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The ELysis Process probably uses a Nickel Ferrite Cermet for the Inert Anode. There is a 2001 MIT article by Daniel Sadoway (Inert Anodes for the Hall-Héroult Cell: The Ultimate Materials Challenge, http://web.mit.edu/dsadoway/www/100.pdf) that discusses these anodes. Alcoa has numerous patents, like this one "Method of converting Hall-Heroult cells to inert anode cells for aluminum production" (see Patent US6558526B2). Of course a new supply chain will need to replace the Carbon based electrodes which are based on Coke byproducts that is well established and low cost. Elysis will also sell proprietary anode and cathode materials, which will last more than 30 times longer than traditional components, and the new production process should cut operating costs by 15 percent and increase production by 15 percent.
Stating: you get "100km on 1kg of compressed hydrogen, whilst it drives a mere 1km on the energy stored in 1kg of batteries" is an incorrect System perspective. The 1 km on 1 kg of batteries is true if the battery system has an energy density of 160 Watt-Hrs/kg (about right for 2018 EV battery technology today). For a Fuel Cell EV (FCEV), you must add the weight of the Hydrogen Tank, the Fuel Cell, and the battery to equal a Battery EV. The Toyota Mirai FCEV has an 88 kg Hydrogen TanK (5.7% storage density), a 57 kg Fuel Cell, and a 29 kg NiMH battery which equals 174 kg for 5 kg of Hydrogen. It has 502 km of range, or 502 km / 174 kg which equals 2.88 km per kg. When a BEV has an energy density of 460 Watt-Hrs/kg there will be no difference.
Based on all the comments regarding the Nissan Leaf LiMn batteries, the article in Supplementary Note 3 states "Most of the Li-excess Mn-rich cathodes using high levels of oxygen redox experience voltage fading, a continuous reduction of both charge and discharge voltages upon extended cycling10,57. From the evolution of average voltages upon cycling (Extended Data Fig. 6), we find that voltage fading for Li2Mn2/3Nb1/3O2F is less pronounced than for other Mn-rich cathodes. "
@HarveyD, Toyota said it would reduce Fuel Cell System cost by 75% by 2025, not Total Mirai auto cost. The Toyota Mirai which is nothing more than a Camry should cost $23,000. Toyota claims that the FCEV will eventually cost the same as a Hybrid, e.g. Prius or Prius Prime, or $27,000 which would be very good for a FCEV. One way to cut the Fuel Cell System cost by 50% by 2020 would be to reduce the Fuel Cell to 57 kW (half the Mirai size) and use the Prius Prime 8.8 kWH battery. Not sure if this brings the Mirai cost down to $27,000 since the current Fuel Cell costs are significantly more expensive than the 1.8L Prius ICE. Probably would bring price down to low $40K range.
Not really. The CAM-7 Cathode from CAMX Power is LiNiO2-based (read https://www.technologyreview.com/s/609027/this-startup-developed-a-promising-new-battery-material-and-a-novel-survival-strategy/). It is already licensed by Johnson Matthey and BASF. The Wolverton group at Northwestern (teaming with Argonne National Laboratory) has developed a rechargeable lithium-iron-oxide battery that can cycle more lithium ions than its common lithium-cobalt-oxide counterpart. Article: "Enabling the high capacity of lithium-rich anti-fluorite lithium iron oxide by simultaneous anionic and cationic redox", Nature Energy 2, 963–971 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0043-6. Also, Samsung is looking at a 80-10-10 NCM Cathode. Cobalt is the most expensive material based on % ,cost, and availability, so battery companies are minimizing its use.
Yesterday, GCC reported about Fisker displaying a working solid-state battery at CES 2018. Today Alliance Ventures invests in Ionic Materials which has a polymer based electrolyte. Solid State Batteries are a real game changer and many companies are investing, e.g. Dyson, Toyota, NGK, Samsung, etc. Expect 500 Wh/kg and lower cost. The structure appears to be: a Lithium or Silicon Graphene Lithiated Anode, an LLZO or LLTO Ceramic with polymer backing, and a low or NO Cobalt metal oxide cathode. Check out this recent research: Dendrite-Free Li-Metal Battery Enabled by a Thin Asymmetric Solid Electrolyte with Engineered Layers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2018, 140 (1), pp 82–85 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b10864; NGK All-Solid-State Cell patent US20150037688 (reported in Reuters - "Bracing for EV shift, NGK Spark Plug ignites all solid-state battery quest"); http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/say-sayonara-to-exploding-batteries-llzo-ceramic-thin-films-offer-hope-for-safer-thinner-all-solid-state-lithium-ions. There are many more references, however it does look like 2018 will tell us when to expect Solid State Batteries.
Hope this works, but the real question is why are we wasting $billions on "Clean Coal" when West Virginia which is part of the Marcellus Shale formation with 141 TCF of "technically recoverable gas" per EIA and holds the largest volume of recoverable natural gas in the United States. Note: John Hu holds the Statler Chair in Engineering for Natural Gas Utilization and Director of Shale Gas Center, West Virginia University.
For almost 100 years researchers have been trying to convert Coal into a clean fuel, i.e., 1925 Fischer-Tropsch. Even before the Kemper project, before the National Carbon Capture Center located in Wilsonville, Alabama, (originally the Power Systems Development Facility was established by DOE in 1995) Southern Company was trying to develop Clean Coal. When I worked at Southern Company Services in the 1970s, the project was Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-11) funded by DOE from 1976 to 1983. We will probably see Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion achieved before we get Clean Coal.
Good idea E-P. While any EV could benefit from your dynamic charging concept, long distance trucks and buses would benefit the most. Already the Siemens eHighway is demonstrating a test running in California near the two largest U.S. Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Trucking firms also do not like spending off road time "charging batteries". The Cummins AEOS Electric truck with a 100 mile range looks like a good candidate for this concept and with the acquisition of Brammo they should be including a fast charging battery pack to support the truck.
The Toyota Prius Prime has a 1.8L 95hp 4 cyl ICE and 8.8 kWh battery. The Honda Clarity PHEV has a 1.5 L 103hp 4 cyl ICE and 17 kWh battery. So if Honda can keep the Clarity PHEV drive train in a smaller vehicle then EV range may go over 50miles and ICE economy will also exceed 50 mpg.
A Honda Clarity PHEV has a 47 mile electric range which is in the Chevy Volt class. If the Insight Gen 3 can compete in cost and gasoline economy with a Prius Prime, i.e. $27K and 55 mpg, then Honda may have a winner.
You can trust that German industry will follow IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission standards like IEC 61851-1:2017 which currently allows 400 amps and voltage up to 1 000 V AC or up to 1 500 V DC. Both ABB and Heliox (a Dutch company) have fast DC charging systems that exceed 150 kW that are for EV buses. Heliox has an 800 V 600 kW charger.
Seriously, burning BioGas is a renewable energy source and removes a potent greenhouse gas from the air (according to a 2013 United Nations report, Livestock are responsible for 14.5% of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy production accounting for the bulk of it) and California ranks #1 among U.S. states for methane production potential from biogas sources. Reference: https://www.americanbiogascouncil.org/State%20Profiles/ABCBiogasStateProfile_CA.pdf. So we are only looking at 5% of the transportation fuel, i.e. 20% Class 8 trucks and the California Milk Producers Council will greatly appreciate the help Toyota will provide in reducing methane emissions from their dairy and livestock operations.
This definitely sounds like "Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome" using Dairy Cow manure instead of pig manure. Toyota may have found a niche for their FC trucks. Elon Musk did say 80% of Class 8 trucks travel under 400 miles. So maybe manure powered trucks can take care of the other 20%. If you would like to read a little more about the FuelCell Energy Tri-Gen System there is a white paper on their web site (https://www.fuelcellenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Distributed-Hydrogen-White-Paper.pdf).
Despite the funny name, this is beginning to look like the basis of the Next Gen Lithium Ion battery. An earlier GCC post discussed SiNode Systems Silicon Graphene based on their 2010 research. Stanford also researched Silicon Lithium alloyed Graphene anodes. Lucid Motors is partnering with Samsung SDI for batteries and developing an EV that challenges the Tesla Model S. This anode combined with a 80-10-10 NCM cathode could be the basis for a battery that is both cheaper, has 45% greater capacity, and charges 5X faster (reference: https://news.samsung.com/global/samsung-develops-battery-material-with-5x-faster-charging-speed). Tesla is also looking at Next Gen Tech possibly at LG Chem.
This Anode may make it to commercialization. SiNode Systems and PPG are making the first steps. This Anode is based on this 2010 paper, "Silicon nanoparticles–graphene paper composites for Li ion battery anodes", Jeong K. Lee,Kurt B. Smith,Cary M. Hayner and Harold H. Kung. This year the Yi Cui Lab of Stanford wrote a paper, "Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes", Nature Nanotechnology (2017) DOI:10.1038/NNANO.2017.129 which describes a similar Anode - a Lithium Silicon Alloy (basically a Lithiated version of this Anode) which in a full cell develops over 500 Whr/kg when paired with Li-free cathodes (sulfur and V2O5). In their research the LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). An interesting read here (https://web.stanford.edu/group/cui_group/papers/JieZ_Cui_NATNANO_2017.pdf).
Good points CheeseEater88. Combined Cycle is definitely an alternative to LNG Compression Ignition engines (Royal Caribbean will probably use the Wartsila engines already in use by all of their other ships except using the duel fuel version designed for LNG). The pollution requirements in most ports is now forcing shipping companies to stop using Bulk Oil, particularly Cruise Lines that spend a lot of time at the port. Combined Cycle plants could even use ULSD diesel even though it has higher CO2 emissions since the powerplant would have higher overall efficiency than an ICE. The 90,228gt Millennium delivered to Celebrity Cruises is an example of a Combined Cycle powered ship. From Ship-Technology.com "Millennium is equipped with a pair of GE Marine Engines’ LM2500+ aeroderivative gas turbines and a single steam turbine instead of the traditional four or five diesel engines on a cruise ship. These three prime movers each drive an AC electric generator. This system, the GE combined cycle gas turbines and steam turbine integrated Electric Propulsion System (COGES), supplies power to two electrically driven podded propulsion units".
@Davemart, Long distance trucking (or any long distance transportation e.g the Alstom Coradia iLint Train) is where Fuel Cells may work if you can solve the H2 infrastructure issue. The H2 tanks on the Nikola One will not weigh any more than the CNG tanks currently used by Class 8 trucks today and Trevor Milton knows a lot about that tech (his previous business). Buses and trucks can store 40-80 kg of H2 where the benefit of H2 energy density pays off.
Power plant lifetime is probably not a big issue with Automotive Fuel Cells. Based on actual results from Fuel Cell Bus studies >20,000 hours has already been achieved (please review this 2017 study - http://www.apta.com/mc/bus/previous/bus2017/presentations/Presentations/Peeples_HE%20Christian%20and%20Fecteau_Roland.pdf). Ballard claims that their FCveloCity®-HD Fuel Cell will last "with >20,000 hours of operation of a fuel cell power module in the field without failure." The real issues with Fuel Cells are initial purchase price and the H2 infrastructure. Due to these reasons Fuel Cells are NOT good solutions for automobiles or buses. However, long range Class 8 trucks have entirely different requirements (e.g. daily mileage >700 miles and ability to recharge quickly). If Trevor Milton and Nikola Motors can solve these issues, then we could start to see the end of the ICE age.
Interesting to see if Nikola Motors also partners with Hyon AS (at Hyon.No) or Nel Hydrogen for Electrolysers and H2 Stations that would complete all the components necessary for the Nikola One truck system. Nikola Energy already has experience as a Solar Panel installer, so maybe they can pull this off. Two interesting articles: Bjørn Simonsen, VP Market Development & Public Relations Nel Hydrogen comments (https://www.pv-magazine.com/2017/08/30/future-pv-the-feasibility-of-solar-powered-hydrogen-production/) talks about need for PV generated H2 costs needs to be below below $0.05/kWh and Apple just signed a deal this week to power to its Sparks, Nevada data center at 3.099¢/kWh (https://9to5mac.com/2017/11/09/apple-solar-data-center-pricing/).
And it only uses 250 Amps! Actually 3 x 250 Amps. Reference: https://library.e.abb.com/public/c09e6e5078914efe874925c24b56f772/ABB_EVI_ProductLeaflet_HVC-OpportunityCharging_nd_web.pdf. ABB sis working with EVgo on 350kW Charging Stations (https://electrek.co/2017/02/27/high-power-fast-charging-station-150-350-kw-evgo-abb-tesla/). Looks like Fast Charging will remove the complaint about EV Charging times.
@HarveyD, You maybe correct 400 Amps Max may be too low! Elon Musk thinks the next generation will be greater than 350kW (Note: EVgo already has a 350kW Charging Station at Baker, California. Of course, the BEV battery must be able to handle that load definitely at least 800 Volts). However, some are planning for DC fast-charging power up to 460 kW, 920 volts, and 500 amps (check: https://blog.caranddriver.com/1800-miles-per-hour-ultrafast-charging-tech-moving-far-faster-than-anticipated/).
This is a good design for a Sodium Ion battery. My only question is why the Phosphorus anode? According to Yi Cui, "Phosphorus is an attractive negative electrode material for sodium ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity ... it suffers poor conductivity .., slow reaction dynamics, and large volume expansion (440%) during the sodiation process, leading to rapid capacity decay" (reference: https://web.stanford.edu/group/cui_group/papers/JieS_Cui_ESM_2016.pdf). Why not use John Goodenough's Sodium Metal anode which appears to have solved that anode's dendrite problem using a solid electrolyte? (reference: "Alternative strategy for a safe rechargeable battery", http://pubs.rsc.org/-/content/articlehtml/2016/ee/c6ee02888h).
Based on what Toshiba has stated, i.e. "energy density by volume of battery is twice that of the current SCiB". Current products like the 23Ah unit has 202Wh/L energy density by volume. This 50Ah prototype has roughly 20% larger dimensions than the 23Ah cell. So expect up to 400Wh/L energy density. Gravimetric energy density probably 180-200Wh/kg again based on the 23Ah cell weight of 550g and 2.4 volts. This is close to Lithium NCA/NCM batteries, though with fast charging and longer life. Looks good for bus/truck applications which will require fast charging. Note: Proterra did use SCiB for some of their buses, new contract with LG Chem for a 160Wh/kg battery system for their long range bus.