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Henry Gibson
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They ought to set up an extension laboratory at Dakota Gasification and run the tests there on the hydrogen produced from coal to make methane and ammonia and urea. Much of the CO2 is shipped into Canada to aid well produce more oil the CO2 is mostly kept in the very deep wells some that comes up with the crude oil is returned. CO2 can be a liquid at great pressures and at least a super-critical fluid at high temperatures and pressures.
Far more CO2 release reduction can be had with petroleum powered hybrid vehicles and at lower cost. Every commercial and some other buildings should be electrified with natural gas turbines and the waste heat used for heating or cooling. An effective efficiency of greater than 100 percent perhaps up to three times the energy provided by direct combustion, can be had from turbine and heat pump combinations with no electricity coming from the electric grid. ..HG..
At one time Ian Wright, formerly of TESLA, calculated that fuel saving for cars was not worth while so he started developing turbine powered heavy vehicles with Capstone turbines after many tests and a few deliveries, Ian Wright decided to invent his own turbine which he now promotes. Turbines can even clean the street air whilst powering vehicles. The average efficiency of piston powered vehicles, well to wheel, is quite low so turbine hybrids can be more efficient and cleaner burning. Ian Wright does not even use clutches for shifting because of the precise nature of his electric motor control. One piston-turbine hybrid auto with Pescara's free piston technology was built in the US, and it might be recreated to improve efficiency and then built as a hybrid for even more efficiency to run on lower CO2 producing diesel as compared to gasoline; it could even be run on crude oil for even less CO2 release per horse-power-hour. Hybrids can be cheap and lightweight if done with hydraulic technology as UPS has proven for over 20 years. Better digital controlled pumps can now be bought from Artemis; a proprietary version runs at 7,000,000 watts in the UK and Japan. ..HG..
It is a fact that ARTEMIS built a hydraulic hybrid transmission that can reduce fuel consumption of vehicles to half in city driving. It is also a fact that ZEBRA batteries have similar capacity per weight to many lithium battery types and have been tested in many automobiles and are much more efficient than using hydrogen produced from electricity in fuel cells. It is my opinion that natural gas should be converted to gasoline and diesel for the use of vehicles that are now usual and that this can provide for fuel costing about 2 dollars at the pump or less, and that the US should have already built sufficient of these factories where ever natural gas pipes cross railroad tracks to supply the entire needs of all US vehicles to eliminate the drain of US funds abroad for fuels. When natural gas gets too expensive then gas from coal can be substituted for natural gas. Ethanol and methanol might also be produced by such factories. It is my opinion that ZEBRA type batteries should be used in small electric vehicles for local journeys. These vehicles must have an ethanol or gasoline powered tiny engine generator only for a rare use like a spare tire for just getting home or to a service facility. Electricity can be generated at about one cent per kilowatt hour which can run a car like a prius for about five miles. Local costs are much higher because they include among other costs epigen price gouging invented by ENRON. ..HG..
Hydraulic hybrid technology with a reduction of fuel consumption to half and cheaper engines and transmissions eliminate the need for most electric automobiles. Diesel fuel can be burned cleaner than gasoline and is produced with less production of CO2 in addition to the higher efficiency of combustion. Crankshaft losses can be eliminated with hydraulic controlled free piston, but look in airport parking lots, and you will see that no one wants an efficient one cylinder vehicle who can afford to fly. The TATA nano was a flop because no one prefers to operate the cheapest vehicle for sell. ..HG..
NHTSA got out of the way and now only easily fogged headlight plastic lenses are available for very high replacement costs of up to hundreds of dollars ..HG..
A full series hydraulic hybrid could reduce fuel consumption to half or less at very low costs. The ARTEMIS transmission is more reliable and can be less costly and more efficient than any existing transmission in highway vehicles. It is now being tested in some of the largest wind turbines to eliminate both gear failures and complex heavy-duty electronic equipment and generators. ..HG..
Switched reluctance motors are very efficient, highly reliable and can still function with failures of a few coils and their driver and are used in some aircraft for that purpose. They also can use cheap abundant materials and can be easy to manufacture. Hydraulic hybrids can be less costly to build and to maintain and require no expensive high power transistors. Pressurized bladder tanks or now flywheels may be used to store and deliver braking and acceleration energy and hydraulic controlled linear piston engines can eliminate crankshaft inefficiencies and also vibration and valves with two counter moving piston pumps like the Pescara ones with only two moving major parts this excludes the third major moving part likely to be included, an exhaust turbine-motor-generator-turbocharger. Pescara engines had piston supechargers. ARTEMIS has shown that hydraulic hybrids can save half the fuel without even optimizing the engine. This alone reduces the need for any biofuels. No automobiles should be allowed to be made or sold in the world until the company managers and engineers have successfully completed a test on hybrid especially hydraulic hybrid automobiles. The test should be designed by Ian Wright the innovator behind the TESLA which he had left for heavy vehicles that actually used more energy and could save enough to pay for the expensive systems used and automobiles could not. Atraverda can make cheap lightweight 110 volt batteries why stop at 48 volts when your car could light your house with Cfl lights during a storm. ..HG..
Sorry it was not a zero emission trip. the fuel cell emitted water and some hydrogen was emitted at fill ups and the drivers and passengers emitted CO2 and water and CO. Please state how much electricity was used to produce the hydrogen or chemicals and where they came from. The TESLA trip mentioned was probably much more efficient. ..HG..
Not needed. Hydraulic hybrids can be much cheaper and can save half the fuel with less weight and technology. Much energy is wasted in producing and compressing and putting the hydrogen through the fuel cell far more than just using ZEBRA batteries. Much money is wasted too. How long ago was it that fuel cell proponents bribed CARB to kill the electric car. ..HG..
We do not need new technology for stationary cells. Micro turbines used in co-generation will reduce CO2 release faster. ..HG..
Not one drop of biofuel is needed to reduce vehicle CO2 to half. No special batteries are needed. Just require efficient hydraulic hybrids. INNAS invented some technology. ARTEMIS invented some too; use it. ..HG..
When US nuclear power plants are considered, the ones in the Navy are mostly ignored. Since hydrocarbons are so expensive they have saved far more carbon release and money than all of the US windmills put together. There are at least three nuclear power reactors on mars and perhaps still ten in pacemakers in people's bodies which use plutonium 238 as fuel and will be at less than half power in 80 years. The latest mars rover runs entirely on the heat from plutonium 238 so that it does not have to park in the sun all of the mars winter. Isotope 238 gives off a lot of heat but very little dangerous radiation. A hundred thousand pounds of it or more would power an old steam locomotive boiler and it would not be radioactively dangerous to be the driver since most of the radioactivity would be self contained or contained by the boiler walls just as in the pacemakers; People have 4000 potassium explosions inside them every second any way with far more dangerous beta and gamma rays. Isotope 238 is not considered fissionable for chain reactions, but is considered one of the best sources of nuclear energy. Two hundred grams of it might keep a person warm without much danger if diluted in a titanium alloy it might be like a built in electric blanket.
One of the potentials is lower prices another is no fires at very high charge and discharge rates. Foam negative plates give them longer life and lower weight. Atraverda may still be proposing the use of titanium conductor material for longer life and lighter weight high voltage bipolar batteries. Properly processed carbon foam positive plates will eventually give lighter weight and longer life. Now defunct EFFPOWER had very high power lead batteries that could have replaced the PRIUS ones at far lower cost with the same power if they had perfected their production efficiencies of the ceramic plate. Atraverda could do it?? Seven times the volume of lead is required for the water acid mix. Atraverda can eliminate almost all of the non-active lead for lighter weight and longer life. Australia and others have built them with carbon and supercapacitors in the same package. A single lead cell of foam negative AGM manufacture with electronics to be charged from USB and to charge USB devices would have longer life and be far more fire safe for carrying to charge phones and have longer life and the lead materials recycled easier. Every large lithium cell for flashlights has to have protective circuits built into it for safety. Every laptop computer battery pack has contacts for testing and preventing damage for each cell. Optimized lead cells might be even lighter than present lithium cells and they will always be fire proof. There are circuits called "joule thiefs" to get the most out of any alkaline battery and some others. They could be modified to charge your phone from a lead cell and to charge the cell from your phone charger. ..HG..
Perhaps an APP would drop charging cords for automobiles. These towers should be filled with ZEBRA batteries so that the grid is not overloaded. ..HG..
There have been more fires caused by Lithium cells than Nuclear power plants and more houses burned. Zebra cells with much longer life are available and far more durable and are cheaper to make in large quantities. The cheapest and fastest way to reduce carbon production of the electrical grid is with microturbine combined heating cooling and power co-generation with natural gas. Housing estates should be required to do such along with all commercial buildings. For automobiles it is hydraulic hybrids that save money and half the fuel. The UK should install cheap and fast to-build CANDU reactors to reduce carbon instead of dealing with the French who cannot complete one in ten or more years for themselves or Finland. Candu built two in China in under five years and under budget, and others in other parts of the world. They can be fueled with UK "waste" fuel if diluted with thorium or depleted uranium, and can burn all transuranics eventually if so fueled. Any plutonium from reprocessing or recycled warheads can be burned if highly diluted with thorium and make as much as 3 million kilowatt hours for every pound of plutonium and some more from the thorium, perhaps more than an equal amount with the elimination of over ten million pounds of CO2 possible release per pound of "waste" plutonium. The uranium found in the ashes of coal fired power plants is being used to fuel some Nuclear plants. more than 30 nuclear power plants are operating in China and over twenty are being constructed. Warhead plutonium diluted with reprocessed plutonium can no longer be used in any existing bomb construction or re-purified for such. ..HG..
People writing these articles should publish the kilowatt hours that the PV site produced last year or is expected to produce in the next year with the solar insolation at the site. Right now it cannot power any homes at night. The power packs from TESLA may be just another fire hazard like the ones in recent cell phones. Sodium Cells from NGK are probably cheaper and longer lived. ..HG..
The idea of range extenders is to simply relieve peoples fear; not to operate the vehicle for long distances. This one has the advantage of turbines producing low NOx too. Actually the Artemis Digital hydraulic system eliminates half or more of the fuel consumption without expensive and heavy electric motors generators or batteries. It can also work with turbines. People have forgotten the Jaguar two turbine vehicle with turbines from Blayden jets, and the fact that Ian Wright of Wright speed and formerly of prius will sell an automotive version of his super turbine fuel saver for heavy vehicles. The Capstone turbine has been used in two concept passenger vehicles and many buses. ..HG..
Less complicated and expensive would be ARTEMIS digital displacement devices. ..HG..
Regenerated turbines can have very high efficiency or free piston hydraulic pumps can, so the need for complicated hydrogen fuel-cells is low. Sodium-Nickel-Chloride or sodium sulphur batteries are fuel cells with self contained fuels and are more efficient and light weight than any compressed or liquid hydrogen technology. Meanwhile Artemis digital displacement is all that is necessary to reduce vehicle consumption by half or more with optimization and free piston engines such as INNAS NOAX or Bladon turbines or? ..HG..
The magnets are used in the head positioning system mostly, and ferrite magnet motors could be used for disk rotation or reluctance motors.
Any talk about electric motor efficiency for automobiles is wasted in their operation at higher speeds on the roadways. The switched reluctance motor is the lightest weight electric motor and can be run at very high speeds and is very efficient and reliable and needs no rare earths. Tesla uses a copper injected rotor induction motor. Ian Wright is promoting the idea that turbine series hybrids promotes higher fuel efficiency than electric vehicles and cleaner air and lower CO2 especially with the use of natural gas fuel. His new turbine generator also promises very good efficiency and life and low weight. CNG is available to many who have natural gas service with a simple compressor. LNG is also available on a large scale operation. A turbine can use any liquid or gaseous fuel or multiple ones at the same time. Even now vapour LNG or propane or CNG can be fumed into the intake air of diesel engines to reduce the diesel needed by as much as 90 percent. Diesel or its close relatives, heating oil and jet fuel, is produced at lower cost and lower CO2 release than gasoline and should be used as turbine fuel for all highway vehicles in combination with any available form of natural gases. ..HG..
Bosch had the rights to sell Artemis technology which could save over half the fuel used by motor vehicles on the roads, but where are the automobiles? In the early years of automobiles some countries had a horsepower tax. At first it was based partially on displacement. Now a tax should be imposed on advertised and measured horsepower and horsepower hours and fuel consumption. Automobile drivers and owners should become aware that it is they who are releasing CO2 not the oil companies. This applies to house owners and dwellers. Every thing ever bought has a CO2 price. And people breathe out CO2 with every breath. Ian Wright gave up on TESLA because he could achieve more cost effective CO2 reduction with heavy road vehicle hybrids that burned fuel. The US government should not spend any more money on solar or wind, there should be requirements to use Artemis technology in automobiles and combined heat and cooling and power, CCHP, Co-generation, in buildings and communities for the cheapest quickest ways to reduce CO2 release in the US.
Hydraulic hybrid technology can save half the fuel or more in vehicles at far lower cost and complexity than electric hybrids and reduces greatly the need for bio-fuels which has reduced the food supply for all nations especially with the use of maize for ethanol production. Even wood can be converted to food sugars. Since massive quantities of uranium can be extracted from the oceans at low enough cost and greater quantities of thorium can be extracted from the earth so that there is enough fission fuel for billions of years, and enough uranium has already been extracted and stored as depleted uranium and used fuel rods to provide fuel for breeder reactors for the next century, Atomic energy is "sustainable". Now forests were proven to be unsustainable sources of home and industrial energy in all industrialized countries, some even centuries ago. Bio fuels are robbing many countries of their forests to produce bio-fuels for wealthy countries who have passed biofuel laws when they themselves have insufficient lands to produce such biofuels. ..HG..