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SJC
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I don't know what "links" you are talking about, that PDF you referenced says nothing of the sort. That S1 data sheet does say "*Start/stop in freeze condition needs special process..." Dave, just think about heating 200 pounds of stack from 0 degrees C to 60 degree C, how much heat energy that takes and how long it will take to do that. Now do you really think you can just cold start a large stack in seconds? The reaction will NOT take place until the stack is at 60C MINIMUM, the stack can not heat it self. If you want a definitive report on the state of the art read: http://setis.ec.europa.eu/energy-research/sites/default/files/project/docs/HIEPSFinalReport.pdf They say the best time from a cold start for a larger PEM was ONE MINUTE done by Toyota in a laboratory. So you keep thinking seconds when the reality is MINUTES.
I got my companies mixed up, the HT PEM company is Serenergy in Denmark, this is PowerCell in Sweden. PowerCell claims to have a CO tolerant PEM, but most PEM fuel cells can not even tolerate 10 ppm, they need to take 1000 ppm to take reformed liquid hydrocarbon fuels, HT PEMs can do that. Then there is sulfur, which is not a problem if you are reforming methanol, but that is another story :)
That data sheet is for a small 5 kW LT PEM, this project is based on a larger 25 kW S2 fuel cell. This company has been working on HT PEM for a while, but the S2 is described as a "CO tollerant PEM" The stack still has to be warmed to 70C minimum before starting, so it will take a while, maybe 3-4 minutes. An HTPEM starts at about 120C which takes a bit longer.
During the BP blowout in the Gulf, the "small hat/big hat" kluges they tried kept getting clogged up with methane hydrates. So I would say they have plenty, but they are deep and costly to recover. They need to see if they can mine them without a run away uncontrolled cascade emission.
A VW exec was interviewed, he believes that there will be 300 mile EVs by 2020, they need a 2x improvement in density and cost for that to happen, IMO. Pouch cells probably cost less to manufacture, one person said they have 20 AH, 40 AH, they are working on a 60 AH. You can pack and stack pouch cells, look at the LEAF pack to see an example.
PowerCell has a 25 kW HTPEM, there is no reason they could not make a larger one. The reformer does not have to be much larger nor cost much more. If it takes 10 minutes to start up the reformer and warm the HTPEM, you have 12 kWH of batteries that can last for 30+ minutes on battery only. The costly parts are batteries and fuel cells, so use less of both.
Ballard made the GE idea of a fuel cell TEN times better 20 years ago, they were way ahead of their time. They almost did not make it because our market system rewards Twitter with a $20 billion IPO market cap while starving useful contributions like Ballard.
The PowerCell/Volvo C30 FCEV is the right idea, more batteries and less fuel cell in a range extender configuration. The HTPEM can run on reformed liquid fuel without CO problems.
I said 4 or 5 plants would be better for risk reduction. They could have put one plant in each of the competing states. We will see how this "gigafactory" works out, it could be Musk's Waterloo.
Dr. Andrew Frank formerly at U.C. Davis developed hybrid cars in the early 1980s. They became the PNGV cars and then the Prius. Dr. Frank had almost NO budget, but he had many talented and devoted students.
In a market based system, only the most profitable activity is worth doing, the externalities of health and environment are ignored, those are someone else's problems.
Yes, some say it is just a "niche" so ignore it, to them it is of no value. Add up all those niches and you have part of a real solution.
You can use energy dense without power dense by using two kinds of batteries. These would be the "range extender" variety, the conventional lithium ion batteries would be for power.
This shows what can be done when an EV is light and streamlined. If motors were cheap enough, you could put two at the back end and eliminate the differential weight and cost. Now that you don't need 85 kWh of batteries, the weight goes down farther and you don't need a heavier structure. Car design tends to scale like that, a bigger engine needs a bigger transmission which requires a heavier frame and bigger stronger suspension. Take that in reverse, you don't need a 3000 pound car for a 150 pound person.
I do not see where they are getting the $4500 number. There was a study done at U.C. Berkeley that showed car pool lanes cause congestion in the SFO Bay Area. The lanes were under used causing more congestion. If that is the case, the HOV lanes get more use with hybrids, which reduces overall congestion. The cars are going to be there no matter what, people need to get to work. Car pools are seldom used, that was the original idea for the HOV car pool lanes to begin with.
Growers are realizing payments in the $70 per ton range for biomass, before harvest costs. Plus, improvements in soil productivity and consequent savings in fertilizer costs. That market is bringing biomass off the field, and ultimately encourages no-till farming... http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/10/16/breaking-the-cycle-of-agricultural-landfill-can-cellulosic-ethanol-offer-a-path-to-more-no-till-farming/
2015 Ford Focus Electric will get a major price cut of $6,000, bringing the suggested retail price to $29,995--more in line with the best-selling Nissan Leaf. http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1095024_2015-ford-focus-electric-price-cut-to-29995-a-6k-drop-report
Grid demand is highest M-F 9-5 for obvious reasons.
Tesla's inverter is on the other side of the differential, not combined. I would keep them separate, the inverter needs precise cooling.
DOE projections are just that, projections. The DOE never massed produced a car in its life and never will. When the auto industry can mass produce 200,000 FC cars that sell for under $30,000, then we can take notice.
There is a California company that electrifies existing school buses. They have case histories of several successful programs, this is the kind of company we should support.
10 tons of biomass per hour But this CAN not be done and SHOULD not be done, these fools just don't listen to the one self proclaimed "expert" who posts on here!
Harvey, Nice idea, but who will pay the $100 million per lane mile for a 200kW charger? I don't think it will be the utility companies who don't want a 200kW time N cars load on the grid during prime time.
GM can mass produce at a lower price point than Tesla. If we are saying the Tesla 3 will be priced at $35,000, who would most of the buying public want to buy from? Would they buy from a company making cars for 70 years or someone who THINKS he knows how to mass produce 200,000 unit per year without problems. GM sells more than 2 MILLION cars per year in the U.S. and even more in China. When Tesla can say that, then maybe they can compete with the major established car companies.