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Maybe Trevor Milton, CEO of Nikola Motor should rethink the H2 Fuel Cell like he did the NG Gas Turbine Truck. Why have a 1000 mile range when a long haul trucker drives 600 - 700 miles a day (USA Regulations only allow 11 hours of driving in a 14 hour period). To cover that daily range requires 1000 kWh which would weigh 5-6000 kg (Nikola claims to have a 107 kWh battery that weighs 1000 lbs or 454 kg). However, long haul truck drivers need to take breaks in their daily routine so a fast charger (up to 350 kW) would reduce the need for a single charge per day, possibly reducing the battery size to less than 500 kWh, e.g. 450 kWh. This size is only 130 kWh larger than the current battery planned and would fit where the fuel cell is located. The 364 H2 stations would be replaced by 350 kW Charging stations. A truck driver's 2 hours of breaks would add 700 kW energy to the 450 kWh battery giving adequate range before overnight charging at a slower rate (reference: http://blog.caranddriver.com/first-u-s-350-kw-charging-station-will-allow-speedy-l-a-vegas-ev-road-trips/).
Two Comments: 1. For Automobiles 350kW probably is enough. The Porsche Mission E Concept has an 800 volt electrical system and is a model for future Porsche EV. Check out this discussion which shows the value of an 800 volt/350 kW system. (https://newsroom.porsche.com/en/technology/porsche-engineering-e-power-electromobility-800-volt-charging-12720.html). 2. Large Class 8 Trucks that travel long distances every day require fast charging like wthat Daimler Trucks is working on with Store Dot (the Tesla "Beast" Semi will also have a similar system no doubt). To supply these high voltage batteries something like the Opbrid Trůkbaar with a 650 kW overhead DC automatic charger would help. Maybe even a 1 MW charger may be needed where a 30 minute charge would supply 500 kW.
EVgo working with ABB already has charging stations with the potential to reach charging speeds of up to 350kW. There is one station in L.A. (http://blog.caranddriver.com/first-u-s-350-kw-charging-station-will-allow-speedy-l-a-vegas-ev-road-trips/).
Final Comment: Mazda has a brilliant engine design. This engine has 190 hp and 207 lb-ft of torque, lean burn, Atkinson cycle, and high compression (up to 18:1 CR). Make mine a Mazda CX-5 PHEV with a 50 mile electric range.
References on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI): 1. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) for high-efficiency clean IC engines (https://www.mavt.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/mavt/department- dam/news/documents/ETH-Reitz-11-09-2016.pdf) 2. https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/06/f34/acs016_curran_2017_o_1.pdf 3. Patent US8616177B2 - Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification 4. Fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI): a pathway to controlled high efficiency clean combustion (http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1468087411401548)
The Mercedes-AMG Project One PHEV is amazing in it's use of F1 technology achieving over 40% efficiency using spray-guided direct injection (DI) combustion which allows stratified lean combustion. Just today Mercdes-AMG announced that their Formula 1 engine had achieved greater than 50% thermal efficiency on the dyno (https://www.motorsport.com/f1/news/mercedes-f1-engine-hits-new-benchmark-on-dyno-952330/). While they are probably still using spray-guided direct injection stratified lean combustion, some think they may be using some form of HCCI similar to what Mazda is doing with SPCCI. Another interesting twist is that they are also burning a little engine oil! Could they be doing something similar to Rolf Reitz dual fuel RCCI which achieves very high thermal efficiencies? It will be interesting to find out exactly what their secret is.
@Trees, I don't think the Cummins Ethos 2.8L E85 engine went far enough! It had Stoichiometric Combustion with a 3-Way Catalyst and 12:1 compression ratio. Even the Mazda Skyactive-G had 14:1 compression ratio in Japan. In the Final Report Cummins did discuss Lean Burn as one way to improve efficiency. However, they could have gone further. Rolf Reitz at the University of Wisconsin-Madison achieved 58% efficiency with a dual fuel E85/Diesel with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. Now Oak Ridge National Laboratory is studying many of the different Low Temperature Combustion processes, e.g. RCCI, PCCI, HCCI, Partial Fuel Stratification, Moderate Fuel Stratifucation, etc. Project ID: ACS016 . (continued at Mercedes-AMG Project One PHEV with F1 technology . . .)
@Lad, The original Honda Lean Burn CVCC system goes back to 1975 and used carburetors. This was a very efficient system though it could not meet more strict emission regulations so Honda then opted for 3-way catalytic converters. Honda is also investigating spark assisted HCCI and is using Lean Burn in F1. Lean Burn systems may have some NOx issues like diesels, so they cannot use extreme lean air/gas ratios like in racing. (NOTE: Cummins and GE Jenbacher Natural Gas engines are Lean Burn and have low NOx emissions).
Actually, the MGU-H is used under all load conditions. Mercedes F1 probably uses a combustion system similar to the Ricardo/Petronas T-SGDI lean burn system that has been used on some Mercedes AMG vehicles, e.g. AMG CLA45 (check http://media.daimler.com/marsMediaSite/en/instance/ko/The-new-Mercedes-Benz-GLA-45-AMG-All-Rounder-with-Driving-Performance.xhtml?oid=9903716). So F1 tech with proper emission control equipment could meet air quality regulations.
@Brian P, I was not referring to the MGU-H or MGU-K Energy Recovery Systems that are used during part load in F1, but the combustion system which according to Ferrari is based on the Mahle TJI system that was originally developed by Cosworth Engineering ( a division of Mahle).
@Peter XX, How does Skyactive -X compare to Mahle Turbulent Jet Ignition or Ricardo turbocharged spray-guided gasoline direct injection (or any related Formula 1 lean burn turbocharged GDI) or Ricardo Magma “extreme” Miller cycle concept?
This looks like a re-packaged 2010 TROLZA ECObus-5250 which also has a C65 Capstone MicroTurbine, except now with a larger 47 kWh Li-Ion battery pack. Probably still not cost effective. The real competition are BEV. Cummins who knows a lot about truck engines just introduced an all-electric truck called the Concept Class 7 Urban Hauler EV with a 140kWh battery and a 100 mile range. Cummins also said that its EV would have a optional diesel-engine generator that could extend the range of the battery to 300 miles. In Europe, Lithium Storage GmbH has the E-LKW an electric conversion of an 18-ton Truck (IVECO based) with a 240 kWh battery and a 250-350 km range.
Magnesium Rechargeable batteries (MRBs) are definitely a possible Next Gen battery solution. Though there are still many issues related to these batteries and more research is still required. After reading the article, two possible solutions could resolve some of these issues (like the low voltage problem). 1. There is reference in the article to Toyota research: in the article's Discussion: "halogen-free electrolytes are under development for even wider voltage windows" (reference 24 - Dr. Rana Mohtadi of TRINA is one of the contributors). It further states: "Attempts to use the same approach for high-voltage cathode (e.g., layered vanadium oxide) was not quite successful so far due to the limitation of the nucleophilic nature of the APC electrolyte, which reacts chemically with oxides. It is worthwhile to re-examine this method to layered oxide cathodes, when non-nucleophilic electrolytes with higher voltage stability window become widely available." 2. Other researchers have tried to resolve this by looking into Hybrid Magnesium Lithium Ion Batteries (also called Daniell-type batteries). These add a Mg−Li dual-salt electrolyte to the Battery (with a Magnesium metal anode and appropriate cathode, e.g. Vanadium Oxide. One reference that has open access - "VO2 Nanoflakes as the Cathode Material of Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Energy Density", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9 (20), pp 17060–17066 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b02480 Publication Date (Web): May 3, 2017.
This is important research supported by Toyota. One of the top choices for the next generation batteries is Lithium-Air. The gravimetric energy density of Lithium-Air batteries (3500 Wh/kg at the cell level, as noted in this post), combined with much better power to weight ratio of the Electric Drivetrain vs the ICE Drivetrain (5:1 vs 1:1 typically) will make the ICE obsolete for all transportation purposes.
The Next Gen Lithium battery will very likely be either Li-S of Li-Air. A clear picture of the components of the Li-S battery are starting to be developed. The anode looks like it will be Lithium metal now that the problems with dendrites are being solved. The electrolyte is the next critical component and most work is being done with solid electrolytes - either polymeric or glass ceramic - which are safer than liquid electrolytes. There was an interesting NOVA TV show called "Search for the Super Battery" which reviewed Mike Zimmerman and Ionic Materials Solid Polymer Electrolyte. John Goodenough at U of Texas is doing work on Glass Ceramic Electrolytes. Bruno Scrosati who wrote this paper has an earlier work where his team discusses Solid Electrolytes, "Challenges and prospects of the role of solid electrolytes in the revitalization of lithium metal batteries" (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2016/TA/C6TA07384K). This paper focuses on the Sulfur Cathode and uses a Gel Polymer Electrolyte (basically a polymeric electrolyte with liquid electrolyte added). Possibly all of the parts of the Li-S battery are ready for the Battery Manufacturers to work on the final development phase.
Interesting fact from the history of Petroleum - Gasoline was around before the invention of the internal combustion engine but for many years was considered a useless byproduct of the refining of crude oil to make kerosene. So todays useless CO2 waste product may be more valuable than just burning Natural Gas. The future of the Fossil Fuel Industry may be the production of CNT and Carbon Fiber from CO2. Net Power (netpower.com) has a technology which uses a supercritical CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process. This could be combined with the GWU process to close the loop creating Carbon Capture and Reuse. Another Carbon Reuse project could use Natural Gas Pyrolysis like the Monolith Carbon Black Plant (see http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/fossil-fuels/nuclear-to-coal-to-hydrogen-sheldon-station-blazes-a-trail). This process uses "waste" Hydrogen to run the electric plant. Again the valuable product is Carbon Black for CNT.
Interesting fact from the history of Petroleum - Gasoline was around before the invention of the internal combustion engine but for many years was considered a useless byproduct of the refining of crude oil to make kerosene. So todays useless CO2 waste product may be more valuable than just burning Natural Gas. The future of the Fossil Fuel Industry may be the production of CNT and Carbon Fiber from CO2. Net Power (netpower.com) has a technology which uses a supercritical CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process. This could be combined with the GWU process to close the loop creating Carbon Capture and Reuse. Another Carbon Reuse project could use Natural Gas Pyrolysis like the Monolith Carbon Black Plant (see http://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/fossil-fuels/nuclear-to-coal-to-hydrogen-sheldon-station-blazes-a-trail). This process uses "waste" Hydrogen to run the electric plant. Again the valuable product is Carbon Black for CNT.
Superionic Solid Electrolytes will definitely be a component of the next gen battery. Work by John Goodenough, M. Helena Braga, and Andrew J. Murchison from UT Austin, also PATHION Inc. as well as other researchers are looking into these electrolytes.
There are already many "through the road" all-wheel drive systems: The Volvo XC90 T8 Plug-in Hybrid, Acura MDX Sport Hybrid, the BMW X1 XDrive 25Le IPerformance Plug-in Hybrid, and Mini Cooper Countryman S E ALL4 to name a few. Front Drive Crossover/SUV converted to all wheel drive. ZF has been a force in in promoting Hybrid conversions using their transmissions. The mSTARS electric axle system should also be successful. While 150 kW is a lot of power, maybe this will convince some manufacturers to use more electric power in their hybrids or move to all wheel drive EV. Imagine a 350 hp Chevy Volt Crossover that would challenge a Camaro!
This could be a worthwhile project. Check the EAGLE Project objectives: • Reducing engine thermal losses through a smart coating approach - possibly using Diamond Like Coating (DLC). • Reaching ultra-lean combustion (lambda > 2) with very low particulate, i.e. PN (down to 10 nm) emissions by innovative hydrogen boosting. - Hydrogen Boosting possibly using a "Reformer", e.g. Plasmatron: MIT, Arvin Meritor. • Developing breakthrough ignition system for ultra-lean combustion - Turbulent Jet Ignition researched by Mahle, used in Formula One to achieve > 45% efficiency. • Investigating a close loop combustion control for extreme lean limit stabilization - FEV (a team member) has an EGR control system. • Addressing and investigating NOx emissions reduction technologies based on a tailor made NOx storage catalyst or using H2 as a reducing agent for SCR. - Studies by Terry Alger (SWRI) on H2 Enriched Dedicated-EGR show reduced NOx emissions and exhaust temperatures. Though not mentioned, Renault could also bring in the Nissan Variable Compression engine (it has a strategic partnership with Nissan), which would also help these lean burn, high compression concepts.
This is not a diesel engine or a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. You may recall that Hyundai, Delphi, Rolf Reitz, and others worked extensively on the the Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine and the research did not yield a production engine. This sounds exactly like Formula One technology (mostly based on the Mahle/Cosworth Jet Turbulent Ignition, lean burn concepts). Renault knows all about this technology and would like to apply this to non-racing engines. Diesel engines PM and NOX pollution even with SCR do not meet current limits in real world operation. Natural Gas Lean Burn engines meet these limits easily. However, there has not been widespread adoption of these engines. If Hybrid, Lean Burn Gasoline engines with 50% thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions can be developed particularly for Long range Class 7 trucks where current EV tech is not yet practical, there could be a large market.
Someone needs to combine the Dearman Engine (a Liquid Air Heat Recovery engine), the the Highview Power Liquid Air Energy Storage System, with the NetPower Supercritical CO2 Gas Turbine using the Allam Cycle. The NetPower Supercritical CO2 Gas Turbine (which can reuse or capture all of the CO2 and has 59% LHV efficiency) only major expense addition is an Air Separation Unit which must separate the Oxygen from the air to feed the Gas Turbine to create a pure CO2 stream. If this Air Separation unit was also used as an Energy Storage System some of that expense would allow the NetPower Turbine to be used as a Load Follower Powerplant instead of just a Base Load Powerplant (the NetPower Turbine would take at least 15 minutes to come online to backup Wind and Solar Generation).
A few things not mentioned in the Ricardo announcement. The Latitude Project is a UK Research Council project which stands for "Lightweight Advanced boosTed Diesel Engine - LAtiTuDE" (http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/projects?ref=113070). So these are Diesel Infinium engines and 10% improved economy is impressive particularly when you consider that the current production engine is already very efficient. According to Autocar UK, Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) is working on two more hybrid systems to be rolled out across its model range, a Plug-in Hybrid and a mild hybrid electric vehicle. Not sure how this project will fit in with these new models.
Lithium should not be the Energy Storage solution for all applications. NiZn and ZnAir batteries are very old tech, Thomas Edison was awarded a rechargeable nickel–zinc battery patent in 1901. They are also safe. ZnAir batteries have a very high energy density (over 1000 W hr/kg theoretical) and low cost ($10 kW/kg), I use these in my hearing aids everyday. The only problems with ZnAir is power density and cycle life. The NRL research has definitely shown that cycle life may no longer be an issue. NRL is working with EnZinc for commercial applications, always watch their web site for any new developments. Of course, Fluidic Energy has installed products around the world in special applications like telecom backup power, rural electrification, and micro grid applications since 2011.
This looks like a good near term solution for PHEV batteries that require both high power and high energy density. This solution has a energy density of 230–240 Wh kg−1 that is comparable to the latest Panasonic/Samsung 21700 batteries. Also, they have added an Ionic Liquid to enhance the safety of the electrolyte which already had a high conductivity. This research used a full battery cell (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) and has industry standard materials. The only question really is if this can be adopted by battery manufacturers and produced at a low cost.