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Interesting fact from the history of Petroleum - Gasoline was around before the invention of the internal combustion engine but for many years was considered a useless byproduct of the refining of crude oil to make kerosene. So todays useless CO2 waste product may be more valuable than just burning Natural Gas. The future of the Fossil Fuel Industry may be the production of CNT and Carbon Fiber from CO2. Net Power (netpower.com) has a technology which uses a supercritical CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process. This could be combined with the GWU process to close the loop creating Carbon Capture and Reuse. Another Carbon Reuse project could use Natural Gas Pyrolysis like the Monolith Carbon Black Plant (see http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/fossil-fuels/nuclear-to-coal-to-hydrogen-sheldon-station-blazes-a-trail). This process uses "waste" Hydrogen to run the electric plant. Again the valuable product is Carbon Black for CNT.
Interesting fact from the history of Petroleum - Gasoline was around before the invention of the internal combustion engine but for many years was considered a useless byproduct of the refining of crude oil to make kerosene. So todays useless CO2 waste product may be more valuable than just burning Natural Gas. The future of the Fossil Fuel Industry may be the production of CNT and Carbon Fiber from CO2. Net Power (netpower.com) has a technology which uses a supercritical CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process. This could be combined with the GWU process to close the loop creating Carbon Capture and Reuse. Another Carbon Reuse project could use Natural Gas Pyrolysis like the Monolith Carbon Black Plant (see http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/fossil-fuels/nuclear-to-coal-to-hydrogen-sheldon-station-blazes-a-trail). This process uses "waste" Hydrogen to run the electric plant. Again the valuable product is Carbon Black for CNT.
Superionic Solid Electrolytes will definitely be a component of the next gen battery. Work by John Goodenough, M. Helena Braga, and Andrew J. Murchison from UT Austin, also PATHION Inc. as well as other researchers are looking into these electrolytes.
There are already many "through the road" all-wheel drive systems: The Volvo XC90 T8 Plug-in Hybrid, Acura MDX Sport Hybrid, the BMW X1 XDrive 25Le IPerformance Plug-in Hybrid, and Mini Cooper Countryman S E ALL4 to name a few. Front Drive Crossover/SUV converted to all wheel drive. ZF has been a force in in promoting Hybrid conversions using their transmissions. The mSTARS electric axle system should also be successful. While 150 kW is a lot of power, maybe this will convince some manufacturers to use more electric power in their hybrids or move to all wheel drive EV. Imagine a 350 hp Chevy Volt Crossover that would challenge a Camaro!
This could be a worthwhile project. Check the EAGLE Project objectives: • Reducing engine thermal losses through a smart coating approach - possibly using Diamond Like Coating (DLC). • Reaching ultra-lean combustion (lambda > 2) with very low particulate, i.e. PN (down to 10 nm) emissions by innovative hydrogen boosting. - Hydrogen Boosting possibly using a "Reformer", e.g. Plasmatron: MIT, Arvin Meritor. • Developing breakthrough ignition system for ultra-lean combustion - Turbulent Jet Ignition researched by Mahle, used in Formula One to achieve > 45% efficiency. • Investigating a close loop combustion control for extreme lean limit stabilization - FEV (a team member) has an EGR control system. • Addressing and investigating NOx emissions reduction technologies based on a tailor made NOx storage catalyst or using H2 as a reducing agent for SCR. - Studies by Terry Alger (SWRI) on H2 Enriched Dedicated-EGR show reduced NOx emissions and exhaust temperatures. Though not mentioned, Renault could also bring in the Nissan Variable Compression engine (it has a strategic partnership with Nissan), which would also help these lean burn, high compression concepts.
This is not a diesel engine or a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. You may recall that Hyundai, Delphi, Rolf Reitz, and others worked extensively on the the Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine and the research did not yield a production engine. This sounds exactly like Formula One technology (mostly based on the Mahle/Cosworth Jet Turbulent Ignition, lean burn concepts). Renault knows all about this technology and would like to apply this to non-racing engines. Diesel engines PM and NOX pollution even with SCR do not meet current limits in real world operation. Natural Gas Lean Burn engines meet these limits easily. However, there has not been widespread adoption of these engines. If Hybrid, Lean Burn Gasoline engines with 50% thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions can be developed particularly for Long range Class 7 trucks where current EV tech is not yet practical, there could be a large market.
Someone needs to combine the Dearman Engine (a Liquid Air Heat Recovery engine), the the Highview Power Liquid Air Energy Storage System, with the NetPower Supercritical CO2 Gas Turbine using the Allam Cycle. The NetPower Supercritical CO2 Gas Turbine (which can reuse or capture all of the CO2 and has 59% LHV efficiency) only major expense addition is an Air Separation Unit which must separate the Oxygen from the air to feed the Gas Turbine to create a pure CO2 stream. If this Air Separation unit was also used as an Energy Storage System some of that expense would allow the NetPower Turbine to be used as a Load Follower Powerplant instead of just a Base Load Powerplant (the NetPower Turbine would take at least 15 minutes to come online to backup Wind and Solar Generation).
A few things not mentioned in the Ricardo announcement. The Latitude Project is a UK Research Council project which stands for "Lightweight Advanced boosTed Diesel Engine - LAtiTuDE" (http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/projects?ref=113070). So these are Diesel Infinium engines and 10% improved economy is impressive particularly when you consider that the current production engine is already very efficient. According to Autocar UK, Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) is working on two more hybrid systems to be rolled out across its model range, a Plug-in Hybrid and a mild hybrid electric vehicle. Not sure how this project will fit in with these new models.
Lithium should not be the Energy Storage solution for all applications. NiZn and ZnAir batteries are very old tech, Thomas Edison was awarded a rechargeable nickel–zinc battery patent in 1901. They are also safe. ZnAir batteries have a very high energy density (over 1000 W hr/kg theoretical) and low cost ($10 kW/kg), I use these in my hearing aids everyday. The only problems with ZnAir is power density and cycle life. The NRL research has definitely shown that cycle life may no longer be an issue. NRL is working with EnZinc for commercial applications, always watch their web site for any new developments. Of course, Fluidic Energy has installed products around the world in special applications like telecom backup power, rural electrification, and micro grid applications since 2011.
This looks like a good near term solution for PHEV batteries that require both high power and high energy density. This solution has a energy density of 230–240 Wh kg−1 that is comparable to the latest Panasonic/Samsung 21700 batteries. Also, they have added an Ionic Liquid to enhance the safety of the electrolyte which already had a high conductivity. This research used a full battery cell (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) and has industry standard materials. The only question really is if this can be adopted by battery manufacturers and produced at a low cost.
Actually, it may be difficult to beat a Battery Electric Bus, particularly the ProTerra. Seattle (King County Metro) plans on buying 73 buses. The first 20 will cost $15.1 million. The operating and maintenance costs on these buses is significantly cheaper than diesel, CNG, or Hydrogen FC buses.
Correction on Toyota Mirai FC System it weighs 173kg plus weight of compressors, not 230kg (H2 storage is 88kg not 144kg).
Despite what Toyota and Honda think FC cars may not be the future. A good example is to look at the current Toyota Mirai FC system which weighs roughly 230 kg (5kg H2 storage weighs 144kg, the NiMH battery weighs 29 kg, and the Fuel Cell weighs 57kg) and has roughly 60 kWh. A GM Bolt EV battery weighs 435kg. The 2018 Formula E battery built by Lucid motors using Samsung 2170 batteries will weigh 250kg and develop 54 kWh (http://blog.caranddriver.com/lucid-formerly-known-as-atieva-will-be-the-sole-battery-pack-supplier-for-formula-e/). So Battery EV are almost as energy dense as FC cars. Class 8 Semi Trucks (like the Toyota FC Semi) and Range Extended Buses are another story. These have at least 40kg of Hydrogen storage. So the Fuel Cell is not a significant percent of system storage weight. According to my calculations the Toyota Semi FC system probably has in excess of 800 Wh/kg Energy Density. Of course, these trucks could use the SunLine H2 fuel station or any of the other 30 H2 stations in California.
SunLine Transit also has a BYD 40' Battery Electric Bus (324kWh, 155mile range). The New Flyer hydrogen fuel cell buses are Battery Dominant Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus (FCHB). Not sure about the exact specs but this 40' New Flyer Excelsior XHE40 bus should have a 80 kWh Lithium-Ion battery and a Hydrogenics “Celerity Plus” 60 kW fuel cell (actually 2 30 kW units). Since this is a series hybrid the Fuel Cells will charge the battery at optimum efficiency. Also, the bus can be operated in electric only mode, so a significant part of the route will use battery electric power and the 80 kWh battery can be charged at night. This "range extended" FCHB has a lower initial cost and should be cheaper to operate than earlier Fuel Cell buses.
An update on my previous post. 1. BYD (which has a facility in Lancaster, CA) was awarded $9 million by the State of California for 27 electric trucks: 23 battery-electric 80,000-pound (GVWR) Class 8 yard trucks, also known as “yard goats,” to move heavy freight containers short distances within freight yards, warehouses, distribution centers and port terminals, i.e. Category 1. Also, four 16,100-pound (GVWR) Class 5 medium-duty service trucks. BNSF Railway will operate the trucks at two of its intermodal rail yards. 2. Local Operation: Warehouses and truck terminals, and the major rail yard (Hobart) that exist within 20 miles of the Port of Long Beach have some "High Speed Transient" sections, i.e. speeds in excess of 26 MPH. So the Toyota FCEV would also be used for this category as well. So, both BEV and FCEV trucks will help California reduce Diesel pollution.
@sd, There are 3 categories of Drayage operations at the Port of Long Beach (ref: "Characterization of Drayage Truck Duty Cycles at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles"); 1. Near-dock Operation (very short cargo moves from 2 to 6 miles in length). 2. Local Operation: Warehouses and truck terminals, and a major rail yard (Hobart) that exist within 20 miles of the ports. 3. Regional Operation: At distances greater than twenty miles from the ports, large warehouse facilities used to transfer goods for interstate delivery. The Orange BEV would be used for the first category, possibly Category 2. The Toyota FCEV is planned for Category 3. According to Toyota, the goal is for the truck, laden with cargo, to make regular round trips between the port and warehouse facilities up to 70 miles away (ref: https://www.trucks.com/2017/04/19/toyota-project-portal-fuel-cell-truck/). Toyota’s test truck is a Kenworth T660 chassis with the standard sleeper compartment converted into a custom aluminum shell housing a quartet of high-pressure hydrogen tanks and a pair of 6-kilowatt-hour lithium-ion batteries. Class 8 Trucks seem to be a good area for FCEV where there is a need for long range, short refueling time, and require only a limited hydrogen fueling infrastructure (for this project all refueling will be done at the Port of Long Beach). Also, In California, heavy-duty vehicles — including big rigs, buses, delivery trucks and port-based drayage vehicles — account for more than 30 percent of the state’s smog-causing nitrogen oxide emissions and FCEV can definitely help in this area.
This could be the ultimate Chevy Volt or as Dr. Andrew Frank calls an "ultimate" PHEVLAR. However, Qoros does not need to use the 1500 hp Konigseggs Regera powerplant (1000hp ICE + 700hp YASA electric motors). Use the Qoros QamFree 4 cylinder and a smaller electric motor with a 20 kWH battery and build a $25,000 500hp supercar.
Solid State EV batteries may be closer than most think. Recently, Dr. Goodenough developed a new strategy for a safe, low-cost, all-solid-state rechargeable sodium or lithium battery cells using a solid glass electrolyte (http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/03/20170301-goodenough.html). This research will be implemented much faster than his original work on Lithium Ion batteries since there are now many more applications than what Sony needed in the 90's (Video Cameras). Even if the glass electrolyte is not ready for manufacture there are others (not the Dyson/Sakti tech - Dyson is already looking at other areas). The PBS Nova TV show ("Search for the Super Battery") presented an interesting novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolyte developed by Ionic Materials. Also, check the Bio-inspired Murray materials recently reviewed here (http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/04/20170407-murray.html). There are many other areas that will also make the Sulfur Cathode practical as well, e.g. Graphene Filters or encapulation.
@Roger is correct. Cryo-Compressed H2 is even more dense than LH2, except does not have the boil-off problem. It also meets the 2015 DOE Volumetric and Gravimetric Density Goals. Check research by LLNL, ANL, BMW, and others that proposed this for automotive applications. An extensive LH2 network would not be required (It would be produced at select airports using renewable electricity or transported by truck. Linde has both LH2 and Compressed H2 at the Munich Airport).
While Methanol can definitely be used as a transportation fuel directly. In most cases today it is not Carbon Neutral (produced using Coal in China or from Natural Gas, and in the FC or ICE vehicle CO2 is also produced). Here is an idea for a novel approach that is Carbon Neutral and solves the H2 infrastructure issue. Renewable Methanol would be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen from renewable sources of electricity (hydro, geothermal, wind and solar) - see Carbon Recycling International (Iceland). Transported to the H2 station using existing Methanol distribution (pipeline or truck). At the H2 station, a new approach developed by Georgia Tech, the CO2/H2 Active Membrane Piston (CHAMP) reactor would produce the H2 and capture the CO2 to be recycled back to the Methanol plant. Reference: http://www.news.gatech.edu/2017/02/16/four-stroke-engine-cycle-produces-hydrogen-methane-and-captures-co2.
Always believed that the best use of Fuel Cell Tech is long range transportation. The Buxtehude–Bremervörde–Bremerhaven–Cuxhaven train can complete a 500 mile (800 kilometer) journey on a full tank of hydrogen, which is enough for one day according to Alstom. It operates 24 hours a day during the work week. In the US most rail networks are non-electrified, so the use of FC trains would reduce the large expense to electrify these networks. Low noise, zero pollution 90 mph trains may be a better solution than High Speed Rail in many parts of the US (which is the focus of the Alston train). FC tech can have a major impact on transportation in the areas of long range transport such as inter-city rail and trucks, even short haul air transport, e.g. helicopters.
This is a 200 km range BEV with life cycle costs equivalent to a diesel bus. The Aptis can be recharged in two different modes. The first method recharges batteries overnight using a standard connector (the full battery recharge takes about 6 hours). The other solution can be formed by an Alstom SRS solution (a ground-based static charging system) or from a toppled pantograph, which takes about 5 minutes for charging, equivalent to the time of a short break of drivers - Reference: http://www.autobusweb.com/alstom-ed-ntl-hanno-presentato-lautobus-elettrico-per-stif-e-ratp/.
Today 95% of H2 production is by Fossil Fuel Steam Reformation, predominately Steam Methane Reformation (SMR). However this is a high temperature (up to 900 degrees C) large scale process. The Tokyo Gas System does use an SMR with Selective Oxidation Catalyst @ 650 degrees Centigrade (Ga Tech is at 400 degrees). See http://www.tokyo-gas.co.jp/techno/english/menu3/3_index_detail.html. Also, it does not have Carbon Capture, though it is a Combined Heat and Power System. The Ga Tech SMR Process appears to use a K2CO3-promoted hydrotalcite material as the CO2 sorbent. The adsorbent can be regenerated or reused (reference: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b04392). Linde Engineering has solutions for handling CO2 Removal and could partner for sequestering or reusing the CO2. The Ga Tech SMR Process looks like a possible solution to a distributed H2 system that could either efficiently supply FCEV at a cost half that of Electrolysis systems or produce distributed FC electricity to backup Renewable Electric Generation. It would also be virtually CO2 free and could provide Carbon Capture (CCS) at a cost significantly less than Coal CCS or other large scale CCS systems.
This is one area where Fuel Cells make sense and are already being widely used. This will also build up the Toyota Fuel Cell manufacturing base and is directly applicable to other areas like FC Range Extenders or utility systems. Warehouse operations are large energy users. Energy typically accounts for 15 percent of a non-refrigerated warehouse’s operating budget, but in refrigerated warehouses, refrigeration accounts for 60 percent of the electricity used. Companies like Sysco Foods has converted many of their warehouses to Solar Energy and are already using H2 FC forklifts. Warehouse Fork Lift use does not have to worry about infrastructure since refueling is done in-house. Also, warehouse operations are 24 x 7 and downtime to recharge batteries can be costly. Even the automated warehouse system that Amazon uses requires 5 minutes per hour to recharge. Autonomous Forklift Automatic Guided Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles are not a future concept, they are an economic reality today. Except the current FC Forklift companies (PlugPower, Oorja, Nuvera, etc.) may not like the competition.
It appears that it is in Japan. A recent review can be found in http://autoc-one.jp/nissan/note/whichone-3002463/0002.html (Japanese). From the article, JC 08 mode fuel consumption for the Nissan is 37.2 km / L which is the same as Prius (called an Aqua in Japan). The price of the Nissan e-POWER · X is 1,959,120 yen. Aqua S is 1,991,635 yen, almost the same. The article declared the Nissan Note e-Power the overall winner.