This is Anne Breitenbach's Typepad Profile.
Join Typepad and start following Anne Breitenbach's activity
Join Now!
Already a member? Sign In
Anne Breitenbach
Washington DC
A Trainer in APA Style and on APA PsycINFO Databases
Recent Activity
Technically, I guess that would be correct. But it looks like a situation where it is worth it to come up with a workaround to begin the sentence some other way, even if it's as repetitive as something like "A percentage of ...."
1 reply
Hi, Wensi: The correct choice is Option 2, as the word begins the sentence. Rule 4.32 stipulates to use words to express any number that begins a sentence. It begins the sentence. That's the rule that applies. If you rewrote the sentence so "two" wasn't the first word, that format would still be correct (except for capitalization, of course). To say that a number is a measurement of "something," while true enough, applies to a number by its very definition; thus, there would never be a point to making these kinds of distinctions, so you Option 1 isn't correct. And I can't envision a situation where you'd ever use your Option 3. Thirteen > 10 and it is not the first word in that sentence. Hope that helps.
1 reply
Hi, Gloria, Many individual teachers and institutions make some changes to what they ask their students to do based on their individual needs or preferences. Thus, if we're responding to a student query about style, we always tell them to check for their own guidelines first. The person who does the grading is the final arbiter :). The danger you run is not making clear that you've modified the existing style. If you do that, then you can certainly define what you're doing as APA Style with modifications. Having said that--and perhaps this is no surprise, as I did just post this blog entry--I would proceed cautiously with changes, especially if the reason is that a document "looks boring." "Boring" for these students going into a behavioral science profession translates to professional and standard. My background is actually law, where there is very little wiggle room for format variation and the costs of making changes to, say, a writ or a brief because you don't like the way it looks don't bear thinking about. Bluebook is a much more rigid framework than APA Style, but an object lesson at one end of the continuum. So, change, sure, if there's actually a good reason. That's how this style was born and all styles evolve. I can't help but add that I would be wary though, especially about any changes to reference format or headings (yes, I did see headings was one of your prospective changes), and make clear to your students that there is an institutional style that is taking precedence over standard APA Style. In their future academic and professional lives they should be aware there is a difference and be prepared to adjust.
1 reply
Image
by Anne Breitenbach We know. It’s true: Most high schools teach MLA Style. You labored over it, you learned to tolerate if not love it—and now, bam, you get to college, and as soon as you begin to take psychology,... Continue reading
Posted May 2, 2014 at APA Style Blog
Hi, Elaine. Are all the primary authors E. C. Kansa and is S. W. Kansa always secondary? Then option 1 is correct. The rule is for works by different *first* authors with the same surname, it is not necessary if the order won't be affected by the initials.
1 reply
Sorry for the delay in the answer, Phoebe. See Guideline 6.27. "If the reference list includes different authors with the same surname and first initial, the authors' full first names may be given in brackets. So, to extrapolate, your example would be Cooper, C. R. [Catherine] (2001) in the reference list. That's the same situation as in the example above (albeit with only one author in that case). Though you're correct that a reader could distinguish the references by the other authors, the format is still followed. So the bracket format you're seeing is correct.
1 reply
If you're talking about an approximation, it would be "about three million dollars." If you specifically mean that amount, it would be $3,000,000.
1 reply
Hi, Gary, Yes, when expressing specific dates, use numerals (4.31e). The exception is if you are approximating number of days, months, etc. So it is "about three months ago" but April 3, 2013.
1 reply
Hi, Jana, Thanks for contacting us. One reminder: any currency below 10 is given as a numeral if it is an *exact* amount. Thus, "I paid $2," but "I paid about two dollars." While the Publication Manual does not directly address using symbols with currency, I think we can safely extrapolate from specific instructions on symbols and mathematical operators. For example, use the written-out form of a variable in prose but the symbol in conjunction with all mathematical operators and, for percentages, use the symbol only when it is preceded by a numeral; otherwise, spell out the word percentage (p. 119). So I think your analysis is spot on.
1 reply
Hi, Rob, You are correct. For additional information, take a look at the Publication Manual (6th ed.) at p. 182. My colleague Tyler did a post about just this topic. Take a look: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/12/how-to-cite-different-groups-of-authors-with-the-same-lead-author-and-publication-date.html
1 reply
Hi, Jana: I think possible part of your question is missing (there's a reference to a "first question" that I'm not seeing), but based on this, I'm extrapolating that you're asking if the initials are correctly placed for the in-text citation? Yes! You are correct. See Section 6.14 on p. 176. You are also correct about the second point. Only the first authors need to be distinguished. The purpose of the style point is to enable the reader to find the correct citation in the reference list quickly, and only the first is germane here. Though if you had two references with two authors in the same order and also completely different people, I would extrapolate that you'd use initials. But don't worry. I've never seen that happen in 20 years of editing.
1 reply
Hi, Natalie, Take a look at Rule 6.25. The order is one-author entries by the same author are arranged first and by year of publication. References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author (or if the second author is the same, the third, and so on). In your list, as the first citation is one author and Fodor comes before Foss alphabetically, the order is correct. Hope that helps.
1 reply
Antonia, My apologies! I somehow never saw this comment. I'm afraid there's not really an answer to your question specifically addressed anywhere in the Style manual. The options would be to research until you found the names (and raising the question of what to do if they were different authors who happened to have the same names). This is the sort of issue that an author id would resolve, if that ever becomes an industry standard. In the meantime, I think one would have to distinguish in text.
1 reply
Image
by Anne Breitenbach There really is a certain satisfaction one gets from knowing how to use a tool correctly and well. That’s as true of an editorial style as it is of a lathe or a chisel. Like a well-made... Continue reading
Posted Nov 29, 2012 at APA Style Blog
13
Interesting you should ask. I was just trying to remember that myself yesterday. The rule is "if two or more publisher locations are given in the book, give the location listed first or, if specified, the location of the publisher's home office" (p. 187).
1 reply
Good eye for catching that! We have fixed it in later printings of the 6th edition.
1 reply
Image
By Anne Breitenbach Some time ago, we had a post that explained how to find a DOI and provided a brief YouTube video of the process. We asked at the time for requests for tutorials about APA Style that could... Continue reading
Posted Dec 29, 2011 at APA Style Blog
Hi, Vickie: Perplexing, isn't it? Fortunately, the 6th edition of the Publication Manual has addressed this very issue. Although usually a researcher would use just initials in the reference list, in a situation like this, the rule (section 6.27) is if the reference list includes different authors with the same surname and first initial, the authors' full first names may be given in brackets. So your list would be Smith, L. [Larry] followed by Smith, L. [Lawrence].
1 reply
Image
By Anne Breitenbach Some time ago, we had a post that explained how to find a DOI and provided a brief YouTube video of the process. We asked at the time for requests for tutorials about APA Style that could... Continue reading
Posted Oct 6, 2011 at APA Style Blog
I hate to disagree with an answer key, but I'd say that the strictly correct answer is a. Let me embellish a little more: back in earlier versions of the manual, we did have a rule that said "Use a combination of figures and words to express a. rounded large numbers (starting with millions)." That rule no longer exists in the 6th edition. Presumably it was eliminated in an intent to streamline and simplify the rules. In the absence of that rule, a purist would say, 3,000,000 is demonstrably a number over 10 and by our existing rules should be set as a figure.
1 reply
Same thing here, I'd think. Though, considering it, I can see why it's confusing. The time is actually specific, it's when something occurs not the boundry that changes. These are actually instances in which I'd probably go with "two years" but I'd also accept the logic of someone who felt "2 years" was better. There are shades of gray in Style issues :)
1 reply
Yes, within two years is approximate. So your example is correct.
1 reply
The stated rule is to represent time and dates by numerals. The exception is only for approximations. Your examples all give specific times and thus all require numerals. If you changed them to approximations that rule would change, for example, "about two days" or "about three years."
1 reply
You're right. It should be "a way" and it should be elusive. Thanks for catching that. And thanks as well to the tweeter who pointed it out my error (and quoted Weird Al Yankovic) in the process. It has brought about the need for a post on homonyms. Please send your favorites.
Toggle Commented Mar 7, 2011 on Making a Concrete Abstract at APA Style Blog
1 reply
Image
by Anne Breitenbach The Publication Manual (2.04) states that “A well-prepared abstract can be the most important single paragraph in an article.” Indeed, it would be hard to overstate the abstract’s importance if you want to publish and actually have... Continue reading
Posted Mar 3, 2011 at APA Style Blog