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Henry Gibson
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Yes, everyone with money and resources to waste should drive a fuel cell vehicle, and they should realize that they are part of the socialism much denounced in the present US election. ..HG..
If made in large quantity by large machines, ZEBRA batteries can be very inexpensive and have very long lives and can be reused in less weight critical applications after being replaced from an automobile upon too large of a loss of capacity. Such a use is power grid support. Power-walls and uninterruptible power systems. GE lied about its internal use of DURATHON brand ZEBRA batteries, but should sell its factories to ABB and not destroy the production. The use of DC factory wiring and motor-drives and electronic lights is an obvious use for reliability of production. AC in a conduit or underground wastes more energy all the time. AC is obsolete; no laptop computers need it nor do their chargers nor do CFLs nor do tungsten lamps or LEDs. Power use is now far more efficient if regulated by semiconductors. Power transmission is more efficient over long distances or underground and underwater if regulated by semiconductors and eliminates much use of land for poles. ..HG..
Rubber was 100 percent a sticky biomass until treated with sulphur and heat. The auto customer in his first drive from the dealer will put more CO2 into the air than this bio-rubber in the whole vehicle will save. Toyota should require that all of its use of electricity is supplied by Nuclear power plants. Uranium will never run out. If used in specially designed deuterium moderated reactors the stored depleted uranium left over from enriching reactor fuel and was never in any reactor and is less radioactive than fresh mined uranium could supply power for the US for the rest of the century without mining any more; and there is enough in the oceans until the sun explodes. This does not consider the available thorium which likely can fuel the existing and new CANDU reactors until then as well starting with US waste fuel that really does not need to be wasted and can be usefully eliminated to get ten time more energy. This is sustainability not destroying forests. Natural sourced materials are destroying forests and land and have been for over 2000 years. Much tree free land in Spain was all forests and much of the soil is in the Mediterranean sea. This is pretend ecology which will replace tested material with some not so tested or safe and more expensive. The ethanol in the gasoline was likely the cause of the failure of the O rings of the fuel system in my nephews SUV. Smaller engines better transmissions all hybrids that is how to prevent CO2 release. Also speed limits built in. ..HG..
Book writers and music composers already have more legal protection than inventors. Paice technology should be forbidden to be used in favor of less costly and more efficient Artemis Digital Displacement hybrid technology which Bosch-Rexroth did not sell for ten years. ..HG..
CARB killed the EV1 and other electric vehicles by supporting the fuel cell vehicle too early and too much. The Artemis technology hydraulic hybrid would prevent more CO2 release at lower cost. Over twenty years ago, ZEBRA batteries, if put into electric vehicles with micro-range-extenders would have saved more CO2 release at far lower cost than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will save in the next twenty. Ian Wright suggests that his truck drive system, running on natural gas, will prevent more CO2 release than electric vehicles would. ..HG..
The economics of hydrogen use in fuel cells show them to be too expensive to buy and to operate. Battery powered buses are more CO2 efficient even if H2 is made with solar energy because the losses involved make it more efficient and lower cost to charge a battery than to make hydrogen and put it into a fuel cell. Making sodium to use in a fuel cell would be more efficient. Overhead charging rails can be put at any stop in any city if necessary. ..HG..
Wright-Speed does not make vehicles but uses the more friendly idea of replacing the worn out or wasteful drive system of existing vehicles. Electronic controlled gear shifting systems allows for much lower cost motors and electronic power systems. Where might George Constantinescu's transmission fit in. ..HG..
Turbine hybrid drive is now the only logical and economic choice for efficient, clean, fuel powered buses today. ..HG..
Wright Speed has an innovative controller and gear system and understands electrical motors and systems very well. It is nice that it has a few more customers. It would be better for its customers if it would introduce the use of temperature independent, safer, longer life, re-usable ZEBRA batteries for his energy storage. They have about equal energy capacity with production lithium batteries especially if the weight of special cooling systems is considered. ZEBRA batteries or cells can be used as power-walls when their capacity becomes too low for vehicles; most failed cells just take themselves out of the circuit and the few hundred volt battery voltage drops slightly. Buses with turbines in them are operating already in several countries and have been available for about twenty years. Parry People Movers has commercial operation of its flywheel vehicles which save much fuel without power batteries, and Wright Speed could use Ricardo electric flywheels and no batteries and save about the same amount of fuel at lower cost and complexity than using ultra-capacitors or lithium. An energy storage mass could be incorporated directly into the turbine with enhanced bearings. Whilst ZEBRA batteries have equal energy to Lithium batteries they have less start power because the many many tiny lithium cells are stacked together in their batteries, and only a few large, cheaper to make, ZEBRA cells are needed for the same energy. The Wright technology can easily compensate for the lower power of ZEBRA batteries. Artemis hydraulic hybrid digital displacement technology could likely save as much or more fuel energy at lower capital costs. In any case, no non-hybrid automobiles should be allowed to be made in the near future, from electric vehicles with tiny range extenders to engine flywheel starter generators to hydraulic hybrids. ..HG..
Do like others; put two bars above the road.
You would not be amused at the expense of the demand rate the power company would charge the whole month for a single 200 KW charge. High rate chargers should be natural gas powered engines. ..HG..
Yes you can make electricity far more expensive with solar cells and can go bankrupt far more quickly. Not a single mention of solar heat. "geothermal" heat is now just heat pumps run by electricity. Please use magnetic bearing Turbocor compressors which need no oil until the US government has to bail you out again. Solar electricity in Spain costs 50 cents per KWH to make; what does Ford pay now. "Renewable" standards for a company that makes a product that is responsible for producing a product which is one of the highest consumers of fossil-fuels. Forget renewable energy buildings; Use Artemis digital displacement hybrid technology in all of your automobiles and reduce their fuel consumption to half or less. ..HG..
Great gains in efficiency at low costs and be obtained with the Artemis digital displacement techniques and these can eliminate much of the need for other schemes for increasing efficiency of driver operation but allows such at low cost where effective. ..HG..
Run an engine at its highest efficiency or not at all or at highest power if really rarely needed in an electric series hybrid. Hydraulic hybrids can handle more power and regeneration at far lower costs; too bad they can't be bought due to Bosch-Rexroth and government inaction. Artemis was told by the UK to go tilt at wind-mills and now there are two 7 Mega-Watt ones. ..HG..
Half or more of the fuel used for transportation can be eliminated by requiring new vehicle to be built as hydraulic hybrids with simple gas accumulator tanks but digital controlled pumps and motors and engines. Turbines can eliminate most of the non CO2 pollution. Remember automobiles are not efficient because of the high speeds of operation not bad engines. No batteries are needed. Much cheaper ZEBRA and even lead batteries perhaps can be used as POWER_WALLS; co-generation in homes can lead to lower CO2 release. Qnergy has installed its first Stirling cogeneration at a hotel and demonstrated a wood pellet version. ..HG..
Charging stations are not necessary if every vehicle has an inefficient small Bladon Jet range extender. You could run it on fuel blessed by the hydrogen priests; even zero carbon liquid ammonia. ..HG..
What no silicon-carbide semiconductors? ..HG..
"If wishes were horses beggars would ride" There is an electric vehicle now built and running constantly for years day and night without charging or hydrogen or fossil fuels. An airplane could be built to run day and night for years without refueling by using the same process and it would not contain a nuclear reactor. It could not be very big right now because enough fuel is not available for a large one. The electric vehicle is the Mars large explorer. Simply requiring the construction of hydraulic hybrids in quantity eliminates the need for any bio-fuel destruction of rain forests and long range electric vehicles. The natural gas now used for electric power can be used for automobiles more efficiently. ANY electric car should have a liquid fuel powered range extender by law just as seat belts are required; they could be built by Bladon Jets and weigh only a few pounds and need not be efficient; after all automobiles are not efficient anyway. ..HG..
ZEBRA batteries would be a great choice for these. Now available from FZSONICK to work at all temperatures with 20 year lives. ..HG..
Digital controlled hydraulic motors and pumps can make a hybrid with this type of efficiency at far lower costs and weight and no large battery. This figure can be improved with crankshaft free engines, such as INNAS NOAX, also digital controlled. Artemis has demonstrated most of this in real equipment. Now flywheels from Ricardo demonstrate in co-operation with Artemis this type of operation. Parry people movers uses large steel flywheels.
What people don't realize is that sulphur in these fuels is an important nutrient for plant growth. A company in North Dakota was required (rightly so) to remove sulphur from its stack emissions, and it now sells the sulphur in bags, not only to neighboring farms but to all of US, The NOx that the engine generates is also plant food. The CO2 that the engines produce is clearly plant food. Crude oil was formed, at least partially, from plant and animal growth and retains many of the elements in the original plants. These engines could be operated most of the time in lean burn mode and already do at least some of the time and adjusted to produce the most NOx, not the least, and heat extracted from the exhaust with an organic rankine cycle to produce electricity with cooling from sea-water. Then the exhaust is fed directly into sea water to absorb sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides Carbon dioxide, trace minerals and a small amount of hydrocarbons which can be eaten for energy by micro organisms. Much of this is already being done simply by the "smog" falling on the ocean surface, but this process could be vastly or half-vastly improved by very good mixing of exhaust and sea-water. Yes the sea-water is becoming less alkaline with the addition of CO2 but there is no way the Larger Seas will become actually acidic because of the massive concentration of calcium and magnesium ions in the water. Plants and animals reduce the CO2 in the sea by forming and holding carbohydrates and other organic materials and poison the earths atmosphere with more oxygen. Ships could also be required to inject into the water with their exhaust sufficient trace minerals to produce enough algae growth to absorb all of the CO2 released. and this would be one of the lowest cost methods available of CO2 reduction and indirectly collecting solar energy where solar cells are difficult to place. Co-generation of heat-cooling and electricity, by many means including Micro-turbines is right now the fastest cheapest way to reduce CO2 release where natural gas is available except perhaps these ships where CO2 can be highly absorbed by the water. The Reagan library, recently much in the news, is heated cooled and lighted by co-generation. The floating human created debris in the ocean can be collected and destroyed by ships with Wet air oxidation tanks. At 270 degrees Centigrade more or less, water will oxidize organic materials in it. CO2 could be directly absorbed by the ocean or collected as liquid. Energy from the heat produced could be use to move the collecting boat and inject the air into the oxidation tanks. Living or dead plants and animal can be sieved out of the water for emergency fuel. ..HG..
Very high power alternators can be built and fit into the same space as present ones. Large diameter multi strand aluminum cables can carry high power short distances; much higher power 12 volt batteries can be fitted into any automobile. Switching high voltage direct current is much harder on the switches at 48 volts. A turbine-electric-compressor has already been built; the electric part can be a motor or generator, but very high efficiency transistor circuits allow the use of separate electric-compressors and turbine-generators. ..HG..
Bio-fuel production starves people and is not economic and does not substantially reduce and may even increase greenhouse gas release. ..HG..
The US should impose a tax on imported oil to pay off the national debt. Foreign countries required the US to pay a large tax over the production costs for many years. This cooperation was considered "free trade" Now the world people see the actual production costs when the US could have made jet fuel at less than one dollar a gallon from coal since 1970, whilst the US created great debt. ..HG..