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David Becker
Washington, DC
APA Style Expert and Development Editor in APA Books
Interests: psychology, writing, music, drums, mandolin, martial arts, wisecracking, serial commas
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You do not need to use the phrase "According to..." when integrating a text citation into the narrative flow of your sentence. There are many valid ways of doing this. Several examples can be found in the sixth edition of Publication Manual, particularly in the first two sample papers on pages 41–56 (these can also be accessed online via our "Best of the Blog" post) and in Chapter 6's review of direct quotations and text citations on pages 170–179. Multiple examples can also be found in other APA Style Blog posts. I especially recommend reading our posts about creating text citations, citing direct quotations, and citing the same source multiples times within a single paragraph.
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Hello, APA Style does not include the name of the publisher when citing a periodical. The "Author" rule you mention applies to nonperiodicals, which includes books and reports (see the heading at the bottom of the previous page in the Publication Manual). For a periodical, you would cite the title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper. However, the BBC's website would not be considered a periodical, so you would not name the BBC in your reference, just as I did not name WJLA in my first reference in the above blog post. When the author of a news article is not specified in a byline, the title of the article is typically moved to the author position. With this in mind, your second reference would be most accurate. However, it would need a few tweaks to better fit APA Style guidelines. Here is how I would cite the article you linked to: Ex-national security adviser 'lied' on security clearance. (2017, May 23). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-40004300
Toggle Commented May 23, 2017 on How to Cite a News Report at APA Style Blog
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Hello Rose, Because you are adapting the contents of a single source (i.e., a psychological test) into a table or figure with permission, it seems best to cite that source in a credit line at the end of a table note or a caption to properly acknowledge that you have obtained permission to adapt. You can find templates for creating credit lines in this other APA Style Blog post. None of the examples from that post show how to cite a psychological test in particular, but you can simply adapt the guidelines from this other post to create a proper credit line.
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Dear Elaine, The time should be indicated using both hours and minutes. Thus, you would write 8:00 a.m.
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Hello, APA Style does not require you to include a list of tables and figures in your paper. APA Style was designed with draft journal articles in mind, which typically don't contain tables of contents. However, if you are writing in another context that requires you to create a list of tables and figures, we encourage you to adapt existing APA Style guidelines to meet your needs. We also encourage you to check with your dissertation advisor, professor, publisher, or other relevant individual to see if he or she has any particular standards you should be following.
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You bring up excellent points, Emily. Determining the authenticity of a YouTube account can be difficult. Although, YouTube has made this somewhat easier by adding verification check marks next to some usernames to confirm their authenticity, much like Twitter and Facebook have done. As I mention at the end of my post, writers should use caution when determining whether or not a YouTube comment is an appropriate source to cite, depending on the topic of their paper. Although, if more and more researchers, scholarly organizations, and other reputable sources turn to social media to share their findings—which as you point out is a growing trend—and they begin conversing with one another via comment threads, I wonder if universities might start being less strict regarding online resources.
Toggle Commented Mar 23, 2017 on How to Cite a YouTube Comment at APA Style Blog
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Thanks for your question, Jani! Unfortunately, there is too much variability out there in the wilds of the Internet to develop a hard-and-fast rule that covers all web-based sources. A lot of online content is actually static and unchanging (e.g., news articles and blog posts), so citing a retrieval date in those situations wouldn't really add much value. Even WebMD features a fair amount of static content along those lines. Thus, whether or not to cite a retrieval date is a gray area that's largely left up to the writer's own judgment, depending on the context.
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Hello Charlotte, The exception in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual only lists days, months, and years, but these are only examples of a broader rule. All estimated units of time—including minutes and seconds—are expressed in words. Thus, you would write "about five minutes." Having said that, I would like to reiterate the point from my post that it's best to be precise whenever possible. Writing "3.11 seconds" would be preferable than writing "about three seconds," for example.
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Hello Kristina, The Publication Manual does not directly address the issue of capitalizing pronouns when referring to God or any other deity or religious figure. However, APA Style advises that writers maintain original spellings in a direct quotation to avoid misrepresenting the original author's intent (see Section 6.06, p. 172 in the Publication Manual). So, it would be appropriate to capitalize "He" when quoting a source that does so. Outside of this context, we generally recommend that writers consult The Chicago Manual of Style regarding matters of style not addressed in the Publication Manual. Chicago Style advises writers to use lowercase pronouns unless they are writing for a field, such as religious studies, in which capitalizing a pronoun that references God or another religious figure is an accepted and common practice. Thus, it may be appropriate to capitalize such pronouns, depending on your audience. But, if there is no known standard to follow, I recommend using lowercase pronouns.
Toggle Commented Oct 7, 2016 on How to Cite a YouTube Comment at APA Style Blog
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By David Becker When researching a topic for your paper or manuscript, you may come across a few relevant YouTube videos—perhaps a TED Talk or two—that you would like to cite. Being the intrepid explorer of the Internet that you... Continue reading
Posted Sep 21, 2016 at APA Style Blog
Hello, The term "24/7" could be considered a colloquial expression. Page 68 of the Publication Manual recommends against using such expressions because their informality can diffuse their meaning. I would recommend instead writing "24 hours a day, 7 days a week" or some other variant that expresses the same meaning.
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By David Becker Dear Style Experts, I am creating a table that presents information from multiple sources, and I can't figure out how to cite these sources within the table. What should I do? —Vera K. Dear Vera, How you... Continue reading
Posted Jun 22, 2016 at APA Style Blog
If both the introduction author and the foreword author are given credit on the cover of an authored book and neither of them are one the book's primary authors, cite them both in your reference as part of a parenthetical "with" statement. Their names should be cited in the order in which they appear on the cover. Using the sample "with" statement from the post above, here's how you might do that: (with Todd, C., & Mohr, T. P.) If the introduction author or the foreword author—or both—are not mentioned on the book's cover, do not include them in your reference. Whether these authors are cited in your reference or not, they should not be included as part of your author–date text citation. You can, however, identify them in your narrative, as illustrated in the post above.
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According to page 96 in the Publication Manual, APA Style users should refer to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary to answer spelling questions and when determining which of multiple possible spellings is correct. Psychological terms, such as tests and disorders, can be looked up in the APA Dictionary of Psychology. Both dictionaries use the possessive form when spelling Alzheimer's disease, so that is the correct way to spell it in APA Style.
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Thank you for your question! As explained on pages 171–172 in the Publication Manual, paragraph numbers are only cited when no page numbers are available. The article you are citing does have a page number, so that's what you would use when quoting that source: (Ito, 2016, p. AR13).
Toggle Commented Mar 29, 2016 on How to Cite a News Report at APA Style Blog
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By David Becker Dear APA Style Experts, I want to cite a chapter from Theoretical Basis for Nursing, 4th Edition, which is an authored textbook. However, the author of this chapter is not one of the authors listed on the... Continue reading
Posted Mar 21, 2016 at APA Style Blog
Thank you for the question, Chris! The Publication Manual does not stipulate any exceptions for acronyms that end with S. Therefore, the plural of OS would be OSs. Including an apostrophe would indicate the possessive form. If you are worried about OSs being potentially confusing for readers, then you might consider spelling out operating systems in full.
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That's a great question! My recommendation would be to cite this source as a webpage because it's technically not from a newspaper or a blog.
Toggle Commented Feb 8, 2016 on How to Cite a News Report at APA Style Blog
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Although the Publication Manual does not specify whether or how use a number symbol when protecting the anonymity of interviewees or research participants, there are no other instances where this symbol is used before a number. For instance, on page 112 you will see a few examples written as "Grade 8," "Table 3," and "row 5" rather than "Grade #8," "Table #3," and "row #5." In these cases, the number symbol is not needed for clarity—it's superfluous (see also the "Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters" section on page 103). The same would apply when anonymously referring to interviewees. It's also worth noting that there is an sample sentence in the second post I linked to above that says "Case 24" rather than "Case #24." Keep in mind that research participants and interviewees can be identified by letters rather than numbers. Thus, you could potentially avoid the number symbol issue altogether by referring to "Nurse A," "Nurse B," etc. If you do use number symbols, don't insert a space between the symbol and the numeral. Doing so might confuse readers.
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Thank you for the great question! APA Style generally does not include information about the location of a publisher when citing periodicals, including newspapers and magazines. Even when citing a book, you don't need to identify the publisher location if your reference list entry includes a DOI or a URL—linking directly to the source supplants the need for this information about where the source was published. With that in mind, I would use the first of your two sample references. (Don't forget to italicize Daily Press!)
Toggle Commented Jan 29, 2016 on How to Cite a News Report at APA Style Blog
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Thank you for your question, Steve! Section 4.29 (pp. 110–111) in the Publication Manual does not identify author-created abbreviations or those that end with an S as exceptions to the pluralization rule. Thus, the plural of PRS would be PRSs.
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By David Becker It’s Thanksgiving, that time of year when you can thank your friends, family, and all the other important people in your life by bringing them together for a massive, fun-filled feast. If you’re a researcher about to... Continue reading
Posted Nov 25, 2015 at APA Style Blog
If your student is citing a webpage that is no longer active, she can no longer provide a reliable path to that source. Therefore, the best course of action would be to search for a retrievable source that provides the same or similar information and cite that. If no alternative source exists, then there is no reliable path to the information she obtained. Therefore, she should cite the non-existent webpage as a personal communication in text and not include it in the reference list.
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Hello Jennifer, Because you are citing a video that is available in streaming format, I recommend citing it is as such and linking directly to the video itself. For simplicity's sake, you may want to cite it as a YouTube video instead of citing the UNC webpage in which the YouTube video is embedded. Here's how that reference would look: uncpublichealth. (2012, June 13). 18th national health equity research webcast (2012) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Itcg1JcwKe0 If you need to quote directly from the video, you can include timestamps in your in-text citations as needed.
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If the link to a particular webpage is no longer working, then I recommend citing the website's home page in the "Retrieved from" portion at the end of your reference. If that webpage simply does not exist anymore, you may want to see if you can find the same information from a different source. Or, because a reliable path to the webpage no longer exists, you could cite it as a personal communication.
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