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Since we are already using natural gas almost exclusively to make electricity in new power plants co-generation is the way to take the gas used now exclusively to generate electricity and use it in co-generation systems where it can be used to heat or cool as well. Cooling by heat is ancient known technology. The heat needed for cooling or heating can well come from the lower temperature of gas turbine or engine exhaust rather than from flames. Every new business or office or computer or factory building in California should be required by law to use co-generated heat for air conditioning and put waste (excess) electricity into the grid. The present natural gas and oil burning power stations can be eliminated and much carbon release be eliminated by using the fuels in co-generation systems. Honda in Japan even has co-generation systems for the home; now with pull cords for starting. Co-generation is more reliable and less costly than wind or solar even with the extra cost and can be built in days. ..HG.. Since potassium is has been always long term radioactive and all humans have potassium in them, dead humans should be treated as radioactive waste and buried at the same expense as the equivalent number of radioactive atoms in waste from other nuclear facilities and reactors. A rod with radioactive potassium could be made with far more radioactivity coming from it than the fuel rods put into CANDU reactors.
It is very nice to hear about high efficiency power conversion materials. Glass like metals are already being used in low frequency power transformers for power savings in electrical distribution systems. Phone and electronic tablets or laptops already have efficient switched regulators for high efficiency charging. What can now save much power is first converting a large amount of power distribution in buildings into direct current distribution. Most lights can now work on direct current because of the more efficient electronic converter ballasts and many CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps). Many high power motors also have electronic drives that can work equally well on direct current. One of the newest most efficient motors, called the synchronous reluctance motor requires a drive that can be modified with almost no engineering effort to operate on direct current because like most drives its first stage is a rectifier. Computer power supplies almost always have first stage rectifiers and on direct current they will need no power factor correction circuitry. Direct current in metallic conduit has lower induction losses and like buried cable has lower capacitance losses. Buildings can now have full direct current distribution and where standard alternating current is needed it can be made on the spot with better characteristics much like the inverter generators from HONDA and others because of the high efficiency of semiconductors like these. Coupled with the direct current transmission system are banks of Durathon batteries from GE or ZEBRA batteries from FZSONICK or even NGK Sodium-Sulphur units for reliability. These all have minimal or no maintenance and can be distributed and certainly protect against brief outages. The large NGK sodium-sulphur electrical storage system would have better served the world and Japan if it had been installed inside the Fukushima power station instead of at a windfarm, mostly because of the false fears promoted by many governments and people. Fewer than 100 known deaths have been caused by radiation of reactor failures and none in the general public. The natural background radiation would be causing many more deaths than the far lower radiation levels permitted at nuclear facilities, and they are not to be found even in areas with high natural radiation levels. The batteries are a part of what should be the required co-generation system of any large building that has access to natural gas and even some that do not. One California company makes gas micro turbines in 30, 65 and 200 kW sizes. They are easy to use in parallel on a alternating current distribution system, but they are even easier to use in parallel to charge direct current batteries and power a direct current distribution system. The high frequency electricity from appropriate windings is wired to the battery terminals through simple fuses and then standard rectifiers and then direct current fuses. The battery leads can also connect to cheap semiconductors to bring the turbine up to speed. This would eliminate the cost and inefficiencies of the now built in inverters. The turbines have magnets and turbine blades on a single shaft, thus only one major moving part. Hydrodynamic air bearings can work without wear at the ninety-thousand revolutions per minute speed. Switched reluctance rotors would be cheaper to build and would allow higher speeds and more power per unit and the higher speed would not damage the bearings. The waste heat from the turbine can be used to both heat and cool buildings with either new or ancient processes. If there is too much electricity it can be sold to the grid or used to power Turbocor compressor for more cooling. Cooling can be stored as ice. Heat can be stored in molten salts as in some solar systems or as hot or very hot water or in the soil. The wasting of heat is required by physics when fuel is burned to generate electricity, and since natural gas is being required de facto if not de jure for new electric generation, all new generation should be co-generation so that much or most of this wasted heat is used. Fuel cells are being promoted but the cost of fuel conversion for them and their initial high cost and the increasing efficiency of combined cycles and co-generation makes fuel cells not economic. Stationary turbines should have a bottoming cycle similar to geo-thermal units and then even the waste heat can be used for hot water if it is not used for cooling. The Japanese have invented and sold many ECOCUTE units that multiply electric energy into many times the direct heat energy of electricity for hot water heating. In plain English they are efficient heat pumps. Heat pumps can be used with great value for building and hot water heating. Burning gas in a turbine and using the produced electricity to run one or more heat pumps may provide heat or hot water to a building at more than 200 percent efficiency compared to just burning with only 100 percent. Japan also has the ECOWILL from Honda to burn natural gas in the home and produce electricity and heat. The latest versions in Japan have a pull cord to start, of course, in addition to the prior version of pure electric starting. It did not sell well in the USA because it would only be sold with an additional full gas heating system. ECOWILL had a very good inverter to connect to the power system at any engine speed. Every building large or small ought to have one where natural gas is available for heat and continuous electricity. Direct current buried power lines should also be built for moderately high voltage transmission to and within towns and cities but also in the country side with the availability of efficient conversion semiconductors. ..HG..
The set of durathon batteries could be directly connected to the drive electronics of air conditioners plus furnaces and refrigerators and freezers and stoves and charging of the batteries would be cut off during high demand hours and the power company could tap into the battery charge during that period as well to boost the energy in the system. Batteries would be fully charged at low power use times, and they would be available during power failures. Charging of electric cars would also happen at low power use time except if a quick charge had to be taken from the battery. ..HG..
Artemis systems can eliminate the need for bio-fuels and the accompanied present destruction of rain-forests throughout the world. Parry People Movers, two rail-cars, in-revenue-service, have demonstrated already, for years, the economy of similar systems. New York City had electric flywheels on some of its vehicles for energy recovery, and modern technology makes it possible to place electric versions of the Ricardo flywheels in the vehicles as well as at the stations or anywhere along the track as URENCO tried to do. In the vehicle flywheels with or without companion DURATHON batteries might be the best choice to eliminate power failures when vehicles cross third rail gaps just like the ancient London flywheel locomotives for freight trains in third rail districts. The present electro-diesels on the same lines now should have Ricardo electro-flywheels added immediately for both electric and diesel operation. The ARTEMIS technology is not sufficiently appreciated. It is very lightweight compared to electrical systems of the same power and much less expensive and more efficient at regeneration and can bring the vehicle to a full stop to recover more energy and save on brake wear. Vehicles on long down grades can dissipate energy in fluid cooling coils with no brake wear or over-heating if necessary. Artemis motor-electric-generators could also charge batteries on these hills. Using only compressed Nitrogen filled hydraulic bladder tanks for storing energy, it can save half the fuel for vehicles operated within cities and at least one third the fuel for vehicles operated on motorways without a change in engine size. With just smaller engines more fuel is saved but equal performance is available for most uses. A dual internal-combustion free piston hydraulic pump similar to the INNAS-CATERPILLAR Chiron design would make vehicles even more efficient and reliable. The Chiron engine also demonstrated the use of complicated electronic controlled timing of hydraulic valves for its operation similar to Artemis. A modification of it would be the best way to burn natural gas to pump water for reverse osmosis purification. The use of Artemis systems eliminates complicated, expensive transmission systems and can be used to drive four or more wheels on a vehicle with little more cost or complexity and even more energy can be regenerated for improved acceleration upon start-out. The Artemis pump-motors have very simple mechanics and can run at high speeds, but not the unreduced speeds of small flywheels. ARTEMIS systems are torque multipliers, and a single one-horse-power engine pump can move a filled rail-car at low speed. Using a large model-airplane engine with Ricardo's magnetic gear and hydraulic pump could do the same. The Ricardo flywheels, with magnetic gearing, add an extra dimension to the energy storage available and the possible regenerative breaking energy, because flywheels can deliver one of the highest peak powers available along with Nitrogen tanks, but with a great deal more energy storage with multiple small units. Carbon-Graphite fibers can be used to make flywheels or pressure tanks and their best use can be engineered. Through the vacuum tight wall magnetic gearing or electrical generation has a very small cost and the flywheel part can have an infinite life. A much smaller system could be added to every automobile with a non-automatic transmission and rear wheel drive at much lower cost than electric hybrid. Front wheel drive cars could have rear wheel drive and regeneration added with small lightweight modifications. It would be interesting to see an engine crankshaft pulley replaced with a compact Artemis pump pulley or the starting motor replaced with a same sized or smaller but continuously engaged Artemis pump-motor with or without flywheel ring gear enhancements. With the Ricardo-flywheel-Artemis-pump-motor and perhaps air tanks no other modifications would be needed to make many existing vehicles into hybrids. Many standard transmission automobiles would never have to shift from high except to reverse, occasionally to start or idle to speed up the flywheel when starting a trip. Pressure tanks can keep pressure for years for starting. Years ago a method of starting engines with fuel injector and spark timing by computer was invented. The FORD model T with batteries for vibrator spark coils would rarely crank itself to a start when the ignition was turned on in a similar way. Perhaps instructions could have been designed to move the crank shaft to a certain position and then turn on the spark coils to start the engine. Hand operated starter fluid injectors would make the operation more certain. Compressed air injection is still used to start some engines. Airplane engines were sometimes started with gun powder charges. The high economy of Artemis automobile experiments relied upon stopping the engine when the vehicle was stopped or when energy was available in pressure Nitrogen tanks. Pressurized Nitrogen in an air bladder tank could not only start an engine but also move the vehicle, and it could be moved many feet by an up to speed flywheel. ..HG..
The magnetic gearing of the flywheel is very innovative and many on this site are encouraged to understand its operations and its implications. It can be converted to electronic operation with only magnetic cores and windings plus the electronics to drive them. The device can have a wide range of energy and cost variances depending upon the fiber used. Relatively cheap, long life, high energy, low power DURATHON or ZEBRA Batteries could be used in vehicles with these flywheels for acceleration and braking. Even solid steel wheels could be used for low energy cheap units. Innovative bearings have been designed that, if used, would allow these flywheels to have an operating life of centuries. ..HG..
It is very easy to build a conductive rail into any pavement; A single overhead wire would be useful for many vehicles. With modern insulators a second isolated segmental pavement rail can supply the power when a vehicle signals the need; Electronic converters of small size, low cost and high power have been demonstrated in computers for about thirty years. No power drain from high voltage buried direct current cable when there is no vehicle traffic. Several similar solutions have been designed over the past century, and some are now operating for electric street cars. Two standard rails and an innovative third rail would allow the use of standard design San Francisco USA street cars and others slightly modified. One system uses magnets to pull up a conductor to electrify stationary conductors contacted by the vehicle. The flywheel storage systems mentioned elsewhere on this site from Ricardo can seamlessly supply energy for many feet of missing electrical contact as did the ancient flywheel locomotives of the London suburban electric railways. Actually the Artemis, Ricardo technologies can make internal combustion vehicles twice as efficient to save half the fuel and eliminate much need for electric vehicles on motorways. ..HG..
There are ways of making a very light weight moderate powered range extender internal combustion engine. About five horse power electric is enough to complete all city tasks without substantial delay even with a few miles on a motorway. But Artemis Intelligent power has a cheaper and fully effective way of reducing fuel use in large and small road vehicles without even the use of expensive electric motors, batteries and electronics. Automotive fuel use can be reduced to one half of the present with same or better acceleration and cheaper original costs and repairs. Add the INNAS NOAX Chiron engine and almost all wearing parts and inefficiencies disappear. Artemis is now part of a large conglomerate, mostly tilting at windmills, the largest in the world, but has also introduced a small hydraulic pump for industry and road vehicle testing. INNAS has other useful interesting hydraulic non electric innovations, but the Chiron electric hydraulic engine may predate the electric engine pump of Artemis. Some large locomotives sent to North Africa prior to WWII had electric actuated steam valves, but were not well maintained during the Algerian war. ..HG..
GE Durathon, FZSONICK ZEBRA, or other batteries are still not be produced in large enough quantities and at cheap enough prices to expand their use into every building, ship or factory. Motor drives have eliminated the need for AC for most high power motors whilst propviding efficiency. ABB has a "new" highly efficient synchronous reluctance motor with no expensive magnets but requires a drive than can just as well operate from a Direct Current supply as can most modern drives slightly modified. Long lived sodium nickle chloride or even sodium sulphur batteries can reduce energy costs by proper use. ..HG..
Ethane the mystery fuel is now mentioned, perhaps for the first time, in green car congress. Ethane can be converted much more easily into other hydrocarbon chemicals than methane and can be stored as a liquid under high pressure as well at "room temperature" "under 32.17 C.". The highest ocean surface temperature today is 31.7 C. At depth it can be much lower; so ocean water can keep liquid ethane super-cooled at most places in a pressure tank similar to what holds liquid CO2. One company proposed pressure tanks for CNG made of coils of steel pipe. These would work for room temperature, C2H6, ethane. Ethane may be too valuable a chemical for use as a fuel, but vast quantities of ethane are now being wasted as part of a shale gas flaring now going on in the US shale gas fields. Turbines can burn the flare gas and produce LNG or at least liquid ethane. Even I can invent an electrical distribution system that feeds the electricity generated from flare gas economically into use. The vast amounts of sulphur in ship liquid fuels should be put directly into the ocean water after combustion. It is an essential fertilizer for plants. Dakota Gasification captures sulphur with ammonia and sells it. ..HG..
Congratulations IAN! A new turbine on the market. No lubricant. No cooling water. Inter-cooler after first stage compressor for more efficiency. Regenerator for more efficiency. But most efficiency gains by use of hybrid technology including regeneration. No commercial building, including dwellings, should not have turbine co-generation. Fastest cheapest way to reduce carbon Gov. Brown. Artemis can double efficiency with standard cars and standard engines in city driving with its hybrid technology. ..HG..
Both switched reluctance motors and the new ABB synchronous motors can be more efficient and weigh less than even inductance motors. The Tesla ones have copper in the rotor for higher efficiency already. Silver conductor rotors could easily pay for themselves in Tesla automobiles. Die casting of silver should not be much more difficult than the copper now used. Modern locomotives are using a high percentage of induction motors. Tesla could use ABB synchronous reluctance rotor designs in their motors with a slight change in the programming of the electronics probably and get better efficiency. ..HG..
Pescara made successful free piston engines. Or rather his paid engineer did; but they worked and were used in a turbine car in the USA and some power plants. Many free piston air compressors were built for submarines and later for construction. INNAS has the NOAX Chiron engine for hydraulic pumping which can be made to generate electricity with a Pelton wheel as suggested by Pescara as well. But Bladen jets has already demonstrated two tiny turbines in a high performance electric automobile. Ian Wright, formerly of Tesla, states that only delivery vehicles save enough fuel to be worth improving with electric hybrid systems which he builds with batteries and a turbine to run on any prior selected fuel as range extender. ..HG..
Pescara made successful free piston engines. Or rather his paid engineer did; but they worked and were used in a turbine car in the USA and some power plants. Many free piston air compressors were built for submarines and later for construction. INNAS has the NOAX Chiron engine for hydraulic pumping. But Bladen jets has already demonstrated two tiny turbines in a high performance electric automobile. Ian Wright, formerly of Tesla, states that only delivery vehicles save enough fuel to be worth improving with electric hybrid systems which he builds with batteries and a turbine to run on any prior selected fuel as range extender. ..HG..
Digital displacement hydraulic hybrid technology will give the performance of an SUV with half the fuel use in most cases of city driving. Engine downsizing will give even more fuel efficiency without noticeable performance loss; all at much lower cost than electric hybrids and cheaper transmission repairs. The new Ricardo vacuum flywheel magnetic gear system can be installed for even more energy storage. Flywheels have been tested in racing cars for years for energy efficiencies and fuel savings. ..HG..
Making ethanol from steel mill CO is related to the ability of making ethanol from the large amounts of natural gas now aavailable in the US instead of from maize. ..HG..
Electric vehicles are well to wheel far more efficient and cheaper to operate and require far less fossil fuel than most gasoline vehicles. Even if the electricity comes from coal there is a great reduction in CO2 release. In addition there is no accounting for all of the losses and production of CO2 in the supply train of crude oil and refined oil products. Well gas flaring alone may make crude oil less desirable than coal for automobile operation via electricity. As stated elsewhere hydraulic hybrids can double efficiency at lower costs. ..HG..
The main problem with electric automobiles is the cost. Range worries can be eliminated with on board electric generators that are seldom used and use politically correct fuels such as some form of ethanol most of the time if used at all. Automobiles are not bought by most people to be efficient but to be decorative and large and powerfull. Costs of electric automobiles can be reduced by eliminating most of the battery and expensive high power electronics, but there is no reason to do so because hydraulic hybrids can eliminate half the fuel consumption as demonstrated by ARTEMIS withous any weight increase. Any future mandate for efficient automobiles should include hydraulic hybrid requirements. Every automobile company can incorporate ARTEMIS or similar INNAS technology with no increase in weight into every new automobile made to double the fuel efficiency. These tranmissions can be even cheaper to build and maintain than current ones. BS can be converted to food in varius ways and can be used as food for cattle almost directly and directly as plant food. Let the US continue to feed food to automobiles whilst some in the US are hungry. ..HG..
Biomass energy failed in the UK centuries ago as it did in Spain and Iceland and as it is now doing in developing countries where much of the day is being spent destroying natural forests to collect or make fuel for merely cooking not driving automobiles. Every kind of biomass can be used to make food. Much biomass is now used by organisms in the soil to produce nitrogen compounds from the air to keep the soil fertile. Vast tracks of naturtal forests are bein converted to tree plantations for production of bio-oils demanded by european directives for biofuels. If counties dont have enough land for producing biofuels they should not import them. It is very informative to have the religeous nature of many adament beliefs about energy and other issues pointed out. Any adament beliefs about dangers of the world should be put aside until the dangers of tobacco consumption is eliminated. This extends to the worries and laws about mercury, lead, cadmium and small amounts of radioactive materials; Bananas are radioactive; as all good foods have been for billions of years because all natural potassium is radioactive. Look up potassium. ..HG..
Coal can be combusted without any particles produced. The main irrational bias against coal is that more CO2 is produced per unit energy, but people do not drive automobiles acting as though they know that more than twice the CO2 is produced if the speed they drive between towns on motorways is double; they also do not know all of the CO2 produced during refining and all transportation of crude and products as well as the CO2 produced in flaring of gas at the well and the CO2 produced from the decomposition of spills in the production areas. People will drive as they will but they will irrationally demand that other people not have affordable electricity for their homes from fossil fuels. Air with CO2 is not dirty, it comes from all plants and animals including humans. Nothing that the UK or the US or the EU or Japan can do now can have any noticible effect on the reduction of CO2 in the air by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels because of the vast consumption of the rest of the world, but they all can erect new nuclear electrical facilities not to reduce CO2 but as an example to China and India and other industrializing countries. A very safe nuclear energy source that also does not reduce CO2 is being demonstrated on Mars in the large rover which is Mar's first fully nuclear powered automobile. The prior rovers were heated not powered by nuclear energy because and they had to idle during the cold Mars winter with not enough sun to heat or run. The 80 year half life isotope weight 238 gives off about half a watt of heat per gram. Three times as much electricity could have been had from the 238 on Mars if Stirling generators had been used rather than thermoelectric elements as in the past. Both could have been used with heat pipes to move the heat efficiently. Nuclear radiation from isotope 238 is nearly 100 percent absorbed inside and a thin coating of tungsten can absorb the rest but the metal is very hot and would make a wonderful source of heat for a stirling generator. Isotope 238 can be produced in all nuclear reactors with slight modifications. CANDU heavy water reactors would be very good. They can also burn used light water fuel if diluted with thorium. Isotope 238 cannot be used as nuclear explosive, and would be a good way to produce constant energy when cheaply produced. All of the US and russian owned 238 should be in alaska or antartica or siberia. ..HG..
Buy Sodium Sulphur batteries from NGK, Zebra batteries from FZSonick or Durathon batteries from USA general electric and use the electricity for electric vehicles or trains and the mechanical to mechanical efficiency will be much higher; as much as ten times higher. Diesel engines in automobiles are seldom as high as 25 percent. The value 0.7 times 0.25 gives 0.18 or less than 20 percent of the windturbine energy is used to move the vehicle in the best case. A plug in hybrid vehicle at the base of the tower might get even 90 percent of the energy to the wheels; at a far distance it still can be 70 percent. Buy land in foreign countries or islands where oil plantations are destroying natural forests and install CANDU reactors from Canada in less than 4 years and convert all of the electricity to BLUE Diesel with only a few acres of land. Lots of heat is available for very high temperature electrolysis, but perhaps magnesium should be extracted from the ocean instead. Hydrogen is not the only fuel used to make electricity; billions of zink operated cells are sold every year. Magnesium, Sodium, Zink and Calcium can be used in cells of special type. Someone, much like myself, can invent a process to get very high temperatures from the cooling water of CANDU or any other reactor to do the direct production of hydrogen with limited electrical input. I also discovered high temperature electrolysis in 1970. CANDU reactors can use used fuel rods from light water reactors to produce energy and mix it with Thorium for even more energy or even a continuous use of thorium with no more uranium or plutonium input. Reactors are known and others can be invented to use all of the uranium ever mined including used fuel rods and depleted uranium with very low percentages of U235 from enrichment plants and supply all electricity to the USA for the next 100 years without mining another pound of uranium. But also eliminating most of the present long term nuclear "wastes" and obtaining energy from them. Because they contain long lived radioactive potassium since the creation of the earth, every pound of bananas could be considered radioactive waste. One hundred pounds of them give off about 40,000 gamma rays and 40,000 beta rays every second as do most adult humans. Every good food contains potassium, but sugar does not. However Sugar or Ethanol that is not radioactive is umlawful to sell in the USA as food because they are made from fossil fuels which have very very low radioactivity. ..HG..
After mild WET oxidation this material can produce methane and heat for easy production of methane for onsite cogeneration of electricity and heat for digesters.
As mentioned elsewhere, Artemis digital hydraulic pumps and motors can reduce fuel consumption to half for any private passenger vehicle for the most common uses without any other changes to engine or vehicle and at far lower costs than electric hybrids. All vehicles can be converted with no increase in weight. Humans use hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen compounds for most of their foods and there is no reason that automobiles for humans cannot continue to use hydrocarbons for many uses, and some automobiles can be lightweight and use electric batteries for limited distance and have small hydrocarbon using units to expand this range rarely when needed. Ammonia is a non carbon fuel that is made from hydrogen and nitrogen of the air and can be burnt in engines or turbines or used as fertilizer or to make complex fertilizers and explosives. No one has of yet developed a process to productively combine the oxygen in the air with the nitrogen in the air and water with the theoretically possible net production of heat. This is likely more possible than fusion of deuterium to deuterium in the short run. Deuterium to palladium fusion was likely done decades ago with the release of heat but no neutrons. CO2 production is now the main concern of very wealthy environmentalists concerning the earth, but is not any concern at all for people living with an income of less than 50 kilowatt-hours a day; which is 99.44 percent of the earths population. California officials pretend to be concerned about CO2 and increase the fuel costs of every one in the state to maintain this pretense whilst living in extra large air conditioned houses for only one or two people and caving into uninformed demands to close nuclear power plants needing only minor non nuclear repairs. Canada has also closed nuclear plants, but now fully ignores CO2 releases of fuel production within its borders and the CO2 released after export. This is OK. Canada can not do anything to noticeably change CO2 content of air, but neither can California, but California can buy super safe CANDU reactors from CANADA with a high tax on cheap fuel instead of enriching fossil fuel producers and others who can easily hide the total CO2 footprint of their fuels including hydrocarbon gas release, flaring, processing, transportation and heavy hydrocarbon spills on land and into water. No one can trace all of these for oil sources in foreign countries or even their own. The CANDU reactors can even be built in British Columbia and connected to AC and DC transmission lines going from the Dams on the Columbia River to California. The Californians can pretend that all of the organic materials confined by the dams in the US and Canada are not being converted to methane and CO2 by anaerobic decomposition by organisms. And they can ignore the fact that they are using resources from outside the state that could be used by states and countries that actually contribute to the flow of the Columbia and are using fossil fuels for electric production. The home of the KYOTO accords thinks that the Fukushima power plant failure is a good excuse to shut down all nuclear reactors in Japan, but not a good reason to depopulate permanently all locations in japan subject to Tsunami which killed at least 20000 instantly. Radiation killed no one instantly and can't be proved to have killed anyone since then. Nuclear reactors ought to be allowed to kill as many people a year as the oil and coal industries combined without great comment or shut down. No activists favoring the closing of nuclear power plants mention that natural gas production and use in power plants releases more nuclear radiation than nuclear reactors do or have. They also never mention in their speeches that humans must and do consume radio-active elements to survive and always have even thousands of years ago even millions, and they do so every day they eat, and humans have always emitted nuclear radiation to others, but so do trees. They also do not mention that the sun and other stars and space send radio active elements into the earth's air continuously, and the suns radiations kill hundreds of people every day. Nuclear fission reactors in the US are limited by political, not economic, reasons to use nuclear fuel at about one percent efficiency. This also increases the weight of nuclear waste by about 1000 percent. The nuclear industry may dispose of 1000 pounds of uranium for each pound it uses and some of the uranium is less radioactive than when it came out of the ground. It has been known since 1943 how to use all 1000 pounds. The use of one pound of uranium can eliminate 5 million or more pounds of CO2 going into the air and only one pound of actual radioactive waste or less is produced. The separation of radio-active elements from non radioactive elements in used reactor fuel was once forbidden in the US and is still not done because politicians kow-tow to misinformed people to get re-elected. Nuclear reactors can produce enough energy at cheap enough prices to produce hydrocarbon or ammonia liquid fuels at prices to compete with gasoline at 2 or 3 dollars. Ammonia liquid can be stored in tanks similar to propane and used as a fuel where zero carbon vehicles require it as in range extended battery vehicles with seldom used low power range extenders. Honda produces generators that use propane cartridges and could be modified for ammonia cartridges. Nail guns have indicated the way away from battery powered tools by using butane or propane cartridges for operating power. Infinite fission fuel is available from minerals and the ocean. The fission of lead, if invented would produce 75 percent of the energy that the fission of uranium does. If all of the money spent on nuclear fusion had been spent on the fission of lead or gold or mercury or bismuth it might now be feasible and economic, but the fission of uranium and thorium would still be more economic. Thorium is more abundant in the earths minerals than uranium but less so in the ocean, but the already mined and purified and stored uranium "wastes" could generate all electricity needed in the US for a hundred years. Salts made from isotope separated chlorine can be used in reactors for high temperatures to chemically produce hydrogen from water. Such hydrogen can be combined with CO2 from multiple sources for automobile fuel. Such hydrogen can be transported in steel wire reinforced aluminum lined PEX pipes at not too high of a cost to be used as home and factory fuel to replace natural gas. These homes and factories would use fuel cells or turbines as cogeneration units for electricity and heating and cooling by processes using waste heat. Organic Rankine cycles can be redesigned from geothermal units for extra electric efficiency. Very fuel efficient Heavy water reactors can be made small in factories and use used fuel from rods now only sent to storage. Small reactors and turbines are noticeably less efficient but can be made much cheaper and use fuel that is now being wasted and energy that was lost, so efficiency is not a real issue. Large quantities of used heavy water is available and could be leased from shut down reactors or also leased from stock now in storage so that capital costs can be kept low. India produces much heavy water still. ..HG..
Even though Artemis got involved a few years back in tilting at windmills, They have continued to work with their very efficient digitally activated hydraulic motors and pumps which can reduce fuel consumption in city automobile driving to one half without reducing engine size and even more with reduced engines or the NOAX digital free piston engine. Highway driving uses only 70 percent of the fuel. This is without expensive batteries or motors and motor electronics. Artemis with Bombardier and Ricardo are about to test partial hydraulic drive and flywheel energy recovery braking on Diesel passenger trains. Artemis has demonstrated a partial hydraulic bus. Hydraulic Artemis transmissions in windmills eliminates gear wear, power electronic frequency converters and expensive heavy generators. Perhaps the Netherlands will now use Artemis technology to build drainage pumps that use wind energy directly again without conversion to electricity. No new batteries, fuel cells, electronic drives or biofuels are needed to reduce transportation fuel consumption by at least 30 percent and perhaps as much as 60 percent with digital engines too. Air chambers and flywheels can now give all the acceleration most humans can withstand in an automobile with only a very small engine or even turbine for long range and cheap paraffin or diesel fuel and low maintenance cost. Turbines eliminate all objections to diesel fuel. Riccardo and Artemis technology allows the use of Bladon or Capstone air bearing turbines in automobiles without the use of large electric motors and generators and electronic power convertors. Turbines have automatic cleaner emissions and eliminate engine oil and cooling systems which can combine with 50 percent fuel reduction and lower cost vehicles and maintenance. ..HG..
There are several old patents about incorporating carbon forms in lead batteries. Firefly batteries with negative carbon foam can now be purchased in the US and India and reduce greatly the sulphation of negative plates. EFFPOWER and ATRAVERDA, both disappeared, reduced lead and increased current flow by the use of bipolar plates with no need for cell connectors. EFFPOWER was designed to replace Toyota type hybrid batteries with high power low capacity. Atraverda eliminated much lead structure with ceramic titanium conductor. Most of the active volume of a lead battery is the electrolyte; it represents about seven times the lead active material volume. Foam electrodes with the lead active materials attached to the internal foam surfaces in a very thin layer and the electrolyte fully contained in the foam is a very good way to build a high capacity lead battery with long life. A long available but little known form of carbon, glassy carbon, greatly resists electrolytic destruction and might be available for use. Replacing much of the present lead plate structure with high conductivity graphite or other fibers for strength and conductivity would reduce the weight and increase life and power of lead batteries. The ZEBRA battery also now available as the GE DURATHON could be a permanent part of a modern automobile for increased capacity along with a low capacity high power lead battery or even L-ION. A new flywheel from Ricardo for starting and braking could also eliminate the lead battery use with the Durathon. The present high cost of automobiles allows durathon units to be installed as a low percentage of the price and can be charged from grid. They are not suited for use where not connected to the grid every few days or used every day. They were used in european TH!NK vehicles. They have a life of as much as twenty years; capacity similar to L-Ion and use cheap common materials for construction. Cells still working from failed automotive units can be reused as stationary solar energy storage units after 20 years or less. New nickle iron batteries are now available but require more cost and maintenance but have infinite life. ..HG..
Hydrogen has been falsely long known as the magic fuel. Hydrogen must be produced from water with another source of energy which is fossil fuel or electricity from any source. There is no large source of nearly pure hydrogen except the Sun and it is too expensive. Any hydrogen on earth is also expensive especially that made from aluminium and water. Much electricity is used to make aluminium and is better stored in batteries for use in electric vehicles. There is no extra hydropower in the world for making aluminum for fuel. Sodium is a more compact and easier to produce fuel than aluminum. Sodium sulphur batteries could be modified to fuel cells or flow batteries for nearly direct use and are cheaper than hydrogen fuel cells. The combined hydraulic hybrid technologies of Artemis and INNAS NOX could reduce fuel consumption to half of present for all types of motor vehicles at no higher costs than present transmissions; so hydrogen and fuel cells and biofuels are not necessary or economical. ..HG..