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Both switched reluctance motors and the new ABB synchronous motors can be more efficient and weigh less than even inductance motors. The Tesla ones have copper in the rotor for higher efficiency already. Silver conductor rotors could easily pay for themselves in Tesla automobiles. Die casting of silver should not be much more difficult than the copper now used. Modern locomotives are using a high percentage of induction motors. Tesla could use ABB synchronous reluctance rotor designs in their motors with a slight change in the programming of the electronics probably and get better efficiency. ..HG..
Pescara made successful free piston engines. Or rather his paid engineer did; but they worked and were used in a turbine car in the USA and some power plants. Many free piston air compressors were built for submarines and later for construction. INNAS has the NOAX Chiron engine for hydraulic pumping which can be made to generate electricity with a Pelton wheel as suggested by Pescara as well. But Bladen jets has already demonstrated two tiny turbines in a high performance electric automobile. Ian Wright, formerly of Tesla, states that only delivery vehicles save enough fuel to be worth improving with electric hybrid systems which he builds with batteries and a turbine to run on any prior selected fuel as range extender. ..HG..
Pescara made successful free piston engines. Or rather his paid engineer did; but they worked and were used in a turbine car in the USA and some power plants. Many free piston air compressors were built for submarines and later for construction. INNAS has the NOAX Chiron engine for hydraulic pumping. But Bladen jets has already demonstrated two tiny turbines in a high performance electric automobile. Ian Wright, formerly of Tesla, states that only delivery vehicles save enough fuel to be worth improving with electric hybrid systems which he builds with batteries and a turbine to run on any prior selected fuel as range extender. ..HG..
Digital displacement hydraulic hybrid technology will give the performance of an SUV with half the fuel use in most cases of city driving. Engine downsizing will give even more fuel efficiency without noticeable performance loss; all at much lower cost than electric hybrids and cheaper transmission repairs. The new Ricardo vacuum flywheel magnetic gear system can be installed for even more energy storage. Flywheels have been tested in racing cars for years for energy efficiencies and fuel savings. ..HG..
Making ethanol from steel mill CO is related to the ability of making ethanol from the large amounts of natural gas now aavailable in the US instead of from maize. ..HG..
Electric vehicles are well to wheel far more efficient and cheaper to operate and require far less fossil fuel than most gasoline vehicles. Even if the electricity comes from coal there is a great reduction in CO2 release. In addition there is no accounting for all of the losses and production of CO2 in the supply train of crude oil and refined oil products. Well gas flaring alone may make crude oil less desirable than coal for automobile operation via electricity. As stated elsewhere hydraulic hybrids can double efficiency at lower costs. ..HG..
The main problem with electric automobiles is the cost. Range worries can be eliminated with on board electric generators that are seldom used and use politically correct fuels such as some form of ethanol most of the time if used at all. Automobiles are not bought by most people to be efficient but to be decorative and large and powerfull. Costs of electric automobiles can be reduced by eliminating most of the battery and expensive high power electronics, but there is no reason to do so because hydraulic hybrids can eliminate half the fuel consumption as demonstrated by ARTEMIS withous any weight increase. Any future mandate for efficient automobiles should include hydraulic hybrid requirements. Every automobile company can incorporate ARTEMIS or similar INNAS technology with no increase in weight into every new automobile made to double the fuel efficiency. These tranmissions can be even cheaper to build and maintain than current ones. BS can be converted to food in varius ways and can be used as food for cattle almost directly and directly as plant food. Let the US continue to feed food to automobiles whilst some in the US are hungry. ..HG..
Biomass energy failed in the UK centuries ago as it did in Spain and Iceland and as it is now doing in developing countries where much of the day is being spent destroying natural forests to collect or make fuel for merely cooking not driving automobiles. Every kind of biomass can be used to make food. Much biomass is now used by organisms in the soil to produce nitrogen compounds from the air to keep the soil fertile. Vast tracks of naturtal forests are bein converted to tree plantations for production of bio-oils demanded by european directives for biofuels. If counties dont have enough land for producing biofuels they should not import them. It is very informative to have the religeous nature of many adament beliefs about energy and other issues pointed out. Any adament beliefs about dangers of the world should be put aside until the dangers of tobacco consumption is eliminated. This extends to the worries and laws about mercury, lead, cadmium and small amounts of radioactive materials; Bananas are radioactive; as all good foods have been for billions of years because all natural potassium is radioactive. Look up potassium. ..HG..
Coal can be combusted without any particles produced. The main irrational bias against coal is that more CO2 is produced per unit energy, but people do not drive automobiles acting as though they know that more than twice the CO2 is produced if the speed they drive between towns on motorways is double; they also do not know all of the CO2 produced during refining and all transportation of crude and products as well as the CO2 produced in flaring of gas at the well and the CO2 produced from the decomposition of spills in the production areas. People will drive as they will but they will irrationally demand that other people not have affordable electricity for their homes from fossil fuels. Air with CO2 is not dirty, it comes from all plants and animals including humans. Nothing that the UK or the US or the EU or Japan can do now can have any noticible effect on the reduction of CO2 in the air by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels because of the vast consumption of the rest of the world, but they all can erect new nuclear electrical facilities not to reduce CO2 but as an example to China and India and other industrializing countries. A very safe nuclear energy source that also does not reduce CO2 is being demonstrated on Mars in the large rover which is Mar's first fully nuclear powered automobile. The prior rovers were heated not powered by nuclear energy because and they had to idle during the cold Mars winter with not enough sun to heat or run. The 80 year half life isotope weight 238 gives off about half a watt of heat per gram. Three times as much electricity could have been had from the 238 on Mars if Stirling generators had been used rather than thermoelectric elements as in the past. Both could have been used with heat pipes to move the heat efficiently. Nuclear radiation from isotope 238 is nearly 100 percent absorbed inside and a thin coating of tungsten can absorb the rest but the metal is very hot and would make a wonderful source of heat for a stirling generator. Isotope 238 can be produced in all nuclear reactors with slight modifications. CANDU heavy water reactors would be very good. They can also burn used light water fuel if diluted with thorium. Isotope 238 cannot be used as nuclear explosive, and would be a good way to produce constant energy when cheaply produced. All of the US and russian owned 238 should be in alaska or antartica or siberia. ..HG..
Buy Sodium Sulphur batteries from NGK, Zebra batteries from FZSonick or Durathon batteries from USA general electric and use the electricity for electric vehicles or trains and the mechanical to mechanical efficiency will be much higher; as much as ten times higher. Diesel engines in automobiles are seldom as high as 25 percent. The value 0.7 times 0.25 gives 0.18 or less than 20 percent of the windturbine energy is used to move the vehicle in the best case. A plug in hybrid vehicle at the base of the tower might get even 90 percent of the energy to the wheels; at a far distance it still can be 70 percent. Buy land in foreign countries or islands where oil plantations are destroying natural forests and install CANDU reactors from Canada in less than 4 years and convert all of the electricity to BLUE Diesel with only a few acres of land. Lots of heat is available for very high temperature electrolysis, but perhaps magnesium should be extracted from the ocean instead. Hydrogen is not the only fuel used to make electricity; billions of zink operated cells are sold every year. Magnesium, Sodium, Zink and Calcium can be used in cells of special type. Someone, much like myself, can invent a process to get very high temperatures from the cooling water of CANDU or any other reactor to do the direct production of hydrogen with limited electrical input. I also discovered high temperature electrolysis in 1970. CANDU reactors can use used fuel rods from light water reactors to produce energy and mix it with Thorium for even more energy or even a continuous use of thorium with no more uranium or plutonium input. Reactors are known and others can be invented to use all of the uranium ever mined including used fuel rods and depleted uranium with very low percentages of U235 from enrichment plants and supply all electricity to the USA for the next 100 years without mining another pound of uranium. But also eliminating most of the present long term nuclear "wastes" and obtaining energy from them. Because they contain long lived radioactive potassium since the creation of the earth, every pound of bananas could be considered radioactive waste. One hundred pounds of them give off about 40,000 gamma rays and 40,000 beta rays every second as do most adult humans. Every good food contains potassium, but sugar does not. However Sugar or Ethanol that is not radioactive is umlawful to sell in the USA as food because they are made from fossil fuels which have very very low radioactivity. ..HG..
After mild WET oxidation this material can produce methane and heat for easy production of methane for onsite cogeneration of electricity and heat for digesters.
As mentioned elsewhere, Artemis digital hydraulic pumps and motors can reduce fuel consumption to half for any private passenger vehicle for the most common uses without any other changes to engine or vehicle and at far lower costs than electric hybrids. All vehicles can be converted with no increase in weight. Humans use hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen compounds for most of their foods and there is no reason that automobiles for humans cannot continue to use hydrocarbons for many uses, and some automobiles can be lightweight and use electric batteries for limited distance and have small hydrocarbon using units to expand this range rarely when needed. Ammonia is a non carbon fuel that is made from hydrogen and nitrogen of the air and can be burnt in engines or turbines or used as fertilizer or to make complex fertilizers and explosives. No one has of yet developed a process to productively combine the oxygen in the air with the nitrogen in the air and water with the theoretically possible net production of heat. This is likely more possible than fusion of deuterium to deuterium in the short run. Deuterium to palladium fusion was likely done decades ago with the release of heat but no neutrons. CO2 production is now the main concern of very wealthy environmentalists concerning the earth, but is not any concern at all for people living with an income of less than 50 kilowatt-hours a day; which is 99.44 percent of the earths population. California officials pretend to be concerned about CO2 and increase the fuel costs of every one in the state to maintain this pretense whilst living in extra large air conditioned houses for only one or two people and caving into uninformed demands to close nuclear power plants needing only minor non nuclear repairs. Canada has also closed nuclear plants, but now fully ignores CO2 releases of fuel production within its borders and the CO2 released after export. This is OK. Canada can not do anything to noticeably change CO2 content of air, but neither can California, but California can buy super safe CANDU reactors from CANADA with a high tax on cheap fuel instead of enriching fossil fuel producers and others who can easily hide the total CO2 footprint of their fuels including hydrocarbon gas release, flaring, processing, transportation and heavy hydrocarbon spills on land and into water. No one can trace all of these for oil sources in foreign countries or even their own. The CANDU reactors can even be built in British Columbia and connected to AC and DC transmission lines going from the Dams on the Columbia River to California. The Californians can pretend that all of the organic materials confined by the dams in the US and Canada are not being converted to methane and CO2 by anaerobic decomposition by organisms. And they can ignore the fact that they are using resources from outside the state that could be used by states and countries that actually contribute to the flow of the Columbia and are using fossil fuels for electric production. The home of the KYOTO accords thinks that the Fukushima power plant failure is a good excuse to shut down all nuclear reactors in Japan, but not a good reason to depopulate permanently all locations in japan subject to Tsunami which killed at least 20000 instantly. Radiation killed no one instantly and can't be proved to have killed anyone since then. Nuclear reactors ought to be allowed to kill as many people a year as the oil and coal industries combined without great comment or shut down. No activists favoring the closing of nuclear power plants mention that natural gas production and use in power plants releases more nuclear radiation than nuclear reactors do or have. They also never mention in their speeches that humans must and do consume radio-active elements to survive and always have even thousands of years ago even millions, and they do so every day they eat, and humans have always emitted nuclear radiation to others, but so do trees. They also do not mention that the sun and other stars and space send radio active elements into the earth's air continuously, and the suns radiations kill hundreds of people every day. Nuclear fission reactors in the US are limited by political, not economic, reasons to use nuclear fuel at about one percent efficiency. This also increases the weight of nuclear waste by about 1000 percent. The nuclear industry may dispose of 1000 pounds of uranium for each pound it uses and some of the uranium is less radioactive than when it came out of the ground. It has been known since 1943 how to use all 1000 pounds. The use of one pound of uranium can eliminate 5 million or more pounds of CO2 going into the air and only one pound of actual radioactive waste or less is produced. The separation of radio-active elements from non radioactive elements in used reactor fuel was once forbidden in the US and is still not done because politicians kow-tow to misinformed people to get re-elected. Nuclear reactors can produce enough energy at cheap enough prices to produce hydrocarbon or ammonia liquid fuels at prices to compete with gasoline at 2 or 3 dollars. Ammonia liquid can be stored in tanks similar to propane and used as a fuel where zero carbon vehicles require it as in range extended battery vehicles with seldom used low power range extenders. Honda produces generators that use propane cartridges and could be modified for ammonia cartridges. Nail guns have indicated the way away from battery powered tools by using butane or propane cartridges for operating power. Infinite fission fuel is available from minerals and the ocean. The fission of lead, if invented would produce 75 percent of the energy that the fission of uranium does. If all of the money spent on nuclear fusion had been spent on the fission of lead or gold or mercury or bismuth it might now be feasible and economic, but the fission of uranium and thorium would still be more economic. Thorium is more abundant in the earths minerals than uranium but less so in the ocean, but the already mined and purified and stored uranium "wastes" could generate all electricity needed in the US for a hundred years. Salts made from isotope separated chlorine can be used in reactors for high temperatures to chemically produce hydrogen from water. Such hydrogen can be combined with CO2 from multiple sources for automobile fuel. Such hydrogen can be transported in steel wire reinforced aluminum lined PEX pipes at not too high of a cost to be used as home and factory fuel to replace natural gas. These homes and factories would use fuel cells or turbines as cogeneration units for electricity and heating and cooling by processes using waste heat. Organic Rankine cycles can be redesigned from geothermal units for extra electric efficiency. Very fuel efficient Heavy water reactors can be made small in factories and use used fuel from rods now only sent to storage. Small reactors and turbines are noticeably less efficient but can be made much cheaper and use fuel that is now being wasted and energy that was lost, so efficiency is not a real issue. Large quantities of used heavy water is available and could be leased from shut down reactors or also leased from stock now in storage so that capital costs can be kept low. India produces much heavy water still. ..HG..
Even though Artemis got involved a few years back in tilting at windmills, They have continued to work with their very efficient digitally activated hydraulic motors and pumps which can reduce fuel consumption in city automobile driving to one half without reducing engine size and even more with reduced engines or the NOAX digital free piston engine. Highway driving uses only 70 percent of the fuel. This is without expensive batteries or motors and motor electronics. Artemis with Bombardier and Ricardo are about to test partial hydraulic drive and flywheel energy recovery braking on Diesel passenger trains. Artemis has demonstrated a partial hydraulic bus. Hydraulic Artemis transmissions in windmills eliminates gear wear, power electronic frequency converters and expensive heavy generators. Perhaps the Netherlands will now use Artemis technology to build drainage pumps that use wind energy directly again without conversion to electricity. No new batteries, fuel cells, electronic drives or biofuels are needed to reduce transportation fuel consumption by at least 30 percent and perhaps as much as 60 percent with digital engines too. Air chambers and flywheels can now give all the acceleration most humans can withstand in an automobile with only a very small engine or even turbine for long range and cheap paraffin or diesel fuel and low maintenance cost. Turbines eliminate all objections to diesel fuel. Riccardo and Artemis technology allows the use of Bladon or Capstone air bearing turbines in automobiles without the use of large electric motors and generators and electronic power convertors. Turbines have automatic cleaner emissions and eliminate engine oil and cooling systems which can combine with 50 percent fuel reduction and lower cost vehicles and maintenance. ..HG..
There are several old patents about incorporating carbon forms in lead batteries. Firefly batteries with negative carbon foam can now be purchased in the US and India and reduce greatly the sulphation of negative plates. EFFPOWER and ATRAVERDA, both disappeared, reduced lead and increased current flow by the use of bipolar plates with no need for cell connectors. EFFPOWER was designed to replace Toyota type hybrid batteries with high power low capacity. Atraverda eliminated much lead structure with ceramic titanium conductor. Most of the active volume of a lead battery is the electrolyte; it represents about seven times the lead active material volume. Foam electrodes with the lead active materials attached to the internal foam surfaces in a very thin layer and the electrolyte fully contained in the foam is a very good way to build a high capacity lead battery with long life. A long available but little known form of carbon, glassy carbon, greatly resists electrolytic destruction and might be available for use. Replacing much of the present lead plate structure with high conductivity graphite or other fibers for strength and conductivity would reduce the weight and increase life and power of lead batteries. The ZEBRA battery also now available as the GE DURATHON could be a permanent part of a modern automobile for increased capacity along with a low capacity high power lead battery or even L-ION. A new flywheel from Ricardo for starting and braking could also eliminate the lead battery use with the Durathon. The present high cost of automobiles allows durathon units to be installed as a low percentage of the price and can be charged from grid. They are not suited for use where not connected to the grid every few days or used every day. They were used in european TH!NK vehicles. They have a life of as much as twenty years; capacity similar to L-Ion and use cheap common materials for construction. Cells still working from failed automotive units can be reused as stationary solar energy storage units after 20 years or less. New nickle iron batteries are now available but require more cost and maintenance but have infinite life. ..HG..
Hydrogen has been falsely long known as the magic fuel. Hydrogen must be produced from water with another source of energy which is fossil fuel or electricity from any source. There is no large source of nearly pure hydrogen except the Sun and it is too expensive. Any hydrogen on earth is also expensive especially that made from aluminium and water. Much electricity is used to make aluminium and is better stored in batteries for use in electric vehicles. There is no extra hydropower in the world for making aluminum for fuel. Sodium is a more compact and easier to produce fuel than aluminum. Sodium sulphur batteries could be modified to fuel cells or flow batteries for nearly direct use and are cheaper than hydrogen fuel cells. The combined hydraulic hybrid technologies of Artemis and INNAS NOX could reduce fuel consumption to half of present for all types of motor vehicles at no higher costs than present transmissions; so hydrogen and fuel cells and biofuels are not necessary or economical. ..HG..
Hexane has an octane rating of about 25. Diesel engines or now tiny turbines from Bladon jets should be used in automobiles for higher efficiencies and very low NOx without catalysts and no particulates. Diesel or jet fuel is cheaper to produce from crude oil and should cost less. the production of gasoline instead of diesel releases more CO2 in production and more Co2 in use. ..HG..
Hexane is much better used in a diesel fuel; In fact heptane with one more CH2 group from Jeffry Pine, a relative of Ponderosa pine, was once used as the standard of ZERO motor octane gasoline. Someone else can tell you what its cetane rating is; probably about 40. ..HG..
There are many tons of uranium U238 in storage that will never be used for power but can be used for a redox battery as well as vanadium. The new organic compounds seem to be useful but how big of a unit has been built and tested. There is a large vanadium one in USA Utah and a newer one in USA Oxnard California. The very high power electronics now available make batteries very interesting for power reliability in factories and other buildings. The Edison power distribution system of direct current could be used again in local areas or buildings to save on AC losses in conduits. The battery power does not have to be converted to AC for lighting or motors: CFLs can run directly from batteries and so can efficient balasts for other lamps and efficient motor drives can be use modified easily to also run directly from the batteries as can computer power supplies. Inverters are available for other uses and can be modified UPS sysytems. ..HG..
Little large hydro power has been built by private capital in the US or elsewhere. If the subsidies and government regulations requiring wind power went away there would be no more wind farms built. The cost of storing wind energy till it is needed or providing backup with fossil fuels is very costly and windturbines produce only about 25 percent of their rated electricity over the years. The only way ethanol production from maize stays around is subsidies. Most people have no idea that they are already naturally radioactive so the anti nuclear folks including the oil producers are able to scare most of the people into believing that any and all radioactivity is to much, but forget to tell people that all the best foods are radioactive naturally as is every cell in every living thing including plants and people. If the people stayed put in the area near Fukishima not one person would have died from radioactive exposure during the last years since but several have died in automobile accidents. TEPCO had their big expensive battery installation at a wind power plant instead of at the reactors where it well might have saved them. They also ignored changes that their engineers had invented which would have cooled the reactors without large amounts of electricity. Regulations forced upon the nuclear power plants just out of fear have raised the costs. CANDU reactors are very reliable and can be built in a short time and can use as fuel all used fuel rods from US, UK, France, Japan, Russia, and China and others. The US produces a lot of used fuel rods but no actual fuel rod waste, but the government will not allow their use in CANDU or other heavy water reactors. Any Plutonium can be totally destroyed by using it in thorium based CANDU reactors. The present large reactors proposed for construction are a waste of money compared to the CANDU reactors but every country must have its own brand. China built two CANDU reactors on schedule and under budget but Russia underbid future ones just to get the business which is of course more expensive now and much delayed. The US government required that Japan evacuate large areas of its own population based on false fears and beliefs. Yes Chernobyl exposed people to radiation but not one person of the general population died within months of radiation and only about 50 people who were ordered to secure the reactor died. Many coal mines have had more deaths. Simply turning off diesel generators during the Tsunami may have worked to save them, but multiple sets of diesel generators can make all reactors in Japan safe from the failure of Fukushima; better yet use many Capstone turbines always running in an enclosed building. People will vote and demonstrate against nuclear power and text or talk on cell phones whilst driving. If the reactor had been built below sea level the ocean could have cooled it and radio active water would not have likely flowed back into the ocean. It is clear that Korea should build many more reactors and build undersea cables to japan for great income. All people against or for Nuclear power plants should read the book "Power to Save the World" All energy is nuclear energy and the big reactor in the sky, SOL, kills more people every year than even automobiles. ..HG..
There is no sustainable method of biofuel production for all of the aircraft in the world. The land area of all developed countries is not sufficient to produce their liquid fuel needs even if no area is used for food. These companies should be able to do the arithmetic about the crop area of the developed countries and their current production and max possible production to know that no country or even the world can produce its energy use from forests or fields. The word sustainable must be questioned if used in regards to agriculture produced energy which became unsustainable before the industrial revolution. ..HG..
Carbon dioxide and hydrogen and carbon monoxide if needed is made in large quantities in the US at Dakota Gasification, and with the large amount of wasted gas from shale oil there, there is a good use of this hydrogen to make ethanol and other chemicals with the use of hydrogen to feed organisms. Fuel to food was tried in the UK with Pruteen; now food to fuel is much more popular. Since only low income people of the world are deprived of inexpensive food so that jet fuel can be made from oil tree plantations or maize. ..HG..
One of the biggest sources of hydrogen and CO in the US is Dakota Gasification. An ethanol plant can be built there. When North Sea gas was cheap in the UK methanol was made from it and fed to organisms to produce Pruteen a cattle feed. Now food is made into automobile and airplane fuel. ..HG..
Capstone Turbine has been selling turbines to run on flare gas to power production equipment, pumps and compressors in the fields but not enough. Buried direct current power lines can be installed cheaply to take power from more turbines to a convertor at a grid interface. Direct current Norwegian hydro-power was sent 30 Kilometers under water to run compressors on a production platform to save on CO2 release costs. Such turbine power can also be used to convert methane to LNG in tanks until tanker can pick them up. StirLNG, Netherlands, liquifiers can be used for small production and continuous cooling of tanks. Foam glass can insulate the smallest and largest, of tanks. Propane, butane and ethane can be separated and stored in pressure tanks without continuous cooling. Years ago an attempt was made to get Philips Stirling to make a combined machine that had a Stirling engine power a Stirling refrigerator directly. A cooler was built in Japan on this premiss. Perhaps the cheapest combination is an INNAS NOAX engine operating a Stirling piston or a ionic liquid compressor for a LINDE cycle liquifier and or CNG storage. COATS LIMITED makes natural gas engines with rotating valves and these or others could be coupled instead of the electric motor of the StirLNG cooler for very low development and operating costs. ..HG..
INNAS NOAX, supported by Caterpillar, developed the hydraulic free piston engine and they should have made a copy to test power strokes. High excess oxygen and slow expansion can be done under computer control. Pescara, his engineer that is, made a dual piston free piston engine that used a turbine for power take off for a combined cycle. One car, one locomotive and several power plants and air compressors were built. The triple crankshaft Deltic was tested with a jet engine as turbo charger for the most efficient highest power per weight engine. An electric motor-generator turbo charger would be cheaper to implement as a follow cycle for cleanup. All diesels should have a combined flywheel starter generator to which any turbine excess electricity can be diverted. Bladon jets has made several small machines for automobiles. ..HG..
The people of Washington State would like the same cheap power that they had before it was sold to Californians and carbon fiber furnaces. They would like the price that it is sold to the furnaces even. Hydro-electricity is not unlimited; Very little additional will come from the Columbia river basin. ..HG..