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Henry Gibson
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Sorry it was not a zero emission trip. the fuel cell emitted water and some hydrogen was emitted at fill ups and the drivers and passengers emitted CO2 and water and CO. Please state how much electricity was used to produce the hydrogen or chemicals and where they came from. The TESLA trip mentioned was probably much more efficient. ..HG..
Not needed. Hydraulic hybrids can be much cheaper and can save half the fuel with less weight and technology. Much energy is wasted in producing and compressing and putting the hydrogen through the fuel cell far more than just using ZEBRA batteries. Much money is wasted too. How long ago was it that fuel cell proponents bribed CARB to kill the electric car. ..HG..
We do not need new technology for stationary cells. Micro turbines used in co-generation will reduce CO2 release faster. ..HG..
Not one drop of biofuel is needed to reduce vehicle CO2 to half. No special batteries are needed. Just require efficient hydraulic hybrids. INNAS invented some technology. ARTEMIS invented some too; use it. ..HG..
When US nuclear power plants are considered, the ones in the Navy are mostly ignored. Since hydrocarbons are so expensive they have saved far more carbon release and money than all of the US windmills put together. There are at least three nuclear power reactors on mars and perhaps still ten in pacemakers in people's bodies which use plutonium 238 as fuel and will be at less than half power in 80 years. The latest mars rover runs entirely on the heat from plutonium 238 so that it does not have to park in the sun all of the mars winter. Isotope 238 gives off a lot of heat but very little dangerous radiation. A hundred thousand pounds of it or more would power an old steam locomotive boiler and it would not be radioactively dangerous to be the driver since most of the radioactivity would be self contained or contained by the boiler walls just as in the pacemakers; People have 4000 potassium explosions inside them every second any way with far more dangerous beta and gamma rays. Isotope 238 is not considered fissionable for chain reactions, but is considered one of the best sources of nuclear energy. Two hundred grams of it might keep a person warm without much danger if diluted in a titanium alloy it might be like a built in electric blanket.
One of the potentials is lower prices another is no fires at very high charge and discharge rates. Foam negative plates give them longer life and lower weight. Atraverda may still be proposing the use of titanium conductor material for longer life and lighter weight high voltage bipolar batteries. Properly processed carbon foam positive plates will eventually give lighter weight and longer life. Now defunct EFFPOWER had very high power lead batteries that could have replaced the PRIUS ones at far lower cost with the same power if they had perfected their production efficiencies of the ceramic plate. Atraverda could do it?? Seven times the volume of lead is required for the water acid mix. Atraverda can eliminate almost all of the non-active lead for lighter weight and longer life. Australia and others have built them with carbon and supercapacitors in the same package. A single lead cell of foam negative AGM manufacture with electronics to be charged from USB and to charge USB devices would have longer life and be far more fire safe for carrying to charge phones and have longer life and the lead materials recycled easier. Every large lithium cell for flashlights has to have protective circuits built into it for safety. Every laptop computer battery pack has contacts for testing and preventing damage for each cell. Optimized lead cells might be even lighter than present lithium cells and they will always be fire proof. There are circuits called "joule thiefs" to get the most out of any alkaline battery and some others. They could be modified to charge your phone from a lead cell and to charge the cell from your phone charger. ..HG..
Perhaps an APP would drop charging cords for automobiles. These towers should be filled with ZEBRA batteries so that the grid is not overloaded. ..HG..
There have been more fires caused by Lithium cells than Nuclear power plants and more houses burned. Zebra cells with much longer life are available and far more durable and are cheaper to make in large quantities. The cheapest and fastest way to reduce carbon production of the electrical grid is with microturbine combined heating cooling and power co-generation with natural gas. Housing estates should be required to do such along with all commercial buildings. For automobiles it is hydraulic hybrids that save money and half the fuel. The UK should install cheap and fast to-build CANDU reactors to reduce carbon instead of dealing with the French who cannot complete one in ten or more years for themselves or Finland. Candu built two in China in under five years and under budget, and others in other parts of the world. They can be fueled with UK "waste" fuel if diluted with thorium or depleted uranium, and can burn all transuranics eventually if so fueled. Any plutonium from reprocessing or recycled warheads can be burned if highly diluted with thorium and make as much as 3 million kilowatt hours for every pound of plutonium and some more from the thorium, perhaps more than an equal amount with the elimination of over ten million pounds of CO2 possible release per pound of "waste" plutonium. The uranium found in the ashes of coal fired power plants is being used to fuel some Nuclear plants. more than 30 nuclear power plants are operating in China and over twenty are being constructed. Warhead plutonium diluted with reprocessed plutonium can no longer be used in any existing bomb construction or re-purified for such. ..HG..
People writing these articles should publish the kilowatt hours that the PV site produced last year or is expected to produce in the next year with the solar insolation at the site. Right now it cannot power any homes at night. The power packs from TESLA may be just another fire hazard like the ones in recent cell phones. Sodium Cells from NGK are probably cheaper and longer lived. ..HG..
The idea of range extenders is to simply relieve peoples fear; not to operate the vehicle for long distances. This one has the advantage of turbines producing low NOx too. Actually the Artemis Digital hydraulic system eliminates half or more of the fuel consumption without expensive and heavy electric motors generators or batteries. It can also work with turbines. People have forgotten the Jaguar two turbine vehicle with turbines from Blayden jets, and the fact that Ian Wright of Wright speed and formerly of prius will sell an automotive version of his super turbine fuel saver for heavy vehicles. The Capstone turbine has been used in two concept passenger vehicles and many buses. ..HG..
Less complicated and expensive would be ARTEMIS digital displacement devices. ..HG..
Regenerated turbines can have very high efficiency or free piston hydraulic pumps can, so the need for complicated hydrogen fuel-cells is low. Sodium-Nickel-Chloride or sodium sulphur batteries are fuel cells with self contained fuels and are more efficient and light weight than any compressed or liquid hydrogen technology. Meanwhile Artemis digital displacement is all that is necessary to reduce vehicle consumption by half or more with optimization and free piston engines such as INNAS NOAX or Bladon turbines or? ..HG..
The magnets are used in the head positioning system mostly, and ferrite magnet motors could be used for disk rotation or reluctance motors.
Any talk about electric motor efficiency for automobiles is wasted in their operation at higher speeds on the roadways. The switched reluctance motor is the lightest weight electric motor and can be run at very high speeds and is very efficient and reliable and needs no rare earths. Tesla uses a copper injected rotor induction motor. Ian Wright is promoting the idea that turbine series hybrids promotes higher fuel efficiency than electric vehicles and cleaner air and lower CO2 especially with the use of natural gas fuel. His new turbine generator also promises very good efficiency and life and low weight. CNG is available to many who have natural gas service with a simple compressor. LNG is also available on a large scale operation. A turbine can use any liquid or gaseous fuel or multiple ones at the same time. Even now vapour LNG or propane or CNG can be fumed into the intake air of diesel engines to reduce the diesel needed by as much as 90 percent. Diesel or its close relatives, heating oil and jet fuel, is produced at lower cost and lower CO2 release than gasoline and should be used as turbine fuel for all highway vehicles in combination with any available form of natural gases. ..HG..
Bosch had the rights to sell Artemis technology which could save over half the fuel used by motor vehicles on the roads, but where are the automobiles? In the early years of automobiles some countries had a horsepower tax. At first it was based partially on displacement. Now a tax should be imposed on advertised and measured horsepower and horsepower hours and fuel consumption. Automobile drivers and owners should become aware that it is they who are releasing CO2 not the oil companies. This applies to house owners and dwellers. Every thing ever bought has a CO2 price. And people breathe out CO2 with every breath. Ian Wright gave up on TESLA because he could achieve more cost effective CO2 reduction with heavy road vehicle hybrids that burned fuel. The US government should not spend any more money on solar or wind, there should be requirements to use Artemis technology in automobiles and combined heat and cooling and power, CCHP, Co-generation, in buildings and communities for the cheapest quickest ways to reduce CO2 release in the US.
Hydraulic hybrid technology can save half the fuel or more in vehicles at far lower cost and complexity than electric hybrids and reduces greatly the need for bio-fuels which has reduced the food supply for all nations especially with the use of maize for ethanol production. Even wood can be converted to food sugars. Since massive quantities of uranium can be extracted from the oceans at low enough cost and greater quantities of thorium can be extracted from the earth so that there is enough fission fuel for billions of years, and enough uranium has already been extracted and stored as depleted uranium and used fuel rods to provide fuel for breeder reactors for the next century, Atomic energy is "sustainable". Now forests were proven to be unsustainable sources of home and industrial energy in all industrialized countries, some even centuries ago. Bio fuels are robbing many countries of their forests to produce bio-fuels for wealthy countries who have passed biofuel laws when they themselves have insufficient lands to produce such biofuels. ..HG..
This company should order battery packs also from GE DURATHON to keep these GE batteries in production and also similar ones from FZSONICK for batteries that will last for ten years without maintenance and will become very cheap in large quantities because of their low materials cost. GE proved that these batteries were highly suited for heavy vehicles and locomotives but have failed to use them in their own products. Trailing locomotive frames, called slugs, with a full load of such batteries could save many tons of fuel for a train. ..HG..
Yes for lightweight uses such as solar airplanes such batteries are needed. Solar airplanes are not needed except for artistic purposes. They make people believe falsely that solar energy can replace less expensive forms of power for the majority the uses of our civilization. No one comments on the cost of the electricity per kilowatt hour including the storage devices for this solar airplane. Boeing could have saved much time and money by using similar capacity ZEBRA batteries in their aircraft rater than Lithium based units. Most of the people of the world cannot afford a ride in any airplane, and most travelers want high speed. Almost No one who is publicly promoting solar energy mentions the cost of real estate for solar, and does not mention that a total solar home does not cover the energy requirements of the owners of such homes who live in industrialized nations which require factories, farms, roads, street-lighting, railroads, gas stations, pipelines, ships etc. Half of fuel consumption for automobiles can be eliminated by use of hydraulic hybrids and not a single drive battery as demonstrated greatly by Artemis intelligent power. Wrightspeed does the same for lorries or trucks with low emissions of turbines and batteries. INNAS NOAX free piston technology can be combined with Artemis to eliminate the engine crankshaft and increase efficiency and life. Batteries sitting on the ground do not need to be lightweight and can cost less for the service provided and can have a very long life and zero maintenance such as ZEBRA sodium-nickel chloride or sodium sulphur. Many automobiles have been tested successfully with ZEBRA batteries. Inefficient tiny range extenders should be required for all electric automobiles, including TESLAs, to get the last few miles home at lower speeds. Such machines can be small and cheap; think model airplane engines, and they can be ethanol fueled. Coates limited and others have rotating valves which allow for high speeds and power density. OPOC and RCV could provide the same. Use gasoline or diesel jet cars for long trips. Turbines from Capstone and Bladon and others can burn diesel in a clean way and diesel requires less CO2 release to produce, and such machines can burn BIODIESEL, AUTOGAS, LPG, CNG and LNG equally well. Artemis Digital Displacement and other hydraulic technology can be used to cut out half the fuel use as mentioned when optimized. Not another automobile should be allowed to be designed without a hybrid transmission Much as low flow shower heads are required. Artemis showed that that they can be retrofitted into existing automobiles. ..HG..
Cooling will be an issue for large machines. Efficiency is questionable at small sizes. Bladon jets are also a competitor for weight(see Jaguar)with lower efficiency? Unit can be incorporated into generators. ..HG..
Light weight is interesting. Resembles turbine engine cycle made with pistons. Turbines use much air for cooling. Yes range extender, but all automobiles need to be hybrid to save the energy from slowing and braking to a stop. Artemis digital seems to be the lightest weight efficient hybrid technology. Only 10 kilowatts are needed for high speed travel on level road for many passenger automobiles. ..HG..
Maize Ethanol never was a net zero CO2 fuel as it takes much fossil fuel to plant grow and harvest and process it with a US government stated gain of only 130 units or less of energy out for fossil fuel energy in. The price of maize in Mexico for low income people went much higher when much grain was diverted to ethanol. All new vehicles should be hybrids that can save up to half the fuel or even more. Any automobile engine efficiency can be increased with simple hybrid technology. Small electric vehicles with rescue battery charger engines can be used for most town driving. ..HG..
There is an isotope 238 that does power an automobile on Mars; Its power density is 500 watts thermal per kilogram. A kilogram or two would be enough for the average automobile use. Shielding most of the radiation from such material can be done with ultra thin stainless steel foil. ..HG..
An INNAS NOAX engine with Artemis Digital displacement technology would be cheaper and more efficient and save half the fuel over present automobiles of same weight. To this we must consider the Capstone turbines and the Wrightspeed turbines and the Bladon Jets turbines. To this article we must remember the Pescara dual piston air spring engines that used turbines for power output. One of which powered an experimental US automobile after locomotive and power stations and ships were built that used the cheapest heavy petroleum fuels. Highly related is the free piston Stirling commercial co-generation unit recently installed in a UK Hotel by Qnergy which also has wood pellet prototype. ..HG..
Ricardo flywheels might be cheaper and more reliable. Artemis Digital Displacement would weigh and cost less for same power and energy. ..HG..