrogen reformers to run PEM fuel cell hybrid cars on $1 biomethanol made from corn stalks after you extract cellulosic ethanol.
We need patent reform in the U.S. Make patents harder to get, put them in effect for a shorter period, if the assignee or licensee does not take it to market, they lose the patent.
Make E85 more available and make it cellulosic ethanol. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard has rating for all types.
Not just acceleration from stop but acceleration in general. If you logged around town performance of a straight reduction EV with PM three phase PWM drive, you would see substantially less than 90% efficiency. With a eCVT you can get more range with the same battery pack and less recharge time than a larger pack.
Using natural gas to make nitrogen fertilizer has its obvious limits. They may need to use solar/wind hydrogen, which will increase costs.
Like James Kunstler wrote, the suburb may have been one of our biggest mistakes.
The point being that electric motors are not always 90% efficient all the time. If you want to get more range around town with lots of starts from stops, a planetary eCVT could help.