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Even on the highways, Artemis digital displacement hybrids can reduce fuel consumption by 30 percent or more in automobiles; heavy vehicles will also show efficiency and performance improvements. Without much cost, trailers of heavy vehicles can be equipped, even retrofitted, with hydraulic hybrid equipment for more reliable braking and faster acceleration as can individual rail cars. Engines can be operated in peak power mode at all times when desired or peak efficiency if need. Hydraulic hybrid transmissions have been fitted to one large and two giant wind-turbines for testing where they can be more reliable and use simple standard generators to feed the mains with the turbine energy efficiently without power electronics. Such machines can be greatly overloaded briefly to support the survival of the mains or adapted to aberrant mains frequency without danger of failure during recovery.
There should be a tax on imported oil to support the highway system at least. But there should be no tax on oil from US producers because the nation does not need to penalize the industry which has provided great amounts of energy production without direct subsidies as the ethanol program and solar and wind turbines have been given. Any tax on US petroleum should be a tax at the pump and clearly marked. The US could have produced gasoline from coal for less than a dollar a gallon, but the government wishes to appease environmentalists instead of earning money from gasoline purchases. Nothing the US can do will reduce CO2 release as cheaply and as fast as co-generation. The minimum requirement for a building, including houses, should be co-generation. The only water heater or heating unit permitted is a fuel burning engine or turbine or more than one wherever natural gas is available. No simple flame heaters any more. There can be hot water storage tanks and even ice cube storage tanks. Cold can be produced from heat in direct and indirect ways. Not one new air-conditioning system should be installed in a commercial building that does not use natural gas where it is available. The most easily and cheaply implemented "clean" transportation structure is hydraulic hybrid automobile engines and transmissions for more than twice the miles per gallon efficiency. It is now possible to use clean burning turbines in such applications for a possible slight loss of efficiency. ..HG..
Converting methane directly into methanol is of enormous advantage. But simply converting methane into liquid methane can be done at low cost and in small units. A Stirling liquification machine has and can be built in many sizes. Just make ammonia. It can be stored as liquid. ..HG..
It can be hoped that all the people in Argentina do not miss dinner because corn is fed to US and other automobiles. No more automotive fuels from food. Make them from fission. There is enough fuel for 10 billion years or more at present rates. ..HG..
Sulphur oxides are also needed for plant growth. ..HG..
Some auto mobile engine developer invented the idea of using a post combustion with a slight amount of produced gas injected into the exhaust stream instead of ammonia or blue urea solution. Ammonia is a good fuel and can be produced in very large quantities and stored easily. Perhaps automobiles should run on ammonia entirely, as there is no carbon in it. NOx emissions might be directed into ocean waters; most people forget that they are fertilizers and are needed for photosynthesis. ..HG..
This points out the possible advantages of using Bladon turbines or Compression Ignited Homogeneous Charge INNAS NOAX hydraulic pumps in automobiles with ARTEMIS pumps and motors. Turbines have low emissions because of low combustion temperature high oxygen burning, and the NOAX engine can have a very wide range of combustion parameters. Hydraulic hybrids have very high performance with low weight and cost and double efficiency possible. ..HG..
Some computer server buildings and some ships have Direct Current power distribution. DC(direct current) power distribution should be in every new building including homes. These new transistors and others will make motor drives more efficient and reliable as well as the high voltage DC to DC converter now present in many electronic device power supply. Before power transistors, large and small power voltage transformers made power distribution over long distances possible and convenient. These new electronic power devices can use tiny AC transformers in them because of the much higher frequency. Now there is no necessity for a low frequency alternating current network. The 50 and 60 cycle networks were a compromise of the practical weight of transformers and engine, turbine and motor speeds. The 16-2/3 cycle network was to permit electric motors for railroad vehicles to pretend that they were running on direct current with acceptable wear and losses, and motor generators could produce the electricity from 50 cycle networks and much heavier transformers still could be used. Some devices, such as blowers and compressors, can use motors that work at up to 100 000 revolutions per minute, and these and other transistors can be used. ABB and others make transistor converters that allow power mains and subsystems to operate from 30 kilo Volt buried cables. These cables could consist of the standard insulation but filled with solid sodium to make a very cheap cable. Such cables have already been made and used. Sodium is cheap and easy to make and is difficult and undesirable to steal. Very long cables could be laid under every motorway and road. Voltages at less than 600 volts would go into every small building. A small electro-static motor that powered an AC or DC generator would be an interesting device of low complexity that could run from 30 thousand volts. Iron wires of four times the diameter could also be used. Sodium could be made at every wind-turbine or solar array and saved for years for pickup. ..HG..
If highly optimized, Hydraulic hybrid automobiles can have more than double the efficiency of standard automobiles at far less weight and extra cost of electric automobiles and with more reliability. ..HG..
The era of bio fuels for the world is long past and gone. In the past 2000 years most of the earths forests have disappeared and much of the soil destroyed. A German Nobel prize winning scientist has published the calculations that show that if the entire area of land now used for bio-fuels were converted to long life forests and the energy formerly produced on that land was replaced by fossil fuels there would be a net CO2 release reduction. US government figures indicate that 100 units of fossil fuel energy goes into the production of 123 units of ethanol energy; bio-ethanol, even from cellulose, is not anywhere near carbon neutral. Far more efficient use of fossil fuels has been demonstrated and practiced for years and eliminates any need for bio-fuels for automobiles and at far lower cost than any alternative. It still must be remembered that cellulostic ethanol is still food and can be converted to other less poisonous foods. We must stop now any practice that makes simple foods more expensive to any degree to the people of the earth so that we can pretend to be environmentally friendly with large vehicles. ..HG..
Sodium-chloride batteries have more efficiency and can eliminate the need for and capital cost of hydrogen technology at far greater efficiency. the volume and perhaps even the weight of such energy storage units could be less than that of hydrogen tanks. Sodium-sulphur units may cost even less for stationary units. ..HG..
Hybrid automobiles have been demonstrated to use half the fuel of identical automobiles in city driving. Most drivers are unconscious of the fuel being used whilst stopped, the fuel wasted in stopping and the fuel wasted in acceleration as well as the fuel wasted at high speed compared to low speed for the same distance; or they would know that hybrid automobiles can reduce fuel use greatly. Artemis Intelligent Power(now MHI) proved this in a standard vehicle that was tested and then converted to a hydraulic hybrid with their pump, motors and pressure accumulators which in production would cost far less than an electric hybrid and would weigh less and save more fuel. Artemis is cooperating with Ricardo in testing flywheel energy storage for more regeneration. Such hybrids could be modified with more efficient engines for even greater fuel savings. Turbines have lower efficiency than piston engines but clean exhausts even with diesel, and there is no reason not to use them in most automobiles because the extra cost is low because of relatively low fuel use of private automobiles and the greatly increased efficiency of hydraulic hybrids. Fuel cells fed with hydrogen are very expensive per kilowatt and must be supplemented with heavy batteries. The heavy batteries alone could handle average trips, and all electric automobiles should be fitted with a rescue generator that could use any fuel for even hundreds of miles because it is seldom used. The rescue generator should be built to operate on most automotive fuels including pure ethanol and methanol. Bladon turbines could be tiny but are too expensive for the limited use. Driving an average of 15 miles per hour should not take more than a kilowatt in most automobiles. Drivers who commute long distances every day should not have an electric vehicle except for local use because hydraulic hybrids reduce carbon release to one half with optimization. One airline is considering electric wheel motors to make their planes into hydrogen hybrids to get to the take off point and save fuel with hydrogen fuel cells. The Russians tested a hydrogen fueled jet aircraft. Most passenger aircraft have an auxiliary power unit that could run the electric wheel motors. Jet fuel is quite cheap and can even be made cheaper from coal and the amount used to taxi is insufficient to justify hydrogen fuel cells compared to the amount used for take off. Water injection on takeoff as in the 707 would save lots of fuel compared to taxi fuel. Hydraulic motors would make lighter weight aircraft taxi wheels and could assist far better than electric for braking. Much heat could be rejected away from the wheels. The speed could be synchronized to ground speed before touchdown for less tyre wear. ..HG..
Coates international Limited has better breathing rotating ball valves. Buy them to reduce carbon release. ..HG..
A combined cycle power plant in Germany has an efficiency of 61% electricity that is almost equal to most fuel cells or better if conversion to hydrogen is considered. The Emma Maersk ship engine gets 50% to propeller shaft. Both of them also use engine waste heat as co-generators. Co-generation for all buildings is the fastest cheapest way to implement carbon release reduction in the world. ..HG..
Sodium batteries from NGK and other sodium batteries need no complicated anodes or cathodes; the reactants can be poured in, in an inactive form, such as table salt and sealed and activated by charging. The reactant chambers can be made very large for high energy low power. ..HG..
Diesel electric locomotives have not been replaced by a single fuel cell electric locomotive. A small RCV engine from the UK could generate electricity from A grade bio-ethanol with much less weight and expense. Bladon jets can also make a very lightweight turbo generator for bigger drones. ..HG.
Fast Charging stations and others are perfect places for large banks of NGK or other sodium based batteries From GE or FZSONICK. ..HG..
The very high efficiency of hydraulic hybrids, which have far higher braking energy recovery and much lower capital costs, mostly eliminate the need for automotive fuel cells as they reduce city driving fuel use by half or more without even the optimization of smaller more efficient engines and without the need of expensive high power electronic motor drives and motors and their greater weight even excluding large batteries. Biofuels are not anymore needed to reduce automotive energy use and carbon release by at least 40 percent. Michel Hartmut, Nobel Prize winning biochemist, explained in a recent article why replanting biofuel plantations with trees that are never burned will remove more carbon from the air than the making and use of the bio-fuel does because of the photosynthetic inefficiencies in spite of the US government figure that 100 units of fossil energy is used to produce 123 units of biofuel energy. He states roughly; that it is far more efficient to set up solar cells on the crop land and use the electricity in electric vehicles, and even direct photosynthetic hydrogen production wastes too much energy. ((( The small battery electric vehicle has a big market in the size as what is known in the US as a golf cart. They could have twice the range at lower cost If someone in China would build the Sodium nickel batteries in large quantities and at low cost that Ge refuses to do. Such vehicles would meet most of the trip requirements of most people in the US, and a tiny inefficient model airplane engine could serve as a low speed, 100 mile range extender on very rare occasions. The RCV engine from the UK is an example. ..HG..
Heat can be stored as very high temperature water, and steam can be routed to an additional turbine or the same one from this water tank to supply power peaking at much lower costs than from batteries. Many small low cost fire less locomotives operated on this principle to lower the danger of fires and smoke at many factories and also avoid the expenses of standard locomotives. The fireless locomotives were connected to the factory boilers to recharge them. ..HG..
This is the way to reduce greenhouse gases at lowest cost and with the most rapidity except for turbines in all buildings. Much cooling can be supplied as cooled water to the district surrounding the turbine in addition to the heated water. Foam glass insulation can reduce maintenance and losses in the pipes. Absorption cooling can use the waste heat at times and even store it as ice. Combined cycle generating stations exceed the efficiency of fuel cells especially when fuel reforming to hydrogen is considered. District heating is more common in Germany than in the US and it should have been adopted in Chinese cities on a wide scale long ago. My apartment in Berlin had it for its hot water supply. Again foam glass makes it more practical. Toronto has district cooling with cool water from the lake. ..HG..
Another thing about nuclear reactors is that the Japan reactors and TMI did not have a fuel meltdown; The Zirconium Cladding of the fuel rods decomposed in the water or steam at high temperatures after the nuclear chain reaction stopped. This decomposition alone where the fuel pellets were no longer supported would have stopped the reactor if it had not already been stopped hours before. It is unfortunate that the reactors were not built below sea-level where flooding valves could have kept them full of sea water and radioactive water would not have flown back into the ocean. The Zirconium cladding could have been kept cool enough. The highly radioactive elements that were producing the heat would be sufficiently gone in a few weeks so that little water would be boiled. There is every radioactive and non radioactive element, that was in the reactor, already in the worlds oceans before the accident, because there is already much Uranium in the ocean and it is always naturally fissioning and producing every element that reactors produce. There is only a fraction of the U235 remaining from the time that the earth was formed. All radioactivity is dangerous, but humans have built in radioactivity in the potassium of our bodies and we survive it just like we survive the toxic poison oxygen because the body repairs itself constantly. Humans expose themselves to far more dangers than nuclear radiation and reactors. Getting into an automobile is one of them. People in India and other places in the world have been living constantly in higher radioactive areas than Fukushima for centuries without high levels of radioactivity related deaths or indeed any that can be related directly to nuclear radiation. "40K occurs in natural potassium (and thus in some commercial salt substitutes) in sufficient quantity that large bags of those substitutes can be used as a radioactive source for classroom demonstrations. 40K is the radioisotope with the largest abundance in the body. In healthy animals and people, 40K represents the largest source of radioactivity, greater even than 14C. In a human body of 70 kg mass, about 4,400 nuclei of 40K decay per second. The activity of natural potassium is 31 Bq/g." (From Wikipedia) The Gamma and Beta rays from this decomposition are both more powerful than most X-Rays and they are directly in every cell. Yes the body is good at repairs. The polonium-210 used to kill a Russian defector is half gone after four months as it is replaced by lead. Nuclear energy source do not have to be reactors. The large Mars rover is powered by plutonium-238. The heat source will be at half power in 80 years. The US is starting to make more of it. Perhaps from nuclear wastes. An additional one quarter of the amount sent should have been sent also in a highly optimized free piston Stirling generator as a test for double the power. Strontium-90 can be extracted from nuclear wastes directly and easily, but it is at half power in 30 years. It has been used by Russians for remote power. ..HG..
Canada should promote its CANDU small reactors because they can be built in a short period of time. They should build rows of them along the US Mexican border and also along the Canadian US border. They don't require large reactor pressure vessels and can use local labor. They can lease the heavy water at low cost because it is just sitting around now now being highly useful. They don't need lots of water if it is not available because Geothermal power plants have developed a way of using only air for cooling. ..HG..
Every official in the DOE who was involved in the plan to have the US supply 20 percent of its power from wind by 2030 should be required to own and operate their own wind-turbine system that supplies all of their power all of the time with the necessary land, batteries and electronics and conformance to Zoning and nuisance regulations. They also should have sat at the sea-shore at low tide and demonstrated their impotence to their subordinates as king Canute is reported by one legend to have done. They may have failed to had British history Classes. Co-generation, where there is one or more natural gas burning engine or turbine in each home or building or condominium and equipment to use the waste heat for cooling or heating will be far more cost effective and fast and more reliable in reducing carbon release than any other program at this moment. Excess heat can be stored for later use in various ways even as ice or molten salts as in solar systems or released. Batteries are well developed enough to store excess electricity when more heat is required or it can be pumped into the mains. GE had lots of excess battery production because they did not want to use much of their own production as they promised. GE could have bought Capstone turbine to produce a great combined unit since GE reneged on putting the batteries in their own locomotives and trucks. Not one commercial building in natural gas areas should be allowed to not have a co-generation unit just as they are required to have low water flow fixtures. Japan has just sent to sea a floating wind machine with a hydraulic transmission from MHI. ..HG..
Almost every new automobile or new engine development does not promote eco-driving. It is almost always about faster acceleration, more horsepower (kilowatts), and higher speeds. The relative failure of the TATA-NANO is a demonstration of the ideals promoted by most automobile manufactures of Bigger and Faster and more expensive entertainments. It is well known in the automotive industry that fast acceleration and fast braking and fast driving expends fuel, but there is no substantial move by governments to limit speeds on motorways. With many computers each in many automobiles speeding could be easily eliminated by program changes as could fast accelerations. Safety regulations such as those that require large car seats for children have forced the use of larger heavier vehicles. Why are there few if any vehicles which accommodate three persons in the front seat instead of massive electronics. Electric automobiles and electric hybrids with large batteries are themselves now obsolete when it comes to fuel savings because it has been demonstrated that hydraulic hybrids with digital hydraulic motor and pump valve control can do far better braking energy recovery and far better engine efficiency control. The INNAS NOAX crankshaft-free hydraulic pump with higher efficiency and more reliability due to fewer parts can further reduce the fuel consumption because it operates on a stroke by stroke basis only as needed. It is one of the few engines that can be modified to use compression ignition on high octane low cetane fuels such as methane. It can obviously be modified to use Homogenious Charge Compression Ignition Cycles without damage to reduce particulates and nitrogen oxides and increase efficiency. Two such pistons might be desired for vibration reduction, but only one is needed to operate a vehicle if one fails for super reliability combined with two or more wheel motors which each can be designed to operate at lower power with one or more failures of its multiple pistons. There are no issues of clutch or gear failures and standard brakes can last for a long time as most braking, even to a complete stop can be done with the hydraulic motors which can also hold the vehicle at a certain stopped position. No expensive high power motor drive electronics are needed or used. When Bosch held the use rights on one similar system invented and prototyped and proved by Artemis Intelligent power, it seems, not one company was induced to use it even in a test automobile even when it doubled the fuel efficiency for most driving. After governments failed to require the high efficiency Artemis type automotive improvements, Artemis was paid by a government agency to develop a wind turbine low failure rate high performance efficient transmission. Artemis demonstrated the system and MHI bought the whole company and has now built one small and two super large prototype wind turbines. Such machines need no high-power generator electronics because the hydraulics allows one or more standard generators to operate at mains frequency. Even very inexpensive simple induction motors can be used as generators if driven at slightly higher than mains frequency as they are in small hydroelectric systems. Such a system can produce far more power than rated for a few seconds without damage if required to stabilize the mains. ABB can build their cable wound motors to any medium voltage less than about 30 KV so that even transformers are not required to connect to such mains. Digital displacement hydraulic technology or at least the mechanical efficient hydraulic from INNAS should be required to be built into every Lorry(truck)when the new or replacement engine is installed and this will save far more energy at lower costs than all the wind-turbines can generate and do it more reliably. Freight vehicles use far more fuel and will save far more by conversion as demonstrated by Ian Wright of WrightSpeed. Every automobile producing company should be required to introduce this technology into at least one vehicle that they sell by every nation where they sell vehicles. Even at the far lower costs of hydraulics relative to electrics, converting most existing automobiles will not be economic because of the low yearly fuel consumption of most vehicles and their short life. A major repair of the transmission might be an incentive to convert.. ..HG..