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Ruthenium is also one of the catalysts in the one-pot cellulose-to-hexane process. Long ruthenium?
The Antelope Valley has quite a bit of sun. The BYD can only charge off-line, typically at night when solar power is not available. Something like the Busbaar system, with buffering such as flywheels, would be able get solar power to an electric bus in near-real time and requiring a much smaller battery.
Hydrothermal processes are not pyrolysis. The temperatures in this process are not even sufficient for torrefaction (250-275°C), let alone pyrolysis. The nomenclature issue aside, if the catalysts are recycled easily/cheaply enough to make this work, there's a lot of feedstock out there just waiting to be turned into fuels or chemicals. A biomass-based source of polymers and such allows the products to actually sequester carbon. Imagine landfills as climate protection schemes!
by 2017 Tesla will have superchargers everywhere in the world. What will GM, VW and Nissan have to support their long-range BEVs? Tesla opened the patents on their charging systems and protocols. GM, VW and Nissan have no barriers to building vehicles that can also use the Supercharger network.
Oh, sure, you can do it... but how much does it cost, and what sort of losses are there? When does it make sense to use a Busbaar instead?
OT, but Bobby... much of what you think you know is actually lies.
The proper way to measure heat output isn't with non-contact thermometry. It's with calorimeters. You capture the heat in a fluid and measure the ΔT for a known dM/dt. Also, you don't maintain electric power to control device temperature. If it's generating heat, you insulate it to reduce the heat loss to the level which holds the correct temperature. That allows the power to be disconnected... and also prevents tricks like measuring power via a differential-mode meter while adding extra power via a common-mode voltage. Those criticisms have been made before. Since the experimental technique was not changed to address them, it can be assumed that this is a trick.
No, just pointing out where you got too deep in the ridiculosity.
What's the cost of DOUBLING the raw feedstock consumption for the same energy delivery at the wheels? As I said, I can see GTL for stranded gas. But for powering cars and trucks, piped-in gas (either compressed or liquefied) is far cheaper and vastly more efficient, both in $/gge and in carbon emissions per GJ delivered.
The US Navy could turn this into a profit center, renting out the swarm boats to protect shipping from pirates.
Since carbohydrate is only 40% carbon by mass [(CH2O)n] if you could get 1000 lb of biochar out of a ton you'd get almost nothing else with carbon in it.
Converting natural gas to any other molecule is wasteful and unwelcome? Have you looked at the chemical efficiency of GTL processes? The higher numbers appear to be around 50%. The carbon efficiency can be 80%, but even if the process carbon is sequestered you are still emitting 80% of the carbon at the tailpipe to get just 50% of the energy. When you have engines that can burn natural gas directly with only minor penalties for compression or liquefaction, GTL with non-stranded gas is an environmental crime.
This article begs the question of where the process energy comes from. The PDF at the link states that the process is carbon-negative, but no mass, carbon or energy balances are given. A 10x reduction in capex is good. A product with a strongly positive EROEI that's profitable without subsidies is better.
There would have to be a lot of other feedstock, yup. This comes back to thermal efficiency. Methanol or M85 can be burned in much higher-compression engines than conventional gasoline, with much higher specific power (thus smaller size and lower losses). Converting methanol to gasoline should be regarded as going backwards. For that matter, with the Westport/Delphi injector system, converting natural gas to any other molecule should be regarded as wasteful and unwelcome.
Let's see... 1.75 million tons MeOH @ 22.7 MJ/kg HHV = 3.97e16 J 8 million bbl gasoline @ 42 gal/bbl @ 3.7854 l/gal @ ρ=0.751 = 955,000 tons gasoline. 955,000 tons gasoline @ 43.7 MJ/kg = 4.18e16 J Something doesn't add up here.
We don't need molten-salt breeders any time soon. Terrestrial Energy (Dr. David LeBlanc) and his team noted that trying to certify a brand-new fuel and deal with the proliferation issues of a breeder made it far too costly for a first product. They're aiming at the rough range of 30-300 MW(th) and trying to undercut FFs for process heat by making the unit cheap, rugged and foolproof. If we're lucky, we'll be getting our MSRs from Canada. If we're unlucky, we'll be getting them from China.
Must agree with Roger. Unless the refrigerant is something cheap and environmentally harmless in the quantities required (like isobutane or CO2), leakage past seals is probably a bigger deal than a bit of energy savings. Just getting rid of the need for regular service will be a big advantage that this scheme foregoes.
A serious W to W study should at least consider home generation of electricity. You know, CHP. T2, some of us considered this years ago, at length. My own analysis touched on the use of CHP as a buffer for unreliable sources such as wind. All contributions count, the megascale as well as the micro-scale. They add to the totals (plural). What matters is which contributions can get the GHG contributions heading toward 350 ppm fast enough to make a difference.
I drove a Passat TDI for 8 years. I averaged about 38 MPG bobtail; I got 28 MPG towing a 4x8 U-Haul trailer, and 24 MPG towing a 5x8. Even when the differential between ULSD and gasoline was at its peak, I still paid less per mile. The cost savings for a pickup (with its higher intrinsic fuel consumption) would be proportionally greater. Oh, there are ways to improve on it yet further; carburete some cheap high-octane fuel, like MeOH, CH4 or propane, into the intake air. But until the standard SI engine gets the same miles-per-dollar as the Ci engine, there's going to be an advantage to CI.
FedGov is already building data-gathering abuses into the V2V and V2I data architecture. Good luck with that one, short of burning it all down. New slogan: "Those who make reasonable accomodations impossible, make extreme responses inevitable." If virtual presence ever gets good enough that people work from home while still being "at" the office well enough to suit managers, the commute could disappear very suddenly. Optical fiber is a lot less energy-intensive than motor vehicles. Then again, the end of distance has been predicted for some time yet failed to appear; don't bet on this until it makes real inroads.
If 5-15% were some sort of ultimate limit, fair enough. It's a limit at which you need to switch over to a dedicated transmission system. That means lots and lost of costs, and you've only been carrying a tiny fraction of your total energy that way to that point. This means also a sudden transition. The UK grid used to run on town gas, which was 50% hydrogenExcept...Town gas was generated in the town. It wasn't shipped cross-country.Town gas was manufactured more or less as needed. It was not stored seasonallyHydrogen is supposed to solve both the space-shifting and time-shifting problems of wind and solar. It's no more suited to that role than town gas. Here is a UK study, 2013, on converting the UK NG grid to hydrogenFrom that report: we identify concerns over the reduced capacity of the system and the much lower linepack storage compared to natural gas. There's also the issue that leak rates through non-metallic distribution piping are high. This may not be a safety hazard, but hydrogen presents some of the same problems for stratospheric chemistry that CFCs do. Not every issue needs to be solved for all time before progress can be made. The problem is that you've got so many issues, including low geographic power density, irregular supply not at all synchronized with demand, issues of storage, issues of shipment, and increased hazards at the point of use. Or you could write a budget to solve the problem with AP1000s or ESBWRs, EVs for the transport side (with any liquid fuel derived from e.g. plasma-gasified garbage and surplus power), heat pumps for space heat (with dehumidifiers against the chronic English complaint of dampness), with all of the pieces available for contract bidding right now. The real kicker? The "revolutionary" renewable system could feed right into the same power grid, though you'd want to make it assume its own transmission and time-shifting costs. You only need hydrogen if you're trying to get rid of nuclear. That's what it's always been about.
Dave... 5-15% by volume is about 2-5% by energy. This scarcely qualifies as a minor contibution.
The problem is that using the carbon twice is nowhere close to sufficient. We'd need to use it at least 5 times, and probably more like 10.
I'd bet that even topping off the batteries of conventional hybrids (Prius, Camry, etc.) whenever they stop for more than a few minutes would yield substantial benefits.
Ship it north and use it as a diluent for Athabasca bitumen. That gets rid of the vapor-pressure problem.