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For proportion: 1 kg H2 has the energy of about 1 gallon gasoline. The USA burns about 370 million gallons of gasoline PER DAY.
You heat the battery up to 60°C before charging it, that's what happens.
6.5 times the current capacity at 60°C vs. room temp. Chalk up another win for integrally-heated cells. At 2 Ah/cm³ of anode, those layers must be awfully thin to charge with just 18 mAh/cm² (6 mA/cm² * 3 hours). Unless I've dropped a decimal point the active thickness would be about 90 μm thick.
Well, there goes the oil-change business. Most people will just buy the proper cell and swap it out themselves.
Ah, software: making stuff better than when it was brand-new.
This talk about "cost and complexity" makes me laugh. Anyplace you have a power pole adjacent to parking, you can add a new pole pig for a few hundred dollars and set up a charger. Anywhere a power line goes next to or across parking, you can install a new pole. A quick web search turns up a claim that a temporary overhead power line costs about $1200 to install. One pole pig is generally sufficient to provide 2 households with 240 V 200 amp service, which is enough to supply 240 V 30 A charging to 13 stations simultaneously (twice that many if the total power is shared between 2 vehicles per tap). $100 per station qualifies as downright cheap.
Low volumetric efficiency would not be an issue if the H2/CO mixture was used mostly for operation at low load. Straight MeOH would still be available for high-load operation, with the gas mixture possibly used as a flame-speed modifier. The added flexibility might be an advantage, though the use of three separate fuel systems would definitely add cost and complexity.
Even if you're doing 50 miles a day, if you're doing it in increments of no more than 15 miles and you can get 10 miles of charge at each stop you can still electrify at least 2/3 of your driving. This should be pretty easy for most driving other than taxicabs and delivery vehicles.
Net producers of hydrogen, Peter? Do you have a source for this? I am very skeptical, given the hydrogen required to turn today's heavy crudes into light products like gasoline. If gasoline production was a net producer of hydrogen there wouldn't be any great reason to move refining to places where natural gas (hydrogen) is cheap, but that is exactly what we see.
It would be interesting to add H2/CO mixtures to this analysis. The flame speed of H2 is extremely high (leading to early combustion and greater thermal efficiency) and MeOH is easily cracked to H2 and CO using heat and a catalyst. Using DME for pilot ignition with a dilute fuel mixture of H2 and CO might be better than MeOH/DME in a bunch of ways.
This is why we need to go PHEV right NOW. 76.7% of all trips are 10 miles or less. Electrify this mileage and you eliminate the fuel consumption, the cold-start emissions, and almost every other environmental impact of vehicular travel.
SOEC has the advantage that the waste heat from the electrolysis step is at a high enough temperature to help drive gasification and the reverse water gas shift. Presumably the energetics would be much worse without this.
Looking more closely at the numbers, this scheme requires about 44 kWh per gallon of product. That is roughly what it takes to produce one GGe of hydrogen (1 kg), and the hydrogen can be used much more efficiently. As electricity it can be used far more efficiently still. 43.9 kWh will send a Tesla Model S 115 miles, or a Chevy Bolt 188 miles. One gallon of synthetic gasoline will drive a Prius some 50 miles or so. Note that this is WITH the assistance of the embodied energy of the biomass! Any practical scheme has to do MUCH better than this.
About time someone got a clue about this. Fixed carbon has always been the limiting factor in biofuels production; any process which wastes it as CO2 is throwing away the most precious part of the feedstock. But at $6.40/gallon production cost, I don't think this scheme is going anywhere.
The importance of this is hard to over-emphasize. Compact, low pressure drop, high-efficiency heat exchangers would enable things like the widespread use of regenerative gas turbines, not to mention massive energy savings in a great many industrial processes. A regenerative gas turbine aircraft engine might not be too much to hope for. Thermal efficiencies of simple-cycle machines might top 60%.
Greenie freakout over Frankenyeast in 3... 2... 1...
I suspect that this article was too long for the short attention spans of our chattier commenters. That, and terms like "sodium lignosulfonate", probably caused eyes to glaze over early on. On my end, we get so much news about breakthrough batteries that my attitude has become "tell me when they start shipping samples". And yes, of COURSE really promising research is being done in private. No sense in letting your competitors know what you're up to and steal a march on you.
Not exactly illuminating. Central A/C burns a LOT of electricity. Couching things in such terms is a tactic designed to evade and conceal the facts, not illuminate, explain and enlighten. If the Bolt consumes 233 Wh/mile, 50 miles requires 11.65 kWh. That's close to my house's entire daily electric consumption. So, to get the impact of widespread conversion to EVs, take the domestic electric use of the average California house and add that amount again to the total. That's a pretty big number. You aren't going to meet it with renewables.
Meanwhile, California is forcing out all but a few tiny scraps of its emissions-free base load generation and expecting to handle all this new EV demand with a combination of imports, unreliables and natural gas. The latter two make the state highly vulnerable to problems with the connections, and the increased use of natural gas means higher carbon emissions. Something I didn't know until just recently is that the Enron-connected California power crisis of 2000-01 was due in no small part to a gas pipeline explosion out of state which reduced the California NG supply by about 30% for roughly 6 months. This bodes VERY poorly for the US Northeast, which is going down the road to near-total NG dependency also.
Ammonia is at least something you can easily detect with your nose before it becomes hazardous. Hydrogen is both odorless and explosive, both chemically and at even 350 bar just plain physically. Today's PEMFC vehicles store their fuel at 700 bar. A source I stumbled on said that H2 gas at room temperature reaches the density of LH2 at 800 bar pressure. LH2 has a density of just 0.07; saturated ammonia liquid at room temperature has a hydrogen density of 0.107, more than 50% greater. The sodium amide process for separating hydrogen from NH3 has been public knowledge for some time. Why is ANYONE still pushing high-pressure H2 gas?
Harvey, ammonia is NH3. Nitrogen is 78% of the atmosphere. It creates no pollution whatsoever. Not long ago we had a news item about an electric natural gas reformer, purifier and hydrogen compressor. The same thing would work here, just crack the ammonia and pump the hydrogen out. You could keep a small medium-pressure H2 tank to start the vehicle and pre-heat the reformer and refill it while in operation. Remember, liquid ammonia at room temperature has a density of .609, which is 107 grams of hydrogen per liter. You can't get close to that with H2 gas.
Oh, those idiots:CSIRO researchers found a way to turn Australian-made hydrogen into ammonia, meaning it could be shipped safely to the mass market of Asia. It is converted back into hydrogen using their membrane, then pumped into hydrogen-powered cars.They're using the same damn high-pressure gas on the car, when the whole point of using ammonia is to get rid of those HP tanks! You put the reformer in the car! I swear, people can't see solutions even when they're right in front of their faces.
Yeah, going from gaseous H2 to NH3 is a big advance.
Oh, look, an off-grid system put right in the middle of the grid. What are the users supposed to do if the day is cloudy, or several days? Not charge vehicles? Not do the essential driving for their jobs? Having reserve to keep the pack charged means excess generating capacity, which goes wasted. So much battery capacity would be perfect for levelling the "duck curve", but without a grid connection there's no way to use it for that. This scheme reeks of pointless virtue-signalling and wasted potential.
I have actually watched a Triple Crown train pass by. I would wish there to be many, many more of them.