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Henry Gibson
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Oh dear! Co-Routines and multi-routine software was invented in the 1960s or earlier along with priority interrupts. UNIVAC had a small buffer processor with eight sets of registers for process switching which idea was duplicated by Alan Kay in the ALTO machine, and the Propellor is also available now. The Tranputer allowed many machines and many processes in a machine. Memory and processors were combined at IBM research to use the very high bandwidth available in a single memory chip. Microsoft promised Intel that its software operating systems could waste all the cycles that Intel could produce. Riding a bicycle seems so much simpler but far more dangerous. Sneaking a full computer system into the handheld phone was the most powerful electronic pacifier drug ever built to help people feel that they were productive. Now all that is needed is to implant an electrical connection into all babies similar to artificial hearing but sends messages in and out. ..HG..
Electricity in France is highly nuclear generated so these are some of the most carbon free vehicles on the planet. There is enough energy in the wasted fuel rods and depleted uranium in the US to power the world for the next hundred years without mining a pound more of uranium, and the reactors to do this have already been run tested and the unusable radioactive wastes are not multiplied. The ocean and land already contains radioactive minerals widely dispersed in every location. The Uranium in the ocean is sufficiently concentrated to be an energy supply, at costs less than gasoline, for the population of the earth for the life of the earth. ..HG..
Fast chargers are a burden on the local energy grid as well as the grid itself. Electric automobiles without small range extenders should be made unlawful in part so that they are more attractive to buyers. Three kW generators are sufficient for 30 mph roads city or country. Coates Ltd. rotary valves can enable them to run at higher speeds to make them very small like RCV engines. Charging stations that incorporate high capacity batteries themselves could assist the grid by being able to defer power consumption as well as feed power into the grid. Long lived Zebra batteries can be used for over ten years of life, and such systems should also be used in homes even those without electric vehicles. ..HG..
For longer life and safer batteries, these buses should be fitted with ZEBRA batteries that have similar capacity to lithium ones but have far longer cycle lives. And yes they should have a small engine that can slowly charge the battery for emergency operation; The engine can be designed to run on bio-ethanol even if it is never needed. ..HG..
All dead humans are radioactive waste because they were radioactive when they were alive. Look up Potassium 40; it has a billion year half life. The consumption of fossil fuels by automobiles can be reduced immediately by 30 to 60 percent and the technology is known and has been available for many years; it is the use of digital control of hydraulic pumps and motors combined with storing energy from braking and the engine in pressure accumulators. The savings are from energy recovery, little engine idling and smaller engines used more efficiently. The simplest engine to use may be one or more hydraulic pumps demonstrated by INNAS-NOAX that have no crankshaft and the piston moves only when energy is needed and is computer controlled. Hydraulic systems are much cheaper and more lightweight than electric systems and digital control makes them efficient and allows for better energy recovery. The elimination of half of the fuel use is sufficient reason to require all car makers to use the ArtemisIP or a similar system for a transmission. All people who wish to support the limitation of the release of CO2 into the air in any way should never allow themselves to drive over 50 miles per hour. Sufficient information exists that shows driving faster releases more CO2 per mile of travel.
ZEBRA or Sodium Sulphur batteries are more efficient than any possible hydrogen production method of storing electricity. The Zebra battery automobile can be used for any local automotive use and should also be used in each home or business as the BATTERY wall and will last longer than any furnace. Common lights can be used directly from battery terminals including CFL, LED and tungsten as can many heaters. Converters have long been available for any other uses. Many computer and phone chargers will work already and some can be simply modified. no complicated expensive hydrogen systems needed. ..HG..
Finally the present engines and fuel systems can be used in all road vehicles with a savings of up to half the fuel or more by the use of ARTEMIS electronic hydraulic fuel systems or something similar as the transmission. Such transmissions can even be retrofitted for heavy vehicles even and no automobile should be allowed to be built without one. They are cheaper and more efficient than electric hybrids. For clean air and efficient transmission the Wrightspeed turbine combo is already being produced and sold for delivery vehicles and buses. ..HG..
Methyl alcohol is a liquid that can be created from natural gas methane or bio-methane, but a simple economical method of doing so has not been found or published. Methanol has been easily converted into a form of gasoline. Methanol also has been used as food to grow organisms that were intended as cattle feed by the former ICL and a hint that methane was also used to grow pet food organisms by a Norwegian gas company was once available on the Internet. It is likely that an organism that produced n-butanol can be discovered that uses natural gas or a derivative as a food source. Methanol can be converted to to di-methyl ether, DME, which can be stored and used for similar uses as propane, but is one of the very best fuels for diesel engines. Compressed natural gas or bio-methane can be used by highway trucks in high pressure tanks. If highly insulated these tanks can be filled with very cold methane liquid. Methane gas is now being fumigated into the intake air of diesel engines which also use a small amount of injected diesel or DME to ignite the highly compressed methane air mix. ..HG..
Propane is the highest hydrogen containing fuel that can be conveniently stored at seasonable pressures, and ethane can be stored as liquid where temperatures do not get too high. ..HG..
They ought to set up an extension laboratory at Dakota Gasification and run the tests there on the hydrogen produced from coal to make methane and ammonia and urea. Much of the CO2 is shipped into Canada to aid well produce more oil the CO2 is mostly kept in the very deep wells some that comes up with the crude oil is returned. CO2 can be a liquid at great pressures and at least a super-critical fluid at high temperatures and pressures.
Far more CO2 release reduction can be had with petroleum powered hybrid vehicles and at lower cost. Every commercial and some other buildings should be electrified with natural gas turbines and the waste heat used for heating or cooling. An effective efficiency of greater than 100 percent perhaps up to three times the energy provided by direct combustion, can be had from turbine and heat pump combinations with no electricity coming from the electric grid. ..HG..
At one time Ian Wright, formerly of TESLA, calculated that fuel saving for cars was not worth while so he started developing turbine powered heavy vehicles with Capstone turbines after many tests and a few deliveries, Ian Wright decided to invent his own turbine which he now promotes. Turbines can even clean the street air whilst powering vehicles. The average efficiency of piston powered vehicles, well to wheel, is quite low so turbine hybrids can be more efficient and cleaner burning. Ian Wright does not even use clutches for shifting because of the precise nature of his electric motor control. One piston-turbine hybrid auto with Pescara's free piston technology was built in the US, and it might be recreated to improve efficiency and then built as a hybrid for even more efficiency to run on lower CO2 producing diesel as compared to gasoline; it could even be run on crude oil for even less CO2 release per horse-power-hour. Hybrids can be cheap and lightweight if done with hydraulic technology as UPS has proven for over 20 years. Better digital controlled pumps can now be bought from Artemis; a proprietary version runs at 7,000,000 watts in the UK and Japan. ..HG..
It is a fact that ARTEMIS built a hydraulic hybrid transmission that can reduce fuel consumption of vehicles to half in city driving. It is also a fact that ZEBRA batteries have similar capacity per weight to many lithium battery types and have been tested in many automobiles and are much more efficient than using hydrogen produced from electricity in fuel cells. It is my opinion that natural gas should be converted to gasoline and diesel for the use of vehicles that are now usual and that this can provide for fuel costing about 2 dollars at the pump or less, and that the US should have already built sufficient of these factories where ever natural gas pipes cross railroad tracks to supply the entire needs of all US vehicles to eliminate the drain of US funds abroad for fuels. When natural gas gets too expensive then gas from coal can be substituted for natural gas. Ethanol and methanol might also be produced by such factories. It is my opinion that ZEBRA type batteries should be used in small electric vehicles for local journeys. These vehicles must have an ethanol or gasoline powered tiny engine generator only for a rare use like a spare tire for just getting home or to a service facility. Electricity can be generated at about one cent per kilowatt hour which can run a car like a prius for about five miles. Local costs are much higher because they include among other costs epigen price gouging invented by ENRON. ..HG..
Hydraulic hybrid technology with a reduction of fuel consumption to half and cheaper engines and transmissions eliminate the need for most electric automobiles. Diesel fuel can be burned cleaner than gasoline and is produced with less production of CO2 in addition to the higher efficiency of combustion. Crankshaft losses can be eliminated with hydraulic controlled free piston, but look in airport parking lots, and you will see that no one wants an efficient one cylinder vehicle who can afford to fly. The TATA nano was a flop because no one prefers to operate the cheapest vehicle for sell. ..HG..
NHTSA got out of the way and now only easily fogged headlight plastic lenses are available for very high replacement costs of up to hundreds of dollars ..HG..
A full series hydraulic hybrid could reduce fuel consumption to half or less at very low costs. The ARTEMIS transmission is more reliable and can be less costly and more efficient than any existing transmission in highway vehicles. It is now being tested in some of the largest wind turbines to eliminate both gear failures and complex heavy-duty electronic equipment and generators. ..HG..
Switched reluctance motors are very efficient, highly reliable and can still function with failures of a few coils and their driver and are used in some aircraft for that purpose. They also can use cheap abundant materials and can be easy to manufacture. Hydraulic hybrids can be less costly to build and to maintain and require no expensive high power transistors. Pressurized bladder tanks or now flywheels may be used to store and deliver braking and acceleration energy and hydraulic controlled linear piston engines can eliminate crankshaft inefficiencies and also vibration and valves with two counter moving piston pumps like the Pescara ones with only two moving major parts this excludes the third major moving part likely to be included, an exhaust turbine-motor-generator-turbocharger. Pescara engines had piston supechargers. ARTEMIS has shown that hydraulic hybrids can save half the fuel without even optimizing the engine. This alone reduces the need for any biofuels. No automobiles should be allowed to be made or sold in the world until the company managers and engineers have successfully completed a test on hybrid especially hydraulic hybrid automobiles. The test should be designed by Ian Wright the innovator behind the TESLA which he had left for heavy vehicles that actually used more energy and could save enough to pay for the expensive systems used and automobiles could not. Atraverda can make cheap lightweight 110 volt batteries why stop at 48 volts when your car could light your house with Cfl lights during a storm. ..HG..
Sorry it was not a zero emission trip. the fuel cell emitted water and some hydrogen was emitted at fill ups and the drivers and passengers emitted CO2 and water and CO. Please state how much electricity was used to produce the hydrogen or chemicals and where they came from. The TESLA trip mentioned was probably much more efficient. ..HG..
Not needed. Hydraulic hybrids can be much cheaper and can save half the fuel with less weight and technology. Much energy is wasted in producing and compressing and putting the hydrogen through the fuel cell far more than just using ZEBRA batteries. Much money is wasted too. How long ago was it that fuel cell proponents bribed CARB to kill the electric car. ..HG..
We do not need new technology for stationary cells. Micro turbines used in co-generation will reduce CO2 release faster. ..HG..
Not one drop of biofuel is needed to reduce vehicle CO2 to half. No special batteries are needed. Just require efficient hydraulic hybrids. INNAS invented some technology. ARTEMIS invented some too; use it. ..HG..
When US nuclear power plants are considered, the ones in the Navy are mostly ignored. Since hydrocarbons are so expensive they have saved far more carbon release and money than all of the US windmills put together. There are at least three nuclear power reactors on mars and perhaps still ten in pacemakers in people's bodies which use plutonium 238 as fuel and will be at less than half power in 80 years. The latest mars rover runs entirely on the heat from plutonium 238 so that it does not have to park in the sun all of the mars winter. Isotope 238 gives off a lot of heat but very little dangerous radiation. A hundred thousand pounds of it or more would power an old steam locomotive boiler and it would not be radioactively dangerous to be the driver since most of the radioactivity would be self contained or contained by the boiler walls just as in the pacemakers; People have 4000 potassium explosions inside them every second any way with far more dangerous beta and gamma rays. Isotope 238 is not considered fissionable for chain reactions, but is considered one of the best sources of nuclear energy. Two hundred grams of it might keep a person warm without much danger if diluted in a titanium alloy it might be like a built in electric blanket.
One of the potentials is lower prices another is no fires at very high charge and discharge rates. Foam negative plates give them longer life and lower weight. Atraverda may still be proposing the use of titanium conductor material for longer life and lighter weight high voltage bipolar batteries. Properly processed carbon foam positive plates will eventually give lighter weight and longer life. Now defunct EFFPOWER had very high power lead batteries that could have replaced the PRIUS ones at far lower cost with the same power if they had perfected their production efficiencies of the ceramic plate. Atraverda could do it?? Seven times the volume of lead is required for the water acid mix. Atraverda can eliminate almost all of the non-active lead for lighter weight and longer life. Australia and others have built them with carbon and supercapacitors in the same package. A single lead cell of foam negative AGM manufacture with electronics to be charged from USB and to charge USB devices would have longer life and be far more fire safe for carrying to charge phones and have longer life and the lead materials recycled easier. Every large lithium cell for flashlights has to have protective circuits built into it for safety. Every laptop computer battery pack has contacts for testing and preventing damage for each cell. Optimized lead cells might be even lighter than present lithium cells and they will always be fire proof. There are circuits called "joule thiefs" to get the most out of any alkaline battery and some others. They could be modified to charge your phone from a lead cell and to charge the cell from your phone charger. ..HG..
Perhaps an APP would drop charging cords for automobiles. These towers should be filled with ZEBRA batteries so that the grid is not overloaded. ..HG..