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Mesothelioma risk from long form C nanotubes equal to asbestos. Apparently the short form is not a problem in this mouse study. It is early days for understanding health risk as the site specific comparison study in mice for 12 months cannot translate directly to longer lived species. http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)31171-5
New study proves cancer risk from long form carbon nanotubes. https://phys.org/news/2017-11-subset-carbon-nanotubes-poses-cancer.html
Back in the day Scalectrix offered body styles from the 30's to the present and most found a following. Fuglies became classics and lemons had a special place as rarer oddities. More than a few 'car of the year winners made the lemon list after a year or three. Beauty is a fluid concept. The idea of a carbon fibre body as energy storage shows that these designers weren't just staring out the classroom window these last decades. While the idea is in many ways obvious it does take a certain flair and belief to recognise the possibilities and a workplace culture that supports it thinkers to realise and execute such concepts.Their reputation have gone up ~500% in my estimation. For the tinkers interested in technology who haven't yet played with carbon fibre - do! Be aware different manufacturing processes produce fibres with very different qualities. Technical challenges to practically realising the possibilities is not DIY. " During such heavy braking, the temperature of the brake rotor and pads can warm up from 400°C to more than 1000°C. These 1000°C occurs at the very end of the braking, and is approximately the highest temperature a carbon brake disc (as they are used in F1, and limited to 28mm thickness and 278mm diameter by the FIA) can take." Test for conductance. Be amazed. http://www.futurity.org/carbon-fiber-beats-copper-conductivity/ While not equal to copper /volume, for the application suggested with its fibre body, a large volume is inherent. " wet-spun carbon nanotube fiber still handily beat copper, carrying up to four times as much current as a copper wire of the same mass."
Demystified this sits between the intake and post turbo exhaust if I am reading correctly. Not sourcing the energy directly from heat but rather by the high / low pressure induction and expansion sides. Frequency independent of rpm.
While it still needs a combustion engine in anything bigger than a 'town car or motorcycle it is a better design than belt drive. Simplifies adoption of various 48V systems steering water pumps etc. Below hazardous (~50V) voltage systems do not require the same level of certification will allow stepped industry transitioning to high voltage systems for both workshops and personnel. It takes time for tradespeople to upskill and for those with a working understanding to pass that on through the workforce. acquire Citaro bus specs: "The electric power generated by recuperation is stored in a bank of supercapacitors. These electricity storage units are characterized by a high power density. They are resistant to high power peaks and have a long life. Unlike batteries, supercaps are ideally suited to the continuous quick changeover between charging and discharging that occurs when stopping and pulling away again in typical city bus operation. Braking to a stop from a speed of 50 km/h just once is enough to recharge the power storage units in the Citaro hybrid. The power storage unit assembly in the Citaro hybrid is made up of two modules, with each module containing 16 supercaps. The two modules together have a total capacity of 2 Ah and are mounted in a space-saving location at the back of the roof. It generates a maximum output of 14 kW (17.36hp) and 220 N·m of peak torque."
Insane or embarrassing is an accurate description for this University of Illinois report. With transport sector contributing 12-14% globally to which can be added extraction refining and non transport uses of petroleum products. It is not credibly possible that somehow growing sugarcane for fuel can magic away ~ 15-50% of global transport sector emissions as the headline would suggest when claiming a 1.5 - 5.6% reduction in global CO2 emissions. If they meant a more believable 1.5- 5.6%b improvement in road transport emissions ( a concept that can be considered in the real world) then they should say just that. I could make the claim of 100% reduction in emissions from renewable energy sourced BEV's but while that may be a very fair claim - any extra kilometres driven would contribute to unmeasurable extra CO2 emissions - there would be some extra costs for tyres road maintenance vehicle depreciation and replacement etc. Why are we reading public so often treated as brain damaged? Could there be better disclosure of the financial incentive to guild the lily here? Illinois produces more corn ethanol than any other state and has a very close association between the University and various aspects of the ethanol industry. I wouldn't worry too much about the destruction of large swathes of Brazil that's not the objective here.
It's one or the other. Which is it? Either way the statement is meaningless. Hyundai Motor Group aims to maximize thermal efficiency ***by** up to 50% in the future. OR Hyundai Motor Group outlines new powertrain strategy: Smart Stream ****targeting 50% thermal efficiency**** They should use consistent correct English for a start if they wish to be coherent - and then use real world meaningful metrics if they wish to impress. We won't be going anywhere with this engine wearing a lab coat in a test chamber. Now that real world emissions reporting is being introduced to the industry can we expect to see obfuscation such as this "My paper glider reaches 100mph" to become more common? I bewail that ridiculous claims such as this are so common that even semi informed people accept them as normal the uninformed 90% are left to their own imagination Gasoline or diesel engines may be tweaked to ***attain*** across the tiniest operating parameters at close to 50% but the same best attempts will fall back to typical average figures in real world driving. We see the use of lab test results being used for cynical promotion of a gullible public as standard industry practice. The multitude of statements such as this announcement that set out to mislead should be treated with the contempt they deserve. In case my comment were taken as vitriol towards ICE or the fossil fuel industry more generally, Let me assure you that the same can be said for the misleading statements we see from electrified vehicle industry claims. We should despair at claims of I.E. plug in hybrids giving 156 mpge. etc. Fuel cells ( when 99% of H comes from fossil fuel sources) achieving 80-100 mpg equivalents when the same fuel is say near four times as expensive to produce we can be confident that the cost is best understood when in the terms of our ubiquitous global currency - Petro Dollar$ that becomes 25.
Stop start is not a bolt on fully realised solution yet owing to high levels of emissions from cold Diesels and and petrol engines - less for Gas with the lower temp combustion emissions. There has been (a?) technical solutions proposed for the problem described but as yet that is not in production engines. As with extended idling causing exhaust gases to fall below the temp required for catalyst ignition, stop start should be an improvement but would need other major design adaptions to be fully realised.
Very curious. And along with that 31% it gives 10% more power - than what? an air cooled motor? a low(er) power density machine? You make the point that efficiency does vary across operating speeds and power. One way to justify these number would be to say 31% decrease in losses. Then if losses are av 10%, a 31% 'improvement' is a 3.5% efficiency increase. I'm constantly amazed at these sort of claims that just don't sound plausible only to find that on a closer reading the claims can be justified. At the same time we find high public acceptance of language being distorted to the extent that it describes the opposite of its definition . No wonder we get confused.
I am quite sure that any standard sized house with good sun access especially at snow free latitudes will not find it difficult to power both the house and car but of course if the car drives to work it will require storage battery duplication. On the other hand if the car is garaged for half the week or so then a stand alone house may not require much in the way of battery storage which can be supplemented by the cars capacity. The reality of car ownership in U.S./Can/Aus/etc is that today many car owning households have two cars. Most people live in cities and many cities have high percentage of high rise which will affect who can generate their own power. Many people don't want to be involved with small scale solar power gen and it would be unrealistic to expect small solar to power a majority of road transport but it should make a very useful direct contribution as well as indirectly through pooling to the grid. Approximately 16.5% Australian households have solar PV installations possibly more than any other country. But as they are mainly (85%) under 10 KW (6 Meters X 10M) the per capita rate is not as high as several other countries.Those 85% of installations could be expected to generate 30KWh / day which suggests sufficient for many household needs and daily local commutes. We know that there are very few electric cars registered so most installed PV systems are not currently sized with that use in mind. As electric vehicles roll out we could expect economics to project the system sizes to increase as well. If a price is put on carbon pollution it will happen a lot sooner. Solar does lend itself to up sizing as needs or financial circumstance change. Future houses will benefit from solar roof orientation and many if not most people and the grid will benefit from high grid connection rates that will offer excess power to be exported to various large scale storage or for distribution.
Mitsubishi Electric plans to build a worldwide wireless network for centimeter-level positioning compatible with CLAS. Will this bandwidth and roadside location will be freely available to other users or a fee I.E. included in registration charges or will there be incentive for duplication with inevitable conflict? Are the regulators are on top of all that. 1mm wave EHF radar. Millimeter waves occupy the frequency spectrum from 30 GHz to 300 GHz
Of course the same f* n clowns who predict and preach 'end of days and abundance' theologies would deny climate modelling.
The vehicle fleet changes to electrification are known to need low emission power generation to have any effect. The risk is less of these numbers reversing (though there are those in positions of influence that want or expect "the end of days" - that's deadly serious - in their lifetime) but lack of political will and action and the trend population increases will mean we can expect the outcome indicating a very uncomfortable future to become much more difficult.
I guess appropriate technology outcomes have a wide range of considerations. Energy efficiency vs simplicity especially when many machine workshops can produce and maintain components that meet reliability requirements with a lower technology. If the hydraulics are used rarely or intermittently and can utilise a recuperative power source that could go a way to compliment low emission technology. Presume the hyd hub motors and many of the applications you mention are working at high duty cycles and so require constant intensive energy input meaning the saving potential is also high from electric. . One with place where work is wasted unproductively as high grade heat sic on many vehicles is the shock absorber. There are designs for electricity generation at that location but again there is the question of technology level. Stepper motors and electronic drives and associated drive options have expanded into high power applications opening up many possibilities but one downside is that this means the ongoing reliance on a supply chain with many high tech so higher cost areas. I take your point the rules applying to thermodynamics physics cant just be dreamt away.
A market standard or preferred performance and design library as described should lead to cheaper mass produced product and encourage innovation as proposed must be a good thing especially with today's focus on energy efficient design.
"Tripling in the two tears to 2016" sounds impressive but to keep things in perspective we could go to the report and see: The report states that cumulative U.S. sales or leases to feb 2017 is 1600 cars -LCV's and the largest customer for buses- China has 30 in service or ordered in 2016. Plainly the promotion by gov't led backers is in full swing and determined but we are a very long way from an operational and validated consumer market. This projection for global cumulative sales. "Cumulatively, over 22.2 million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles be sold or leased worldwide by 2032" compared to a reported U.S. only... "in 2013, there were almost 129 million registered passenger cars." And global car sales in one year (2017) of 78.5 million.
sd, I should clarify my hybrid reference as not referring to the drivetrain which is well served by high e-regen possibilities but rather for the ancillaries servo' control where ie industry use either pneumatic or hydraulic control valves and rams to give simple smooth variable torque that would seem to require less parts. One pump as opposed to the many application specific electric motors that would be required in this refuse example. It may be that electric servo's are becoming more common as stand alone solutions but for plug and play I would have thought hydraulic will continue to offer simple and reliable industrial solutions for some time to come. I was wondering if there might be unrealised possibilities to regenerate the accumulator in esp battery electric commercial vehicles.
Developing H industry efficiency is relevant even if it never takes off as a major percentage of bulk passenger or goods transport type in the same way I would suggest that Battery technology was completely relevant before today's hybrid and BEV's expansion in road transport. How practical will H be for storing r.E. surpluses depends on many factors. The saying 'those who can predict the future are called futurists. Those that can predict when are called billionaires." I wouldn't like to try and list the potential spinoff areas of interest to technological society beyond road transport fuel which may prove to be a minor component of the industry in future. Science can't be rushed and H development depends on more ancillary technologies than most esp to bring it closer to competing economically with BEV's however it's promise as competition and alternative if nothing else sets a bar for the battery developers to beat.
We have seen recuperative hydraulic assist hybrids in the market place esp with refuse trucks leveraging industry standard hydraulic installations. Designs for recuperating electric or e/hydraulic suspension (damping) movements have been described for heavy vehicles ranging from forklift to rail rolling stock for various end uses including accumulator charging, e-energy for small loads or possibly to power (and modulate) active suspension. It should be possible to integrate hydraulic recovery to this electric system with minimal additional components and as with the hydraulic hybrid refuse trucks that reported high efficiency, any adaption that reduces battery loads should be an advantage.
Electric vehicles 101. Repeat after me. "Rather than having customized vehicles provided by a variety of vendors, (*insert your name here*) modular design allows the same All-Electric Powertrain to be used across the full range of a city’s work trucks, from Class 4 through Class 8. The use of a single electric powertrain system for all the city’s electric work trucks simplifies the maintenance and operation of a growing municipal electric vehicle fleet, reducing the cost of spare parts and training." This would be impossible with traditional I.C.E. vehicles
The experience of policy uncertainty in Australia for the last decade has been a chilling effect on investment in generation investment leading power prices more than doubling. The business community pleas have been ignored in favour of philosophically motivated political agendas. Political parties have chosen to change or threaten to change the renewable energy target ground rules every three or four years with the election cycle (in reality more often ) as the party in power has changed leaders every two -three years and policy signals are changing every six months dependant on other factors such as opinion polls or the audience I.E. 'who is listening' if an election is coming up and so the politicians are in campaign mode pitching to the low waged and unemployed or an international audience be that a climate denial lobby 'think tank' or an expert science based conference or other world policy makers on the world stage at international treaty agreement gatherings such as Kyoto - Paris. Without business confidence in future energy policy every sector of the economy has foundered. Business leaders have spelled large that many energy dependant companies have already left the country and investment decisions for most have been impossible for years. As with many subjects high jacked for political motives the need for policy differentiation means reality goes out the window and for every fact or observation the public are presented an opposing argument. The economic risk from this type of political game play is no joke according to Australian business representatives.
Interesting detail of the body attachment with the girder bridge rendering above. There is an opportunity to build structural or engineered bodies along these lines for weight and strength optimisation. An advanced, industry-leading suspension? No clues here but surely fixed motor/s/differential with drop shafts (among others)should be on the list for reassessment. It must be possible to build a complete drive assembly including motor and suspension that performs better and weighs substantially less than the many nearly 100 Y.O. examples. .
With many current designs offering choice of power train options we could assume that this 'virtual mule' F.C. will also allow that versatility. Lego trucks?
Cheaper fuels have lowered consumer resistance to lower fuel consumption models and increasing discretionary use relative to stagnant or negative wages growth. While the biggest contributor to lower fuel economy reporting from transport might have something to do with large penalties for misrepresenting actual economy and therefore cO2 emissions claims.