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Henry Gibson
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There is not a food plant residue that cannot be either translated into food instead of fuel or promote the production of more food by being food to organisms that produce nitrogen for food crops. Renewable plant growth for energy failed hundreds of years ago in all populated agricultural and or industrial societies, UK, Spain, Iceland, North Africa etc., and is now eliminating natural ecosystems throughout the rest of the world due to the availability of shipping anything anywhere cheaply with fossil fuels. An early railway in Africa had non indigenous trees planted along its length to provide the fuel for its operations. ..HG..
Much of the sea lacks sufficient mineral nutrients for any photosynthetic organisms. What does kelp need? Can it be transformed into food instead. Ethanol is food, and making it at sea leaves the nutrient minerals there. ..HG..
Forget cooling batteries below the ambient temperature anywhere on earth! You could have installed Durathon or Zebra batteries ten years ago and had 100 km of tram travel without catenaries. Parry People movers had flywheel trams twenty years ago with charging at stops. and there were Swiss and Netherlands(?) flywheel buses or trams with station charging. One also must not forget the flywheel electric locomotives in the UK for occasionally interrupted third rail. Also don't forget the tiny Bladon Jets range extenders that gave a Jaguar hundreds of miles of extended range and could find a thousand empty places to fit into a tram. Thanks to you who have mentioned fuel range extenders as an obvious necessity for such vehicles even if the fuel has to be pure methanol made with pure Icelandic geothermal energy and its associated recycled CO2. ..HG..
Piston engines might be a bit larger but cheaper and more efficient. It does not take much energy to go 100 km./st. 60 miles/hr. Not one full electric vehicle should be allowed to be sold without as least a tiny range extender. You have a cheap spare tire don't you. Think airplane models. ..HG..
See Bladon Jets to see how small a machine is required for high speed long distance travel in an EV with a BLADON range extender. See also bladon jets jaguar. ..HG..
Automotive fuels can be made far cheaper from coal than from $40 barrel crude. Considering flaring of gases and losses in transport and in refining, it would be hard to prove that such coal fuels would put more C02 into the air. CO2 can also be captured and sequestered by such processes as proved by several projects. A tax should be put now on all fuel sales to fund such projects, As well as efficient and cheap hydraulic transmissions. There is also enough uranium in the oceans to fuel factories that make liquid fuels for billions of years and this does not include the use of thorium and stored already mined uranium enrichment tails that themselves would last for a hundred years. This is sustainability. ..HG..
A million or more people die from malaria. Perhaps cheaper food would help. Both Maize and ethanol are foods. Petroleum is cheap food is not. ..HG..
INNAS NOAX has their Chiron fluid pumping diesel engine with no crankshaft to pump high pressure fluids for use with the ARTEMIS digital controlled rotary motor/pumps and gas-bladder-pressure tanks, and this combination can double the fuel efficiency or more even on motorways at costs far lower than fuel-cells and electric motors. In many places water consumption is limited by law. Hydraulic hybrid technology is so cheap and efficient now that it should be required as are seat belts and crash bags. No improvements of standard engines can match the cost and energy advantages of digital hydraulics, Chiron is also digital with one major moving part. Two parts may be needed for balance. Parry People movers have had efficient hydraulic rail passenger vehicles in commercial operation for many years. ..HG..
It would be much faster and might be cheaper and more reliable in the long run to buy Capstone one megawatt turbines composites right now to build up generation capacity quickly. Ormat heat recovery units could take the waste heat and generate even more electricity with their units usually used for geothermal energy. Heat could even be stored in molten salts for the Ormat units to use when some or all of the gas turbines are turned off or even for black starting. The Ormat units can use more conventional generators that can cost less and can even be designed to start without any electrical power available by the use of manual valves but would soon be available with the generator and its turbine at speed. Capstone one megawatt units are actually a composite of five 200kW units that can be used independently or together and together with other units even smaller ones. ..HG..
Artemis demonstrated a modified production automobile with its computer controlled hydraulic transmission that could reduce fuel use to half or perhaps even more in city driving. Changes in the size of engine could possibly reduce the fuel use on motorways to the same value but was measured without changes at a 30 percent reduction. In many EU and US cities and others, horse drawn vehicles can be seen, so it is clear that one horse power can transport people, but a full scientific horse power, about 0.75kW would do it much faster, and with Artemis hydraulics could stop and accelerate as well as most automobiles or even better. The low fuel use could reduce fuel prices dramatically. ..HG..
If they used ZEBRA batteries from FIAM or Durathon ones from GE the batteries could last even 40 years and batteries with failed cells could have such replaced. Nickel Iron cells which still work after a hundred years are known but have low efficiency. New FIREFLY negative foam electrode cells may be lower in cost and become even more interesting with the final development of positive and negative electrode foam cells. It is not widely known that the water solution in such cells is chemically required to be seven times the volume of the actual active solid materials of such cells and this solution can reside in the open space of the cells right next to the thin coating of active material. Vanadium ion flow batteries can have infinite energy but very low power, and are much more energy efficient than generating hydrogen for use in fuel cells. In principle all could have their own Stirling isotope powered electric generator. But first every dwelling, factory, office building and shop which now burns any fuel should have a combined electric and heat and/or heat generator required and installed. (CHCP or Cogeneration) Most of these could use long life Stirling machines. Other could use combustion micro-turbines. This would supply more electricity to the grid than all the wind machines yet proposed, and would supply lower cost electricity with lower CO2 release at less cost than wind turbines. Someone should invent a sodium-chlorine fuel cell. They could be used in submarines for many thousands of underwater miles at far less cost and worry than nuclear subs. Sodium Chloride is already in the ocean. Chlorine can be added to water in such a way that oxygen can be produced for breathing too. ..HG..
Combined with Durathon batteries and Capstone turbines such buses and vehicles can have great range and life and the Capstone turbines can purify the air even. Wrightspeed makes complete engine replacement units, now with his own invented turbines instead of Capstone. ..HG..
Fuel cell vehicles were rendered obsolete in capital cost and in weight and in operational cost by Hydraulic hybrids of Artemis and even electric hybrids. ZEBRA or DURATHON batteries if widely adopted could supply long range at low cost and much longer range on occasion with the addition of a Bladon micro jet generator at far lower cost than a fuel cell. Home compressors based on the LINDE principle and ionic fluids can be built in small sizes for businesses or even homes for any standard high pressure now facilitated by graphite fibres. ..HG..
The technology of the SkyTran is much easier and cheaper to implement and much slower, but comes closer to the people and places of work. It can use and does not need to use passive low-cost magnetic suspension. The principle of a magnetically suspended train in a tube was once proposed decades ago by Werner Von Braun and it did not and does not require super conductivity. The main issue and cost of time of travel is waiting and local transport. Air resistance is the main cost of travel on motorways. There are many ways to inductively accelerate vehicles and to supply power to them. NASA should build a glass vacuum tube model using SkyTran suspension and about fifty feet in diameter. Eventually it could be powered by an internal isotope generator Stirling generator and suspended in the Space Museum where it could run unattended for a hundred years or more. Talk about sustainability?. Have you heard of the bicycle lighting generator that does not touch the wheel or rim..HG..
The atoms will be partially oxidized and will cling to surrounding materials but are small in quantities. It is expanded gas which makes up most of the bonding force. Explosive bonding with more standard explosives is well known. ..HG..
This a a very suitable Lok to use Durathon batteries or the ZEBRA from FIAM with near Lithium capacity for unit weight and a much longer life. ..HG..
Any food or organic chemist and others can quickly learn that the conversion of starches and sugars to ethanol involves much energy loss and even if done from non food sources has high energy inputs and losses. Ethanol is a far more perfect fuel for automobiles than gasoline and care must be taken to use materials in contact with it at not very high expense. Pure ethanol from any source is still a food used by many people for many calories. Ethanol or Methanol can be produced from coal, natural gas or crude oil a cost far less than even the current low price of gasoline per unit energy. Were automobiles to convert to the use of micro-turbines, any fuels could be used even jet fuels with much lower smog and particulate release, and the hybrid technologies reduce the CO2 release to half. The use of ARTEMIS or other hydraulic hybrid technology with internal combustion engines can cut in half the fuel use in automobiles in many cases and perhaps even more with optimization and at far less cost and weight than any other hybrid or traditional technology with no loss in performance. These technologies do not take up much or any more space than current transmissions, and it is not in the luggage or internal space of the vehicle. ..HG..
In any case we must thank the cleverness of the oil production industry for attempting to show how world wide speculation combined with monopolistic practices have extorted vast sums from the EU and the US and all poor and rich states and peoples of the world. The willingness of China to use coal for fuel and for plastics production has also created clarity in world markets of the level of this extortion from both the rich and poor by oil speculators. Whilst particulate pollution from coal burning is bad now in China various technologies can reduce it entirely at low cost. It is not widely known that a company in North Dakota makes Methane from coal and even ships much CO2 to Canada to increase oil production. Its major particulate release problem was tiny fertilizer particles released for free to the surrounding territory. The company's major by product is fertilizer now. Its ammonia production could be used as a carbon free fuel in vehicles. ..HG..
Every now operating automobile can be turned into a very mild hybrid with the substitution of a motor-alternator for the alternator and adding a higher power battery. ..HG..
People generally forget that ethanol itself is a food used by many people for a large portion of their daily caloric intake. Processes that make ethanol from any biomass, can be replace or modified to make safer foods from such biomass. Maize can be made into hominy for example. ..HG..
Both Synchronous reluctance and switched reluctance motors and generators can be made nearly as efficient and perhaps more efficient than permanent magnet motors and far cheaper. Even copper injected asynchronous motor rotors, as used in TESLA motors (perhaps still) can be sufficiently efficient. Modern driving is not efficient transportation anyway as speed through air and acceleration and braking waste most of the energy. ..HG..
In a way, Volkswagen demonstrated that diesel engines can be operated very cleanly when not forced by the owners to give highest performance. The use of Durathon, Zebra or other large capacity batteries in Cell Phone tower power supplies can reduce the use of fuel substantially. Durathon and Zebra batteries have a very long life of over ten years maintenance free, and can be used in high temperatures with simple blasts of even hot air for cooling. It is obvious that the use of the similar jet fuel will never be eliminated in the lifespan of anyone now living and is now being being used in single engine personal aircraft piston engines for fuel saving and cost saving. Diesel fuel produces less CO2 in its production and is more well to electric efficient than other liquid fuels from refineries. Like lamp paraffin(kerosene) once was, Jet fuel is now the most universal liquid energy supply throughout the world, and it is only the because wealthy countries and people are willing to pay extortionate prices for it that it is so high priced. It can be made for less than one dollar a gallon from coal and even less now from natural gas. For piston engines DME, Dimethylether, can be used for cleaner burning from tanks containing the liquid under pressure. One pound of thorium can produce 10000000, ten million kilowatt hours of heat energy and displace the use of three million pounds of coal for those who insist upon the reduction of the releases of CO2. India can invent new types of power sources and grids to spread this electrical energy throughout the country even with inefficiencies at points where three pounds of thorium might need to be used. Plastic insulated sodium conductors have already been created and used as far cheaper conductors than copper or aluminum and far more resistant to theft. All coal and gas fired power plants can be eliminated when thorium power is adopted. Two units of 600 kW can be built and started in under five years. Two, full power, prototypes are now starting to test thorium. Thorium use not only eliminates the use of fossil fuel for power generation but allows it to be used in many other processes now using fossil fuels including the capturing and sequestering of CO2. The Jet engine power sources from Bladon Jets are likely to be cheaper to buy and operate with batteries than the fuel cells and can be made to be more well to kilowatt-hour efficient. There is no cheaper source of hydrogen than natural gas or coal. ..HG..
A number of years ago Artemis UK developed and demonstrated in a modern vehicle a hydraulic hybrid technology to save much fuel with any kind of combustion engine. City driving saves half the fuel compared to the operation of the same vehicle tested before conversion. Motorway driving saved only 30 percent. If you actually understood how a motor vehicle operates when you drive it you can understand the opportunities for energy and fuel savings. Hydraulic hybrids are the cheapest possible way to lower fuel consumption for internal combustion vehicles. Bosch bought the system for highway vehicles and sits on it. MHI may have bought the liscence back when it bought Artemis to joust at windmills. (Seven megawatts being tested in northern UK now) INNAS NOAX has proposed its very clever and efficient hydraulic inventions, without their NOAX low emisstions, crankshaft free, piston engine, for a similarly efficient hybrid automobile and demonstrated them in a lift truck. Both Bladon Jets and Capstone turbines have had their diesel or jet fuel burning units demonstrated in personal vehicles. These turbines can also burn any other liquid or gaseous fuel with slight change and still meet NOx and COx standards without change and produce particulates in lower amounts than any proposed standards without extensive treatment. ..HG..
Since we are already using natural gas almost exclusively to make electricity in new power plants co-generation is the way to take the gas used now exclusively to generate electricity and use it in co-generation systems where it can be used to heat or cool as well. Cooling by heat is ancient known technology. The heat needed for cooling or heating can well come from the lower temperature of gas turbine or engine exhaust rather than from flames. Every new business or office or computer or factory building in California should be required by law to use co-generated heat for air conditioning and put waste (excess) electricity into the grid. The present natural gas and oil burning power stations can be eliminated and much carbon release be eliminated by using the fuels in co-generation systems. Honda in Japan even has co-generation systems for the home; now with pull cords for starting. Co-generation is more reliable and less costly than wind or solar even with the extra cost and can be built in days. ..HG.. Since potassium is has been always long term radioactive and all humans have potassium in them, dead humans should be treated as radioactive waste and buried at the same expense as the equivalent number of radioactive atoms in waste from other nuclear facilities and reactors. A rod with radioactive potassium could be made with far more radioactivity coming from it than the fuel rods put into CANDU reactors.