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Tyler Krupa
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Hi Joe: You state the case to change this rule very persuasively. We are making a note of your suggestion and will pass along your preference to be weighed the next time the manual is revised. Thanks for taking the time to give us your thoughts. Tyler
Toggle Commented Mar 19, 2014 on Data Is, or Data Are? at APA Style Blog
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Hi Ken: You are not alone in your objection to this rule. We will make a note of your suggestion and will pass along your strong preference to be weighed the next time the manual is revised. Thanks for taking the time to give us your thoughts. Tyler
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Hi Renata, When referring to a model, theory, or test, you only need to provide a citation the first time the model, theory, or test is mentioned in the text. After that, it is not necessary to keep including the citations when the model, theory, or test is mentioned again. Therefore, in the example that you provided, you should provide the citation the first time you mention the theory in the text: “Leader–member exchange (LMX) theory (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) is . . . .” After that, you can just use the phrase “LMX theory” without providing the citations. Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Melanie: Yes, the second guideline in my post also applies to personal communications. Treat the “personal communication, Month Day, Year” text just as you would a publication date, and when the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the personal communication information in subsequent nonparenthetical citations. Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Heather: As mentioned in my post, when you have two or more references of more than three surnames with the same year and they shorten to the same form, you should clarify which one you are citing each time. In the examples you provided, you cannot distinguish one reference from the other until you get to the last name. Therefore, you need to list all the author names for both references every time they are cited in the text (e.g., Doyle, Burggraaff, Fujikawa, & Kim, 1997; Doyle, Burggraaff, Fujikawa, Kim, & Macarthur, 1997). In case you are wondering why you need to use the five surnames “Doyle, Burggraaff, Fujikawa, Kim, & Macarthur” instead of “Doyle, Burggraaff, Fujikawa, Kim, et al.” in the second and subsequent citations, the reason is that et al. means “and others,” so if there is just one more surname remaining after distinguishing between the two references, just list the final name instead of using et al. Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Sidsel, When you encounter references that contain different lead authors with the same surname, in all cases (whether the year of publication is the same or different), you should include the lead author’s initials in all the text citations, regardless of how often the citations appear (e.g., E. M. Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010; S. Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). The rationale for this rule is that including the lead author’s initials helps the reader to avoid confusion within the text and to locate the entry in the list of references. For more information on when to use author initials for text citations, see my recent post: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/01/when-to-use-author-initials-for-text-citations.html Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Elizabeth, There is no exception in the Publication Manual that states that you do not have to include the publication date in nonparenthetical citations if your paper is based on one source. However, keep in mind that the Publication Manual focuses primarily on publishing in scholarly journals. Therefore, what is appropriate for a scholarly journal may not be appropriate for response or reaction papers (in which a student reads a single article or book chapter and then responds to it) and book reviews (in which the citation is usually given at the top of the paper, and reviewers just use the author’s name and talk about him or her normally, without repeating citations or even giving a typical citation at all; see, e.g., http://psycnet.apa.org/critiques/59/5/5.html). Therefore, what you should do in instances such as these depends on what your instructor has in mind. If the instructor is focusing on proper APA Style citations and avoiding plagiarism, then he or she will probably want the citations. However, if the instructor is focusing more on the content and doesn’t want to be bogged down by repeated citations, then the citations could be omitted. Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Kathy, The basic problem that I am identifying in both posts is how to format text citations when you encounter references that contain different lead authors with the same surname. In all cases, whether the year of publication is the same (as in my current post) or different (as in my previous post), you should include the lead author’s initials in all the text citations, regardless of how often the citations appear. The rationale for this rule is that including the lead author’s initials helps the reader to avoid confusion within the text and to locate the entry in the list of references. Hope this helps. Tyler
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by Tyler Krupa In a previous post, I provided guidelines on how to properly cite different groups of authors with the same lead author and publication date. As shown in that post, when you have two or more references of... Continue reading
Posted Jan 30, 2014 at APA Style Blog
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by Tyler Krupa You probably already know that references in APA Style are cited in text with an author–date system (e.g., Adams, 2012). But do you know how to proceed when a reference list includes publications by two or more... Continue reading
Posted Jan 23, 2014 at APA Style Blog
Hi Gabe, Per APA Style, the first word in a complete sentence should always be capitalized; therefore, when referring to products that begin with a lowercase letter (such as the iPad), you should avoid beginning the sentence with the product’s name—for example, by adding a word such as “An” or “The” in front of the product’s name at the start of the sentence. Also, as stated in the first guideline in my post, if a name that begins with a lowercase letter begins a sentence, then it should be capitalized. Therefore, a name such as “bell hooks” would be presented as “Bell hooks” if it was used to begin a sentence (but remember that it would be presented as “bell hooks” if used later in the sentence or in references/citations). Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Sue9a, The same rules listed in my post apply to gene names and reference SNP numbers. Because, per APA Style, the first word in a complete sentence should always be capitalized, you should not begin a sentence with an abbreviation or designation that has an initial lowercase letter (such as the gene name recA). You should also not begin a sentence with a reference SNP number because the “rs” is always lowercase (e.g., rs1801280). For additional information on how to proceed in the case of chemical compounds, see section 4.30 in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. Hope this helps. Tyler
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by Tyler Krupa A basic grammar rule is that the first word in a complete sentence should be capitalized. But do you know how to proceed when a name that begins with a lowercase letter begins a sentence? Or whether... Continue reading
Posted Nov 7, 2013 at APA Style Blog
Hi Ron: We will make a note of your suggestion and will pass along your preference to be weighed the next time the manual is revised. Thanks for taking the time to give us your thoughts. Tyler
Toggle Commented Sep 25, 2013 on Data Is, or Data Are? at APA Style Blog
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Hi David, I agree with you that the text on p. 175 of the Publication Manual (“Omit year from subsequent citations after first nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph”) indicates that this style rule is not optional, and so I think you are correct to interpret the text “you need not” on p. 174 to mean “do not.” Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi there, As noted on p. 174 in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, all parenthetical citations (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within parentheses) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph. If you are quoting material from this source, then the page number of the quote should appear as well. Also note that when listing the page number of the quote, you should use “p.” if the quote appears on only one page and “pp.” if the quote appears on more than one page (e.g., Giovannucci, 2009, p. 32). Hope this helps. Tyler
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Hi Nicole, As stated on p. 174 in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, when the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical citations as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies in the article. Therefore, in the examples you provided, you should keep including the year for the Chatman citations so that the reader knows which Chatman study you are referring to. Hope this helps. Tyler
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by Tyler Krupa I don’t think that I’m revealing a big grammar secret by letting you know that the possessive of a singular name is formed by adding an apostrophe and an s (e.g., Smith’s, 2012, study). But although this... Continue reading
Posted Jun 20, 2013 at APA Style Blog
Hi Lorraine, If you cite the source at the beginning of the paragraph, you do not have to keep repeating the citation after every sentence in the paragraph if it is clear that the source is the same. Hope this helps. Tyler
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by Tyler Krupa You may already know that references in APA Style are cited in text with an author–date system (e.g., Smith, 2012). But do you know when to include the year of publication when one of your citations appears... Continue reading
Posted Apr 4, 2013 at APA Style Blog
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by Tyler Krupa You may already know that references with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first (see the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, p. 182): Meints, K., Plunkett, K.,... Continue reading
Posted Jan 3, 2013 at APA Style Blog
Hello Lisa: You are correct in that since the publication of the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, CrossRef changed the DOI format so that DOIs are now displayed as permanent URLs (the new DOI format is http://dx.doi.org/xxxx). Per the recent APA Style Guide to Electronic References, it’s fine to include whichever format appears on the source you’re citing. Tyler
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by Tyler Krupa What’s in a name? Properly citing different groups of authors with the same lead author and publication date can make a big difference. When you have two or more references of more than three surnames with the... Continue reading
Posted Dec 13, 2012 at APA Style Blog
Hi Pamela: Per APA Style, the word data is plural and should be followed by a plural verb (see pp. 79 and 96 in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual). No exceptions to this rule are provided for this term, and therefore “data” should be used with a plural verb in the examples you provided. Tyler
Toggle Commented Dec 4, 2012 on Data Is, or Data Are? at APA Style Blog
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Hi Harrie: Although these terms are not mentioned in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, you are correct that media is the plural of medium and should be used with a plural verb. Remember to consult a dictionary (APA prefers Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005) when in doubt about the plural forms of nouns. Tyler
Toggle Commented Jul 27, 2012 on Data Is, or Data Are? at APA Style Blog
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