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Chelsea Lee
Washington, DC
I'm a manuscript editor at the American Psychological Association.
Interests: swing dancing, Balboa, crossword puzzles, grammar
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by Chelsea Lee Punctuation Junction: A series about what happens when punctuation marks collide. We have previously addressed how to use single and double quotation marks to enclose a quotation, and today we expand upon that topic to address how... Continue reading
Posted 5 days ago at APA Style Blog
Typepad HTML Email This is a little outside the bounds of what APA Style was designed for, but hopefully I can help. Seeking permission from the authors to reuse portions of their content is important and a good thing to do. Be very clear when you communicate with them what you will be reusing and in what context (e.g., an excerpt from a blog post with a link back to their site). When you post your excerpts, you must have a consistent style of presentation, and on your site I saw several different ways of presenting the excerpts. Some had an introductory sentence saying “John Smith’s Travel Blog:” and others ended with something like “—Quote from John Smith’s Travel Blog.” Even if you are not using typical APA Style citations and a reference list (which I don’t think make sense for your website, since you are not writing a research paper), consistent presentation and clear attribution of quotations are both still very important and achievable goals. Choose one approach and use it consistently. Look at similar sites to see how they have done it. Good luck!
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Typepad HTML Email Here’s some context for the approach: The Publication Manual addresses the formatting of draft manuscripts meant for eventual publication in a journal. After manuscripts are accepted for publication, the publisher typesets the manuscript and makes lots of changes to the visual presentation, such as putting the title in nice big letters and single-spacing the text to save pages. A dissertation shares some qualities of a draft manuscript but differs in other ways in that it is meant to be a publication, not just a draft. This is why universities often have their own dissertation formatting guidelines that extend or supersede APA Style. APA has always allowed and encouraged this. Your case seems to fit into the realm of needing an adjustment to make your work easier to read in its published format. Discuss it with your dissertation committee and see what they think.
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Typepad HTML Email You’re very welcome. What you’re describing makes perfect sense, and I think that it might be worth it for you to design your own system of presentation that disregards the greater/less than 40 words rule for the sake of consistent presentation. For example, you could put all quotations in the block format, and then put the commentary underneath. Or you could put the quotes as a bulleted list with commentary underneath. The important thing would be to be consistent and for what you choose to make your paper more readable. Ultimately those are two important goals of APA Style, and when you’re applying it to a special case like a dissertation sometimes you have to make accommodations. Talk further about it with your dissertation advisor too to see if they have any advice.
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Typepad HTML Email There is a lot of flexibility here. What’s important is that you make sure to put the quotes in quotation marks if they are less than 40 words and to put them in a block quote format if they are 40 words or more. Alternately, you might put the quotes in a table (with quotation marks around quotations of any length there). The table format might make it easier to organize the information.
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Typepad HTML Email You list both roles in parentheses while listing the person’s name only once. Kaufman, M. (Producer), Jørgensen, S. G. (Producer), & Vinterberg, T. (Producer & Director). (2012). The hunt [Motion picture]. Denmark: Zentropa.
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Typepad HTML Email The full date goes in the reference list entry, but only the year goes in the text citation. So (Norman, 2012) in the text is correct.
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Typepad HTML Email When you mention Smith et al. multiple times within one paragraph in the narrative, you only need to include the date in the first narrative citation of that paragraph; other narrative citations in that paragraph do not need the date included. However, for the next paragraph you should include the date for the first narrative citation again. Also, if the citation is in parentheses, it should always include the date.
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Typepad HTML Email I think that these would fall under the umbrella of proper nouns and would therefore be capitalized throughout a paper, including the reference list. APA Style is all about avoiding ambiguity, so if capping them saves the reader from confusion, capping them is the right thing to do. I agree with you here.
Toggle Commented Jun 16, 2015 on Do I Capitalize This Word? at APA Style Blog
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Typepad HTML Email This is a perfect case in which to use “Jackson and colleagues”. Here that “and colleagues” would refer broadly to the idea of Jackson working with various different people, and the references in the parentheses provide the specific studies cited. Try this: Jackson and colleagues (Jackson & Ajayi, 2007; Jackson et al., 2005) found that students… Also, in your paper “et al.” should not actually be italicized. It is sometimes italicized in this post or in the manual because we are referring to it as a linguistic example; in regular usage, however, you do not need to italicize it. Check out some published APA papers and you can see many examples if that would help. Good luck!
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Typepad HTML Email I would create an in-text citation for the page. The rule says that including a link is for merely mentioning the page and not referring to any specific information on it. The number of likes/followers is specific information, so I would create a citation for the whole page. Hope that helps!
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Typepad HTML Email APA says to use “et al.” rather than “and others” or “and colleagues”. Although they all mean basically the same thing, it is best to be consistent and just use “et al.”
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by Chelsea Lee A series about what happens when punctuation marks collide. In APA Style, double quotation marks are used to enclose quoted material, and an ellipsis is a set of three spaced periods used to show that material has... Continue reading
Posted May 27, 2015 at APA Style Blog
Typepad HTML Email You are right that there are different rules governing how many names to list depending on whether you are listing names in the text of the paper or in the reference list. In the text, once you hit six authors start abbreviating to the name of the first author plus et al. right off the bat. In the reference list, once you hit eight authors you start using abbreviations (six names plus the ellipsis plus the name of the final author). The thinking behind this I believe is that the text can use more abbreviations because the text citation leads the reader to the reference list, and then the reference list leads the reader to the source. So more information regarding author names is provided in the reference list than the text because the purpose of the reference list is more directly tied to getting the reader to the source. Hope that helps clear up some of the confusion.
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Typepad HTML Email The way you wrote it in parentheses looks great!
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Typepad HTML Email Yes, if the book is by one author, then you provide a citation for the entire book, not 10 citations for all the different chapters you used. If you want, when paraphrasing, you can provide more specific information about where in the book the information comes from in the citation, as shown in this post about how to cite part of a work (in this case, a chapter or a page): http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/11/how-to-cite-part-of-a-work.html When you’re making a direct quotation, include the page number in the citation. Hope that helps!
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Typepad HTML Email No, you would not credit that person unless they made changes to the text, such as editing it. It does not appear that this is the case, so only James will appear in the reference. Hope that helps!
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Typepad HTML Email Standalone documents have italic titles, yes. And all APA reference entries follow the pattern of author, date, title, and source, so the authors should definitely come first. Hope that helps!
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Several online-only journals publish articles that have article numbers rather than unique page ranges. That is, instead of the first article in the issue starting on page 1, the second on page 20, the third on page 47, and so... Continue reading
Posted May 5, 2015 at APA Style Blog
Typepad HTML Email Titles in APA Style are written in sentence case, which means the capitalization is how you would write a sentence – first word capped, first word in a subtitle capped, and proper nouns capped (everything else lowercase). So a title with periods in it would be like three sentences: Our values. Our purpose. Our mission. Hope that helps!
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Typepad HTML Email It depends on what the quotation marks are signifying. If the quotation marks refer to speech, then there is often a comma preceding them. For example, Mary Anne said, “I enjoy psychology.” However, if the quotation marks are to signify a quoted passage, then you should punctuate around the quotation marks as if they were not there. Your first example indeed does not need any punctuation before the quotation and your second example correctly does need a colon. There are no differences if the quotation is long enough to be a block quotation; however, many writers feel that it looks a little bare to break a sentence for the block quotation without any punctuation mark (even though this is correct) and so they reword their sentence to use a colon before the block quotation. However, this is a question of personal style, not of APA Style requirements.
Toggle Commented Apr 30, 2015 on Punctuating Around Quotation Marks at APA Style Blog
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Typepad HTML Email You may be interested in this article addressing your concern about why the Publication Manual and blog are not double-spaced: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/07/why-isnt-apa-style-applied-to-the-book-describing-it.html Rest assured that the content, such as reference entries, follows the style throughout. I hope that helps clarify any confusion.
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Typepad HTML Email The page number is usually put directly after the closing quotation marks, so your first example is the one to go with.
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Typepad HTML Email Hello! Generally you can follow the convention of the group. EDUCAUSE appears to consistently spell out its name with all capital letters, so you can too. If the name were capitalized only on the cover of a book or journal for stylistic purposes, however, then you would just capitalize the first letter.
Toggle Commented Apr 27, 2015 on Do I Capitalize This Word? at APA Style Blog
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Dear Style Experts, My reference list includes many URLs and I am wondering whether they should be live and how they should be formatted (e.g., with underlining or blue font). In the Publication Manual it looks like links aren’t live,... Continue reading
Posted Apr 21, 2015 at APA Style Blog