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Of course it makes sense. As many have suggested the second and subsequent vehicles will need relatively smaller energy storage requirements options in real world application.
From the link they say. " AMSilk high-performance biopolymers give such products unique properties. Among other things, the polymers are biocompatible, safe and robust.." There are many concerns for carbon fibre risks and the industry understanding treats it as no different to asbestos. The worry there should be with increasing volume and volumes entering waste steams including unregulated, the carbon fibre risks become problematic. I wonder if this new material is in similar category.
Wiki gives a date for describing this affect as 1875 - or early days of 'industrial' scale metallurgy. At the same time as the describing the processes as today not well understood.
That's the thing about straight talking, it often offends especially those worthy.
This analysis suggests hydrogen related industries have been either ignoring or understating the difficulties and implications of metal vulnerability. While Hydrogen embrittlement has been understood for many decades it is not clear how an expanded H energy industry expects to solve the problem. Various designs are mentioned including shipping and handling solutions with such as plastics and coatings, 'New alloys' are discussed as if they exist for all applications but reading this article should give cause for clarification if not concern. Obviously on site inspection will not be possible and quality control or predictive tools are only as good as the weakest link. Failures are not an option . (Brooklyn's recent fires from gas pipes over pressurised are an example when the system breaks down) While the commonly referenced 10% H added to existing appliances and NG delivery pipelines is stated as proven, we know that any exposure including ageing in normal atmosphere can cause embrittlement. It is definately a less well understood area that should concern the industry. More explanation and certification seems appropriate.
I would hope that the need to convert the cellulose via the recently promising pathways is understood even if not discussed in this article. While various ambitious new ideas are being trialled to convert cellulose to simple 'process feedstock, there are processes that can or could effectively utilise the residual cellulose or lignin 'waste' . I find the tendency for comments around a particular solution to be a common simplification is an interesting observation of many discussions. But then get caught elaborating and shut down with "Too much information!" Trying to empathise with the less informed reader when maybe it is not meant or often interpreted in that way.
Who'd have thunk it? Certainly technology leaders with a track record.
I don't say I quite understand but as far as I can would agree. I wonder at what degree of climate disruption 'cheap' becomes evident. The simple energy tasks are easily and more productively met to the required standard by other proven technologies. Keeping the climate solution where it needs to be I.E.fossil fuels in the ground means alternative and anecdotally superior feedstock solutions from the bio feedstocks is an important contribution. I can understand that aside from (feedstocks) supply chain guarantee there is also the no dig origin guarantee offered from bio processing. If as the science dictates we must cease fossil carbon extraction this century, and our expectations for minimal lifestyle disruption is desired there will be a very high expectation and need to provide the biologically derived feed stocks. The highest value will likelybe found not as electrical energy or for fuelling equipment that has proven easy to substitute . Aircraft, are an example of higher value application of bio fuel but otherwise bio fuel use would seem to project on average as a low relative value outcome.
Bio fuels' technology are also and more importantly a stage in bio plastics oils and chemicals.
Steady increase in R.E. will necessarily see increasing surplus that when combined with the need for load dumping should provide an increasing quantity of unallocated power. The Hydrogen electrolysis efficiency depends on non energy requirements for industrial and chemical process and secondly transport use. As grid services options are many from pumped hydro to battery and other storages which may have better efficiencies surplus energy will be economically viable at even marginal efficiency
The modular powertrain arrangements allow for 1 or 2 motors per axle just as easily as a single motor and differential slip limiting. The link to Kreisel above has a utube presentation that shows the two motors per axle setup for 1-4 motors. It is hard to determine from the presentation if each motor can be directed to one axle as that would make it highly versitile. Many reasons to like this setup.
Boil off gas from LNG: Evergas first off the mark with ethane carriers - LNG World Shipping https://www.lngworldshipping.com/.../view,evergas-first-off-the-mark-with-ethane-car... Aug 11, 2016 - The system's flexibility enables the use of both cargo tank vapours as natural boil-off gas (NBOG) and ethane from the deck fuel tanks as forced boil-off gas (FBOG) as required. ... It is up to Ineos whether they use LNG, ethane or conventional fuels in the ship propulsion systems during the course of the charter.
From high purity brine the plant outputs chlorine Cl, caustic soda NaOH and H2. The more recent development is the removal of mercury and asbestos .from the membrane. "The membrane process for chlor-alkali electrolysis eliminates the need for mercury and asbestos as process materials, and enables greater energy efficiency." https://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/chlor_alkali/
99% efficiency for the DC - DC converter but another -X% for battery. As the developers describe the battery as buffer I wonder if the clever people in power electrical see capacitors integrated into the mix for increasing the efficiency as viable yet.
Assuming this retains the OE ice motor it has more power available?
This would seem consistent with state of the art thinking on recycling of esp domestic waste plastics with? rubber tyre also major waste stream. To date technology has limited possibilities the focus being burning over landfill. To my knowledge the understanding of finite fossil carbon resources best and sustainable use has foreseen that it is in ecological terms ( I refer to wiki for the definition of climax.) " The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through increasing complexity until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community. The "engine" of succession, the cause of ecosystem change, is the impact of established species upon their own environments. " That the material so often described as plastic pollution is high end biologically derived material which owing to our misunderstanding of as a fossil fuel byproduct has rightly become to be seen as toxic waste. When the primary understanding of our existence and environs is politico- economic, and we fail to understand the full implications of our surroundings we completely miss the point. Within the constraints imposed by reality and objectivity it is good to see this somewhat esoteric understanding able to be expressed in the physical and economic paradigm. It's an observation that over the decades since the debate around fossil fuels sustainability has been articulated we have come so close, even accomplished in synthesising these compounds but are still in denial of nature's creativity. A nod to those who have the grit to pursue solutions in the face of understanding our ignorance. Hopefully IKEA get some appropriate kudos for backing this.
Like - how does the drivers keep their blood circulating without some toggles to fiddle with? To let you in on a little secret. The geriatrics social club (of which I am a member) have already patented a similar idea for our double decked city pub crawl bus. The only difference being the software in our concept is connected to a vintage 80's boombox. From our data collection analysis we found that baby boomers on average respond well to rhythmic vertical oscillation to help 'relax and help them find the 'groove. We are still working on a version for gen x/y and millenials but rap and metal versions have proven challenging for even our best researchers with several retired totally and permanently incapacitated . The costs to our modest budget from damaged test vehicles has also proven prohibitive.
I was going to call them out over that headline. " over a cliff", But they beat me to it! ", Audi notes. Put another way: Each kilometer downhill Pikes Peak brings around an additional kilometer in range." Is that an American or English kilometre?
So the way to get carbon free H2 is by regulation a price on carbon to kickstart the industry and bring on renewables. Why hasn't anyone thought of that?
This effort has been in the news since Nov '17? and this is the first public demonstration. It seemed obvious that if it a low cost simple process that it should end up on board as you say . The reasons that might work against that besides the time to develop would be size constraints for packaging - if that were a prob and some decision made along the lines of sufficient range from nominal 5KG's H. It may be that the C.S.I.R.O. team is working at its limit on the big picture with a view to selling or licensing the intellectual property as is their usual practice. As understood by any informed observer the compressed H2 is hazardous material and the technology challenging the type of problems we should wish to avoid. Of course we know Ammonia also is a hazardous toxic material, you really don't want it on you or breath it as the vapours will peel your skin.
More news this week on Hydrogen extraction from Ammonia. Transported as Ammonia as is common today the new bit is a low cost membrane for extracting high purity H for fuel cells. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-08-08/hydrogen-fuel-breakthrough-csiro-game-changer-export-potential/10082514
While we might see a societal reduction in transport us per capita in some densly populated first world areas in part owing to better planning and public transport this will likely be offset by increases in developing economies. Globally electricity consumption will increase dramatically from current usage Double more? With high transport requirements triple sounds conservative even with higher efficiencies including the 2X+ higher efficieny for e- transport over ice. The need to grow solar and wind resources is obvious. While improvements in storage and smart grid tech are likely to greatly increase efficiency and grid capability, the increase in generation from solar and wind will be incremental proportional to continuous deployment. Doubters will say that high r.e. generation is not appropriate as the technology isn't ready but it is necessary to both drive innovation and have any chance of meeting today's requirements let alone that expected in 2050.
Please use the sharing tools found via the share button at the top or side of articles. Copying articles to share with others is a breach of FT.com T&Cs and Copyright Policy. Email licensing@ft.com to buy additional rights. Subscribers may share up to 10 or 20 articles per month using the gift article service. More information can be found at https://www.ft.com/tour. https://www.ft.com/content/f2b85c0c-ed2f-11e6-ba01-119a44939bb6 Voestalpine is looking into the possibility of replacing coking coal, which is used to reduce iron ore into molten metal, with hydrogen in the production of crude steel. Although the company stresses that this is about two decades away, it would represent a fundamental shift in steelmaking technology with the potential to significantly reduce one of the largest sources of industrial CO2 emissions. https://www.ft.com/content/f2b85c0c-ed2f-11e6-ba01-119a44939bb6
Trying to understand the "green" steel-making angle came upon several relevant references : "I wonder, what do they need it for? What is the application of ammonia in steel industry - what processes of making or processing steel require this much ammonia? "Likely, for nitriding http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitriding . Essentially, ammonia is used as nitrogen donor. Nitrogen atoms diffuse into steel, producing hardened, corrosion-resistant surface layer." "Indeed - N2 will not nitride steel in a thermal process. NH3 breaks up much more easily, so that is used"........... "Hydrogen is produced by dissociation of ammonia at about 982 deg C with the aid of a catalyst – which results in a mix of 75 % hydrogen and 25 % mononuclear nitrogen (N rather than N2). The mix is used as a protective atmosphere for applications during bright annealing of cold rolled coils and strips. Hydrogen is also used as a reducing agent in the manufacture of iron. Hydrogen is mixed with inert gases to obtain a reducing atmosphere, which is required for many applications in the steel industry, such as in laboratories, heat treating steel and welding. It is often used in annealing stainless steel alloys and magnetic steel alloys. Large quantities of hydrogen are used to purify argon that contains trace amounts of oxygen, using catalytic combination of the oxygen and hydrogen followed by removal of the resulting water.".......... "Hydrogen – used as a reducing agent replacing carbon, as the reaction produces only water vapour. Hydrogen, either pure or as a synthesis gas (syngas) through reforming methane or natural gas, can be used in conventional direct-reduction reactors or in more futuristic flash reactors. The hydrogen will need to be produced using carbon-free energy hydro, nuclear, or renewable for the new processes such as water electrolysis or natural gas reforming – which require high-pressure steam or carbon-free electricity - otherwise, it would defeat the purpose as the energy requirement is higher than using it directly in the steelmaking process. The energy used in a hydrogen reduction process is significantly higher than with carbon due to its cooling effect and may require 4-5 times the energy needed currently. This energy also needs to be generated from carbon-free sources to avoid shifting the emissions elsewhere."......... So many uses. I was thinking that for electricity or heat production on site production and storage provides a certain autonomy from the grid if reliability were a problem. The 6MW does not make reference to electricity production - that's my error of assumption.
Davemarts link to steelmaking describes a 6 MW electrolysis plant associated with steel production. Lad makes the point that renewables are variable and are often producing surplus. Hydro is not without problems and cannot be understood as scale-able for numerous reasons. The recent dam collapse disaster in Laos is one example, but numerous environmental concerns and examples of poor planning and outcomes in this area are well documented. Many have made the point that renewables would ideally be scaled to several times or between 2X to 4X to overcome demand requirement with solar needing either time zone or storage considerations including smart grid solutions. Future R.E. expansions successfull economic outcomes and expanded demands could conceivably absorb R.E. nameplate generation to 8X-10X demand I.M.O. In the case of steel making or critical online demand it would seem that uninterruptible energy is important. Domestically we use UPS from KW/h for computers offices etc. The described steelmakers 6MW is probably large enough to be useful as a storage / levelling ancillary for the district needs as such for power supply hardening it is not hard to see the attractiveness of such a development. There are probably other aspects and areas of interest to the promoters of this concept that have expectation of economic returns. The economics may compare well with battery options however as the technology is still very early the costs are not well understood.