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gryf
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Good point. Fluorinated gases are powerful greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect up to 23,000 times greater than CO2! A better use would be to recycle the plastic bottles into sportswear like Adidas and Parley are doing, which probably has a much better Return on revenue.
The GE Affinity engine class looks like an updated GE F101 military engine used on the B1 bomber and also proposed for the F16 fighter. The core of the engine became the basis for the very successful CFM56 Commercial turbofan. This engine has supercruise capability to Mach 1.6 and would make an excellent engine for sixth generation military aircraft thanks to it's improved fuel economy versus the current generation of low bypass military turbofans.
While this is interesting work with 3d printed Aluminum Metal Matrix composites, the following statement is not exactly correct: "Titanium is the optimal metal for manufacturing products for the aerospace industry, however it cannot be used in 3D printing because of the fire and explosion hazards of powders." Yes Titanium is the optimal metal for the aerospace industry, however, large 3D printed Titanium parts are being used today in the Boeing 787 and saving Boeing millions of dollars per plane. Norsk Titanium (the supplier of the 3D Titanium parts) uses their patented Rapid Plasma Deposition (RPD) process, where titanium wire is precisely melted in an inert, argon gas environment and rapidly built up in layers to a near-net-shape part. Reference: http://www.norsktitanium.com/technology and https://3dprintingindustry.com/news/norsk-titanium-starts-qualification-of-3d-printed-production-at-spirit-136380/.
If you are interested here is some additional information about the Mazda EREV Rotary and possible directions where a EREV Rotary could develop. . . . . . Mazda details the EREV Rotary in Japanese Patent 6,390,553 (https://ipforce.jp/patent-jp-B9-6390553). "the power generation engine in the range extender car is disposed below the rear floor panel" and "arranging the rotary engine of one rotor below the rear floor panel in a posture in which the axial direction of the eccentric shaft faces up and down". This means the engine is simple, does not take up useable space in the vehicle, and being a rotary has low vibrations. (Think of a BMW I3 that is not noisy in range extending mode.) . . . . . No mention is made of how efficient the rotary would be, which is important for a series hybrid. However, it would be possible for Mazda to apply some of it's Skyactiv-X tech (Spark Controlled Compression Ignition) to the rotary. Rolf Reitz at the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) which patents and licenses discoveries arising from UW–Madison research has a patent 9057321 on "Improved Compression Ignition Combustion in Rotary Engines for Higher Efficiency and Lower Pollutant Emissions" which details their work with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition. This is similar to the Mazda Skyactiv-X tech.
The 2018 Shell Oil Starship so far has a 10.2 mpg average (Reference: https://www.sae.org/news/2018/06/shell-starship-fuel-efficient-class-8-concept-truck-delivers). The 2012 AirFlow BulletTruck achieved 13.4 average MPG according to their website (http://www.airflowtruck.com/bullettruck-completed/). The key point of course is that aerodynamics is critical.
Correction: Bob Sliwa AirFlow BulletTruck achieved 13.4 average MPG Coast-to-Coast from Connecticut to California while carrying 39,000 load.
The Renault design does not look as optimal as the Shell Oil Starship which has achieved 10 mpg with standard Diesel components. Shell Oil or Bob Sliwa (Airflow Truck Company) copied the Japanese Shinkansen Bullet Train design. Both the Tesla Semi and the Nikola One have designs similar to the Shell Oil Starship.
I really don't have a dog in this hunt, but here is what I know. . . . . Yes, the BioGas is from Dairy waste btw Dairy is CA’s #1 crop. It comes from the San Joaquin Valley over 100 miles north of the Port of Los Angeles . Reference: https://www.socalgas.com/1443741254251/Power-of-Waste-RNG-for-California-2_CalBio.pdf and calbioenergy.com . . . . The Heavy-Duty Hydrogen Vehicle Fueling Station to be built by Shell Oil will use pipeline gas. "Leveraging previous experience in demonstrating and operating a Tri-Generation (Tri Gen) fuel cell technology for three years at the Orange County Sanitation District in Fountain Valley, FuelCell Energy will, under a separate project, construct and operate a new Tri-Gen system using bio-waste gas sourced from California agricultural waste to generate water, electricity and hydrogen. The renewable biogas produced from the instate resource will be injected into the natural gas infrastructure. The same amount of gas injected into the pipeline will then be extracted from the pipeline onsite at the Toyota facility at the POLB." Reference: http://www.aqmd.gov/docs/default-source/Agendas/Governing-Board/2018/2018-jun1-004.pdf?sfvrsn=2 and https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/12/f34/fcto_fountain_valley_success_story.pdf . . . . Finally, BYD has delivered a battery-electric Class 8 truck was grant-funded by the California Air Resources Board to the Port of Oakland.
I worked at Southern Company in the 1970s when Vogtle 1 was being constructed and it had cost overruns even then (costing $10 Billion at that time) and needed help with low cost loans from MEAG and Oglethorpe Power. I don't think it was political because Duke Power was building Nuclear Power Plants for $4 Billion. Also, the AP1000 in China had cost overruns as well so design must be a factor. I still believe Nuclear Power has an important role if we are going to meet these electrification goals, however costs must come down. I have always thought that the size of the large power plants is a key factor in these cost overruns and in safety issues. The record of the US Navy is a good example both in scale and standardization of reactor design, I only wish they would follow the French Navy and use LEU fuels or revisit the Shippingport Light Water Breeder. Maybe now that Electric Utilities are able to manage Distributed Electric Power Generation they will forget about 1000 Megawatt Nuclear Power Plants and focus more on Small Modular Reactors.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and the HP Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) have identical total printing time, however MJF is significantly faster than SLS in bin cooling and post-processing.
Great post that shows the complexity of Fuel Cell tech. Mahle has been involved with heavy-duty commercial vehicles for almost a century and would be an excellent supplier. If Fuel Cell tech is going to find a niche it will probably be in heavy-duty commercial vehicles, e.g. Toyota, Hyundai, and Nikola Motors, where component cost and volumetric concerns are not as sensitive as in passenger vehicles. In addition, a significant percentage of heavy-duty commercial vehicles have significant daily long range driving requirements.
In the U.S. two companies, ConocoPhillips and Praxair, currently store hydrogen underground. The hydrogen is stored in salt caverns, both which are located within the Clemens salt dome in Lake Jackson, Texas. (Reference: https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/progress09/iii_22_snider_lord.pdf Praxair supplies approximately 170 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen (not renewable) to the Yara Freeport LLC, world-scale ammonia plant in Freeport, Texas 50 miles away. The plant, which is a joint venture between Yara International and BASF, has a capacity of 750,000 metric tons per year. (Reference: Market Insider, Apr. 12, 2018 Press Release "Praxair Starts Up Gas Supply to New World-Scale Yara Freeport LLC Ammonia Plant".)
There is not much information on the SolidPower web site about it's ASSB. There is an article on Quartz that states "It uses market-available cathode materials, which are near the limits of their theoretical performance today, in combination with a lithium-metal anode and a solid electrolyte made up of lithium, sulfur, and phosphorus" and "the battery only functions properly at temperatures above room temperature and up to 150°C (300°F)." Also, "Josh Garrett, Solid Power’s chief technology officer, says that the goal is to bring down manufacturing cost to $100/kWh—about a third of the current price of lithium-ion batteries." I did find a patent application US20170331148A1 by Thomas A. Yersak, SeHee Lee, and Conrad Stoldt from the U of Colorado Boulder and founders of SolidPower that discusses a Lithium all-solid-state battery made with an Iron Sulfide based cathode and a solid state electrolyte. This would be an interesting basis for the ASSB, since the materials are cheap (btw the same as an Energizer AA primary battery) and have high energy density particularly if the battery is operated at 60 degrees C.
On Item #2, E-P clearly pointed out that the statement: "OME made from waste CO2 and electricity from renewable sources would even be carbon neutral." is NOT correct unless existing CO2 in the atmosphere is used to make OME. So Reuse of CO2 from Power Plants or Steel Mills or other industrial processes that do not take Carbon from the atmosphere cannot be Carbon Neutral.
Need to clarify some of my terms. 1) There are many uses of CO2 and Carbon today, and many reuse technologies. 2) When I was referring to "Carbon Reuse", I really meant reuse in non-captive liquid fuels, e.g. CO2 capture from a Coal fired plant to create "Renewable Methanol". 3) Carbon Capture should be "Carbon Capture and Storage". There are many areas where once CO2 is captured, it can "Stored" and not released into the atmosphere, e.g. Enhanced oil recovery, Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate mineralization, etc.
Carbon Reuse technologies appear to be losing favor today. Would OME be much cleaner than Natural Gas or Ethane fueled diesels? Probably not. The cost of these readily available fuels is much cheaper and already proven in existing diesel engines up to Marine size diesels. Carbon Capture is area that appears to be gaining favor particularly with technologies like the Net Power Allam cycle or the Fuel Cell Energy Molten Carbonate Fuels Cells. This is particularly suited for stationary energy applications. It could even be used for shipping (a 2013 study by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and Process Systems Enterprise developed a concept design for on-board chemical capture, liquefaction and temporary storage of CO2 for ships).
Ethane looks like an excellent fuel and not just for LPG carriers. At $.60/DGE it looks very economical and is much easier to handle than LNG. Coupled with FCs, it could do even better? First thought was why? The MAN B&W 6S50ME-C8.2-GI engine has 50% thermal efficiency and Low Speed Marine Diesel 2-stroke engines already reach 55% or could be higher as a hybrid. However, a Carbonate Fuel Cell could capture up to 90% of the CO2 and remove any NOx pollutants (Check out Fuel Cell Energy). So yes FCs could turn shipping from one of the worst polluters to one of the cleanest!
The Hydrogen is probably coming from steam reforming of biofuel by-products, e.g.Glycerol (Check out the Phillips 66 patent US9556391B2 (Method for producing renewable hydrogen from biomass derivatives using steam reforming technology). Ryze Renewables is basically using the old Biodiesel of Las Vegas plant and some new Hydrotreating tech from Process Dynamics Inc. which has low H2 requirements (source: Biofuels Digest, August 2017, "The Renewing of Nevada Renewable Fuels and the Rise of Ryze Renewables").
Also the ZEBRA battery has been used in vehicle applications. For example, the Irizar 12e 376 kWh Electric Bus or an experimental 1993 Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W 202).
NRG Energy, a leader in Distributed Energy Systems, is working with Cummins one of the companies working with Ceres Power. So yes SJC this could be an excellent component to managing peak loads. Some of NRG applications start as low as 80kW (https://mrec.org/files/2015/04/Standby.Generation.Huso_.2015w.pdf).
Shipping is starting to make dramatic changes now since Bunker fuel due it's high Sulfur content is starting to be regulated and LNG Hybrids are already being installed, e.g. as GCC reported 21 April 2018 that Norwegian expedition cruise operator Hurtigruten had signed a Letter of Intent with Rolls-Royce for a major environmental upgrade program to hybrid power. Hydrogen fuel at least in compressed gas form is questionable since it has very poor volumetric energy density, not much better than batteries and while liquid hydrogen would be better it is very costly. Recently, two Norwegian companies (Yara and Kongsberg Gruppen) have teamed to construct a short-range, all-electric coastal container ship the Yara Birkeland that will operate autonomously and eliminate up to 40,000 diesel truck trips per year over a short 37 mile trip. The point to mention this is that Yara, an Ammonia producer is involved. Ammonia has 1.5 times the volumetric energy density of liquid hydrogen and can be burned directly in diesel engines or in SOFC. A Hybrid Ship using Renewable Ammonia may be a way to move to CO2 free Shipping.
E-P you are correct about the use of the waste heat. After reading the article in more depth and one of the references (Bernical et al. [4] ) there are references to alkaline water electrolysis, e.g. "Compared to alkaline water electrolysis, high temperature steam electrolysis requires less electrical power. " Also, in Section 3.4. Modeling the Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell "excess heat from the gasifier is available and can be used to heat steam to temperatures well above 1000 °C. When feeding this hot steam to an SOEC . . . allows for electric input that is lower than what is needed at room temperature.". The article probably more importantly points out that the cost of producing advanced biofuel with the PBtL concept even with Hydrogen upgrading would still be very high compared to current fuel prices.
There are several "flaws" in this study that everyone has pointed out. The use of Hydrogen (or Hydrotreating) is a standard practice in the petrochemical industry for fuel upgrading or removing impurities, e.g. Sulfur or heavy metals. Though this Hydrogen comes from Steam Methane Reforming not renewable sources. Also, why use SOEC for Electrolysis? Maybe this has something to do with SINTEF research where one of the authors works. Why not include Zero-Gap Alkaline Water Electrolysis? Nel Hydrogen (a Norwegian company) and Thyssen Krupp already have production scale equipment used in the Ammonia Industry and probably is cheaper. BTW studies in the Ammonia Industry say if Renewable Electricity is to be competitive it needs to cost $25/MWh.
This is an interesting Li-S battery, though have not been able to read the full article. The use of Sodium Lignosulfonate looks like an excellent material for the suppression of the polysulfide shuttling effect. Lignosulfonate, a by-product of the paper manufacturing industry, is an abundant low cost material that has been used in Lead Acid batteries as a life extender for many years. Researchers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have used it as a Cathode for their lithium–sulfur battery. Also, two of the authors of this paper have extensive backgrounds in lithium–sulfur batteries (John Goodenough) and in 3D graphene composite architectures (Xiangfeng Duan).
Davemart FWIW my professional and academic background is in Manufacturing System Engineering. I have been involved with the Toyota Production System since the 1980s. When I review a technology I look at all of it's aspects, i.e. engineering complexity, system efficiency, and supply chain considerations. There appears to be a global consensus in the automobile industry that vehicle electrification will be in all vehicles. It is too early to bet on which technology - HEV, BEV, PHEV, or FCEV will dominate and it is not worth promoting one over the other.