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Only governmental boondoggling would waste a second with this pseudo-technology. Its like the nuclear alchemists who said they could make Gold. Everyone was happy until they said you start with Platinum... Call me back in a thousand years if you still need diesel. Until then I don't think the market wants to buy too much of this so-called answer at probably a $1000.00 per gallon. I am amazed at just how quickly some of y'all are to sign up for idiocy such as this. The need for any of this nonsense has largely disappeared. Hydrocarbons are not in any danger of shortage for a Millenia or more. So-called "renewables", despite enormous subsidies, simply don't scale in size or price, to other energy sources. The so-called CAGW need to limit GHG CO2 has disappeared as Dr. Ravell himself said back in the 1950s, when he was retracting the veracity of his earlier publications which are the only theoretical basis for CAGW in the first place. History has proven CAGW induced Global Warming to be wrong in its temperature raising power. Reality has proven it virtually nonexistent for approaching 20 years now. Yet you exist here in ever dwindling numbers predicting Doomsday; and wishing against reality for your no longer needed fantasy technologies to magically appear which contradict the Laws of Physics. It is stupid to "unburn" diesel, spend scandalous amounts of energy to make the raw ingredients for diesel. And then spend prodigious amounts of energy to reconstruct diesel hydrocarbon chains. All this to make a fuel you will then simply burn again.
CO2 gaseous sequestration is expensive and unproven and leaks. American Bio-sequestration feeding CO23 to our agriculture and silviculture is proven and effective. North America bio-sequesters not only every human and natural gram of CO2 emissions, but also a lot from China blowing in on the prevailing winds from the Pacific. IGCC technology is also one of the types of coal plants being phased out by the idiots in the left wing psuedo-totalitarian EPA. Talk about throwing out the baby, with the bath water. Thankfully, the EPA is going to have its budget emasculated, as Congress exercizes its constitutional power of the purse.
I note that there was no report of the US T2B5 compliant vehicles other than to state that the method used to evaluate them is clearly superior. I don'e even know or understand the bais for that declaration. We know that EU VI Compliance is somewhat phony only 6 or 7times allowed levels. We don't know what the compliance rate for tighter T2B5 was. WHY? Is it that these vehicles do in fact comply? We have the bald assertion that testing T2B5 methodology is superior. How so? Nothing is put into context. T2B5, tighter than EU VI, is being replaced in North America by T2B2 starting in 2017. T2B5 is a 30 year old standard, the so-called "clean" diesels from Europe couldn't meet. EU VI is the first real attempt to cleanse European Air Quality. Meanwhile the EU politicians have chased CO2 limitations, largely to justify new taxes and fund raising penalties. Toxic emissions WILL kill you; CO2 might raise temperatures a degree or two, two hundred years from now. But only if CAGW Warmists are correct. Which increasingly appears not to be the case.
c-i-c, The bleating by Euro car manufacturers is just that, Pure hokum Bleating, for which I share no sympathy. Meanwhile they daily produce cars for export to North America, that exceed the coming EU VI emission specs, by virtual light years. America hasn't allowed as lax toxic emissions regulation, as Europe's soon to be adopted EU VI, since the 1980s, 35 years ago, and has tightened even twice more, since then. Further North America, has adopted tightened, with even pure, pristene, air emissions requirements, following in a few more years, in the Level III / Tier 3 regs. The ONLY area where the EU emission regulation, is really tighter is CO2 "regulation". Where we are discovering it is entirely farcical. Dr. Ravelle's concerns about CAGW, expressed in his writings in the 1950's, were retracted by him as an error, in several later papers. Those early writings are the entire basis of a theoretical Danger of CAGW. That erroneous thesis has not only been proven false, but rather confirmed by recent Science, to be de minimus. Moreover it has been shown to be even harmful, as plant life has evolved in richer CO2 environments then now, and are actually starving for more CO2. The World is Greening before our eyes, as the satellites affirm; and the politicos, tax raisers and ignorant zealots the only remaining advocates for massive CO2 reductions. EU's CO2 regulations are more a tax raising gimmick, than a Clean Air issue. As for carbon soot emissions, EU is miles behind the rest of the developed world, as all the soot removing, sandblasting, scaffolding around your monuments attest. Imagine what that soot does to EU citizen's lungs, while EU governments continually support more such soot producing Diesels, without mandating Diesel cleanup as North America did with their ICEs. It would not be entirely amiss to assert that Diesels are now as clean as they are, which is not very, merely due to emission compliance access to North American markets. I welcome the EU's junior, entry-level, steps to genuine toxic emissions regulation. Someday the EU regulations will enter the 21st century, even. Maybe with hypothetical EU IX and EU X, regulations perhaps by 2050, or so. But in America the distinction between EV and ICE emissions end in 2017 Air Quality regulations. Then wide spread EV adoption will have to wait for equivalent technology for range and price, to be developed. I even agree with your somwhat wishful schedule to which I would add a half decade or more.
But the new regulations will soon require no difference in toxic emissions between EVs and ICEs vehicles. So we are no longer poisoning the atmosphere either way, and ICEs are more affordable right now. With a generational improvement in batteries in both range and cost, THAT will likely be the true dawn of the EV. Bureaucratic dweebs, enforcing objectives from 45 years ago, that don't apply anymore, do not make a sustainable market, nor create true progress. Most of the sweetners that the bureaucrats dreamed up, are about gone. Subsidies are expiring, and access to special road lanes are about played out. There is only the threat of the whip. But the will or political backing to use it is also expiring. CARB has backed down every time it threatened to do so in the past, and it gets easier to challenge every day. Even the false prophets of 18th century "Mass Transit" are coming to an end. It makes little sense to travel many miles out of the way in heavy multi-ton vehicles, which achieve abominal fuel economy, merely to get from close to where you are, to [hopefully] close to where you are going. It sort of made sense for hub & spoke where that was the destination,most of the time. Increasingly, both start and endpoint are crosstown, far from hubs, and not the way Mass Transit routes have been built or is arranged.
You still worship the EV as some kind of God, an an end in itself. In reality, the need is for non-polluting vehicles. Inadvertantly, CARB is forcing that very thing. The automakers discovered that their cleanup technology for the ICE was so good, that they could extend it a bit, at only marginal cost increases. They could offer vehicles that produced no more genuine toxic emissions than an EV. But without the obvious and grievous limitations of current technology EVs. Those limitations are primitive batteries, limited range, affordability, and resale depreciation based on battery replacement cost fear. They offered this technology in trade for some reasonableness in schedule and fuel economy. As usual CARB double crossed them; and demanded the technology, stiffened its unreasonable schedules, and tightened regulations adding limitations on CO2 output. In this instance, I fully support the CARB regulations. But only the tightened toxic emissions regs ,which the Federal EPA is following too. But it thoroughly undercuts the EV in its present primitive under-developed state. If an ICE is as emissions free as an EV, at half the cost, and without the range limitations, or cratered resale values, who will choose these primitive offerings, except zealots, who have lost sight of the true objective. The entire purpose of the EPA and CARB are over. EPA Air compliance has been met in all but a half dozen or so of the some 2500 counties in America. It will improve further with the tightened toxic emissions regs. Even now we could simply declare Victory for Clean Air and Water. Mission Accomplished. The need to prepare for "Peak Oil", has receded into a concern a Millenia in the future if then. Vast new Oil finds virtually throughout the World has completely undermined that concern, as well as the political concern of Oil Blackmail by Mid-East potentates whose beliefs are inimical to America. The CAGW concern is desolving into a farce. Instead of possible 6 degree warming from a doubling of trace gas CO2, it is turning out to be a trivial and harmless quarter to a third of a single degree, of possible warming, if that. In any case scientific research has discovered that North America has been found to be a CO2 sink, bio-sequestering every gram of human and non-human i.e. "natural" CO2 emissions. We even bio-sequester all that we receive on the prevailing winds from Eurasia. The Eurasians may have a problem, but our Job is more than finished. Our Bio-sequester is Greening America; and the the rising CO2 trace gas levels is Greening the World, a genuine improvement. Meanwhile the increased output of our farmlands and forests are feeding the world. The USA is the World's largest hydrocarbon producer again, a position lost in the late '60s, which precipitated the OPEC power grab and pricing extortion. America controlled and stabilized prices then, and is doing so again. What Oil we import comes from NAFTA, almost exclusively. So the Mid-East Oil Blackmail threat has evaporated. Why did we mandate improved Fuel Economy? We wanted to extend, but not prevent, the Day before the Peakist fearful pronouncement, that the Oil has run out. But that Fear is as long gone as the latest "Peakist" fear-mongering pronouncements.
The way the Oil situation has developed where Oil & Gas is being discovered and produced around the World both adding centuries of reserves and now increasingly being produced from depths where dinosaurs never roamed. The Abiotic Theory as a source of Oil is being proved more and more,every day, and with it planetary reserves of far greater magnitudes. So hydrocarbons are suddenly not in any danger of becoming scarce, in the next several centuries. The rapid way the over-exagerated Hoax of CAGW is collapsing, we will soon be able to return to chasing after and cleaning up real, genuine toxic emissions. I fully support making ICE autos as emissions free as EVs, the automakers have advocated and EPA is tightening regulations to do. The tiny 3-4% that Mankind adds of CO2 is wonderful plant food, needed to feed our forests and agricultural harvests, which have been starved of enough of it for eons, since they evolved. NAFTAites already bio-sequestrate every gram of Mankind originated CO2, as well as the vast majority of CO2 that Nature annually produces. Our forests and croplands cry out for more. Lets continue to Green the PLanet, as we have been doing. Already the average American new car buyer needs to be in his fifties, with a lifetime of savings, before that average buyer can afford to purchase a new auto. All the auto makers know and fear the results, as mandated technologies drive up the price of autos. Lengthening auto loans have been extended to 8-10 years, and can't go out any longer; and spending home equity on car purchases, collapsed in the real estate bust of the Great Recession. Hopefully by 2017-18 or so, we can relax this mad crash program to produce ever more expensive transport, that the population increasingly cannot afford to purchase. We can resume an orderly advance in technological solutions, as the technologies mature and not produce these unsaleable technological Tour de Force demonstration vehicles, that are madly premature and under-developed.
I do not trust politicians one bit. Changing what are really Figure of Merit measures of fuel economy to another scheme, is bureacratic makework. It indirectly amounts to a major tax increase WITHOUT having to vote for a Tax increase, so it is certain to happen. Why is "pollution" only CO2? Europe even with the new EU VI standards, still allows substantial genuine toxic pollutants, much more then in America. Which by the way is preparing to tighten to make an ICE powered car indistinguishable from an EV, in genuine toxic emissions. Europe is merely matching US standards of the 1980s, which have been tightened once more since then, with another tightening following soon. North America already bio-sequesters every gram of anthropomorphic CO2 that it "creates" and the some more besides. Europe, for one who travels there fairly commonly, literally reeks of diesel stink. It is no wonder your monuments are covered in scaffolding, as they try to remove the diesel soot from building surfaces. Imagine what it is doing to your citizen's lungs. Clean up your act, rather then spending time changing meaningless Figure of Merit measures of fuel economy, as an excuse to raise taxes without having to vote for doing so.
Highly paid makework.
They moved the goalposts in 2008, to preserve and justify their jobs. Now they want to move the goalposts once again. I expect for the same reason. I did not see piles of bodies from before the 2008 tightening, due to Ozone poisoning; and don't see any now, before this tightening. Why not just Declare Victory. Use the resources to address some other concern more needful of attention.
Now we will be able to calculate wrong model programs even faster. In other words GIGO faster.
We were searching for a name which people will remember to call our new miracle coating. So we selected a new unused name. We call it 'Paint'. /sarc on
Typical UCS left wing Bovine Pasture Patties. Measure companies ignoring the breadth of product lines. Then award credit to those companies that only produce a limited model line of light cars and no trucks. I don't know whether it is a conscious desire to misinform and deceive, or the simple fact that the UCS has no one left you can use scientific principles at all, to distinguish and compare only appropriate cases of apples and oranges. I suspect that the PR flacks and lefty lawyers left there are only able to prepare pre-determined studies which satisfy the constituencies that pay them. In other words this 'study' isn't worth the paper on which it is printed.
I think that Dr. Frank Davis at UC Davis was/is a genius and only recently recognized. He is worth more than a million blowhards like Al Gore or Ed Markey or the heads of UCS or WWF. PHEV technology provides an answer to a question no longer is needing to be asked. That is: 'How could you maintain our civilizations Transportation network if Petroleum actually ran out?' Of course it isn't, and likely never will. Dr. Davis showed that a fleet of Volts could be supplied with all the liquid fuel needed by simply making it from food in no larger quantities than we presently divert to that end, even if it is a government subsidized boondoggle of enormous proportions, supported by legalized thievery and extortion of funds from the taxpaying citizenry. All forms of PHEVs are appealing to me, because they could be more efficient than our still crude ground conveyances. But the technology is still premature, redundant, and enforced by mandate before its proper time. So I welcome all advances and improvements in efficiency from all manor of hybrids from micro through strong. Electrification has its place and may provide much of our transport hub eventually, but never all of it. Portable liquid fuels provide compact energy in quantity and will be needed in mobile Tranportation for a very long time.
I really liked the Bob Lee presentation. My previous comments reflect that. But overlooked completely was Mr. Lees comments about the evolving merger of Spark Ignited and Compresiion Ignited ICEs, along with his commentary on the new FCA small ICEs. Diesels are crude in their combustion and produce voluminous particle emissions. As we move ever closer to desireable truly clean ICEs, matching the emissions of BEVs, it will be necessary for them to get much more refined and start adopting technologies from the Spark Ignition world. Our Air is now clean, without it, but cleaner is better, as it implies greater efficiency. A typical "lightweight Diesel" weighs around 500-600 pounds while larger ones in small trucks like the Cummins in RAM pickups, can routinely weigh more than half a ton. The only reason they are so heavy is that CI engines can't control knock and must be crudely 'beefier' to survive. If Mr. Lee is hinting that, what VW has dubed "DiesOtto" operation, is really drawing closer, I look forward to such engines weighing slightly more than ICE gas engines at 150-360 pounds taking almost a quarter ton or more out of a vehicles weight while obtaining the fuel economy of a diesel, augmented even more by the weight reduction. I know GM had streetable test models of HCCI engines several years ago, that the press were invited to drive. Likely this is the avenue to reach the no-longer-necessary extreme fuel economy targets, while still producing mass market viable priced vehicles. Today America consumes no more oil than it did in 1985 when the population was one third the size. With this technology we can approach 1940s levels of fuel consumption. Oil is not running out, and the supposed danger of CAGW was massively overblown. We have no real Energy problems; it will not be solved with half-baked ideas for renewables. Clean and in-exhaustible Energy in unlimited quantities, is in the offing before the first third of this Century is reached. There are multiple avenues to achieve this, but ultimately I think controlled 2HE3-based Fusion generators will answer the need by mid-century. We will have commercial DT fusion in less than 20 years. But if not, quite as soon as I think, Fission could safely serve for the interim. I have worked in this field and am convinced the time is about to arrive. PS: I am an Engineer, but have never worked in automotive industries directly. I do observe the scene though, and can detect political BS, and like Engineer-Poet, see the false concern for watermelon green, pseudo-Science distorting all the worlds technical investment.
You act as if GW was an imminent problem. Even without any serious attempt at control in East Asia there has Been... NO GLOBAL WARMING in 17 YEARS & 5MONTHS !!!!! per the satellite record. Where is the emergency that you speak of? N. A. GHG emissions are back to the levels that James Hansen warned might be dangerous exceeding in 1988, and still falling. Genuine toxic emissions are falling and the Air is clearing. You have been absorbing your own propaganda to yourselves for far too long. The World will electrify when the technology is ready, and economical. There simply no crash effort needed, nor will any be employed. Meanwhile Fission get safer, and Fusion draws ever nearer to commercial use, in the next few decades. Meanwhile vast new reserves of abiotic hydrocarbons are being found and developed, sufficient for millenia.
This all goes to show that the CAGW scare program is all but over. Hansen's 1988 call to action is and was baloney. The continued stasis in temperatures for over 17 years, confirm that the human 2-4% of CO2 emissions make little or no difference when natural CO2 emissions represent some 96-08% of CO2 emissions, and this natural level varies and the delta often exceeds by 5-10 times the entire human emissions. This harmless and very useful plant food gas is greening the planet by some 17% as the NASA satellites report. More impressive still is the genuine cleanup of genuine harmful toxic emissions. That effort which fully merited the effort expended, is just about finished with only a few counties of the 2500 or so across the USA to mop up and bring to EPA Air Quality compliance like all the others. Now the particle emissions like PM 10 and PM2.5 seem to be the subject sought by the EPA warriors seeking to justify their high paid sinecures. But deserts and dust associated with them have been with us for as long as Man has existed. There is little or no early morbidity associated with populations dwelling there, so the PM 2.5 scare is a farce soon to fail.
CARB like any bureaucracy, exists only to see that it CONTINUES to exist,and provide sinecures for its non-elected, well paid aristocracy. Chartered to clear California's polluted air, it now serves only one of two states that continues to suffer from air pollution, by the continually tightening measurements of EPA Air Quality. CARB has imposed manufacturing requirements that automakers waste billions to provide as a handful of manufactured products. Monies that could much better be spent elsewhere to accomplish more cleansing. It still has mandates for FCEVs that will cost hundreds of thousands per copy, and require an infrastructure for $ billions more, and are never going to replace working alternatives. Why do we still have two organizations, CARB and EPA, duplicating each others work? One has cleansed 48 states missing only in a couple of counties in Texas. CARB has failed in its one state. It is long past time to pension them off, and close CARB down.
All he auto amkers are improving the ICE engien. There si nohting new here. BMW hand others ahve had varaible vlave lifing for a long time, FCA's MultiAir duplicates all of thsi except for the higher compression operation. Most new designs have cooled EGR too. I await the introduction of HCCI operation that will raise the ICE efficiency to its theoretical maximum. Many of the advanced engine offerings by all the auto makers are getting awfully close tot having all the pre requiste changes and modifications needed to accomplish that HCCI operation. That semi-diesel operation, will afford the diesel's fuel economy along with the substantially reduced weight and improved cleanliness of the Otto cycle engines. The auto makers know how to provide an ICE with a ZEV toxic emission profile matching an EVs emissions, and 25% of California's cars meet it today. The auto makers even suggested it to the regulators, in lieu of unnecessary and IMO stupid CO2 emissions requirements. Only to be double-crossed and to end up with both requirements. No one knows how to modify a diesel for SULEV II cleanliness, even in the lab, never mind the street. However HCCI or a derivative, offers the best of both worlds.
Genuine progress is slow, steady and cumulative. Meanwhile many here think we have accomplished nothing, and the USA s full of polluting gas guzzling dinosaurs.
Here we have a consultant's study the unsurprisingly finds that the ideas proposed by the HH Baker funding source, are perfect. Quelle Surpris !
THe ZEV LEV II Regulations slated to go into effect are fine but duplicative of the EPA's T2B2 tightening. CARB has not succeeeded, yet. If it went out of business tommorow the Air would continue to get cleaner, as older more polluting cars are replaced. You seem to be an EV proponent, as am I, but only when EV technology is ready economically as well. In any case, the ICE actually will do a better job of cleanup under the ZEV mandate (LEV III) for all, as they actually clean the Air as they operate, while EVs do not.
Once again the Politicians have no perspective. I fail to see what all the urgency is. Why must this be pursued on a Crash basis? The USA uses less fuel than it did in he 1990s; and emits less CO2 as well. In Fact the USA has met the targets for Kyoto and even reached the targets for Dr. Hansen's Cassandra warnings, thus accomplishing all the CAGW Cassandras wished. Simply Declare Victory and Quit. It's not like Oil is in any danger of running out. The Peakist nonsense is dead. The abiotic origins of hydrocarbons is becoming the current favored theory among geologists, which also answers the question of why other planets have such huge supplies of hydrocarbons. It also indicates that hydrocarbons are potentially much more common than thought, when the only source was thought to be fossil life.
Roger, I think you have specified the best range extender in the Fiat TwinAir 2 cylinder sub 1.0 liter engine.