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Pad-mounted outdoor transformers are commonplace in areas with underground distribution wiring. If your rules don't allow them, change the rules because they're silly. The only visible distribution panels in the area where I had buried service were the secondary panels indoors. Even if you were feeding 240 VAC 20 A for each circuit, that is just a regular secondary panel. As for 400-foot wire runs and a plethora of meters... what part of YOU'RE DOING IT WRONG didn't you understand?
Yes, Harvey, I'm sure India will have no trouble building out Ivanpah-class solar-thermal generators at $18,000 per average kilowatt. NO TROUBLE AT ALL!
Ten THOUSAND kVA? You mean, 8 MW at typical power factor? Just HOW many Teslas do intend to fast-charge all at once? The typical PHEV can absorb 240 VAC @ 16 A; call it 4 kW. 4 kW times 150 is 600 kW, or 750 kVA at 0.8 power factor. That is a tenth of what you were talking. A quick look at eBay turns up 100 kVA distribution transformers from $1400-$1700 US. Basically, one per 25 slots will do. Call it $80 per parking slot.
Energy density, cycle life... NOTHING on the actual charge/discharge rate except a vague "very rapidly" (and I dug for it). Rate capability is big for apps like hybrid cars. If you can get 10 C in a 0.9 kWh/kg battery, 20 kg gets you 180 kW of power-handling capability. That is enough to make hybrids highly desirable and probably the default powertrain option going forward.
I doubt very much that building codes have anything to say about heated garages; lots of people have e.g. wood stoves in their pole barns for working during the winter. What I'm saying is that it appears to be very unpopular. I also find it funny that a condo building would have any trouble with adding electrical service. Neither pad-mounted nor pole-mounted transformers are all that expensive, so just throw in a new transformer or three.
Either a pure software fix, or a very small hardware tweak plus software. This is almost exactly what I predicted.
VW is the one we're hearing about; neither Peugot nor Renault sell much in the USA.
Harvey, I keep my eyes peeled for things like heat vents in garages. My last house didn't have one. I currently have an unheated pole barn. None of the attached garages I've seen in this area have had heat vents either (and I'm talking properties worth as much as USD 1 million). People spending money to heat garages is a very rare thing here.
First VW, then Peugot, now Renault. The entire industry had the same technological issues, and it looks like they all hit on more or less the same solution: cheat.
The ocean is chock-full of minerals (e.g. phosphorus and potassium) which must be added to farmland. It would make plenty of sense to capture all of this that can be easily separated and sell it as fertilizer.
Indeed, Henry. There's only one good feedstock for these fuels, and that's non-recyclable waste. On the other hand, I'm curious about your claim; is there any way to convert rice straw to edible products? The first step in this scheme is essentially a fluid thermal cracker (FTC) system. This is amenable to taking heat from a wide variety of sources, including surplus electricity. The molten-tin methane cracker might be a good prospect for post-processing the vapors (after CO2 and water were removed) and converting them to hydrogen and carbon black. Hydrogen has a myriad of uses, including petroleum refining and manufacturing of ammonia. If the FTC and hydrogen-generation systems can be made sufficiently cheap and tolerant of thermal cycling, they could make farming regions independent of fossil fuels. Ammonia is both nitrogen fertilizer and a suitable spark-ignition fuel. You power it all with off-peak electricity from whatever source.
You heat your communal garages... <boggle> I haven't had a heated garage even when mine was attached, but every last one had 120 VAC ready to hand. Even a couple carports I've rented had power run to them, for lights. You Canucks have funny priorities.
You're saying that ordinary Canadians wouldn't jump at the chance to e.g. have block heaters so that their windshields defrost right away after they start their cars?
Trying to convince 150+ internal garage space dedicated users with ICEVs and a few HEVs to support 115/220 VAC legal outlets I didn't say "115/220 VAC", I said "120 VAC 15 A". Since the current 200/400 Amps distribution/breaker panels are located in every apartment ...The bid price (2014) for each complete legal installation runs between $5k CAN and $5.7 CAN. Did the electrical hookups for each apartment cost $5k CAN? If you are getting figures like that, it means you're doing it wrong. A typical distribution panel has around 20 circuit breakers. 150 internal garage spaces with one outlet apiece would require 8. Each one would take 240 VAC with a 200 amp breaker and feed off 20 120 VAC circuits each breakered at 15 amps. You get rid of the silliness of trying to individually meter each one; you charge a flat monthly rate to activate the outlet. A serious effort would wire for 240 VAC 40 A, but I'm talking about doing things on the cheap. There are ways to get clever and allow cheap upgrades later, but that's one way to start that won't break the bank.
Many (most) people living in large Condoniums, not equipped with e-charging facilities, hesitate to buy slow charging PHEVs because they would be driving on gas most of the time @ about 25 to 30 mpg. For some reason, Harvey assumes that it's either impossible or prohibitively expensive to provide a standard 120 VAC 15 A NEMA outlet per space for a condominium parking garage. That's all you need to have a PHEV topped up to full charge every morning. I don't know what's wrong with Harvey. FWIW, my gas-burning leg yesterday achieved about 33 MPG (starting from an engine at sub-freezing temperature) and the rest of my driving burned no fuel at all.
Would that be 20 GW of nameplate capacity, Harvey, or 20 GW of generation (average output)? Average per-capita electric consumption of the United States is about 1.3 kW, so 20 GW of generation would serve approximately 15 million people. The population of the state of New York alone is roughly 20 million. That is ONE US state. Hydro is just too small. The electricity supply of North America, let alone the world, cannot be de-carbonized without nuclear power.
Harvey can get himself a plug-in hybrid so he has heat in the winter. I wussed out tonight and ran my car's engine for the first time in 5 weeks so I could clear the glass that had gotten snow and ice stuck to it. I burned a little over a quart of gas for 22-odd miles. While I only averaged 80-odd MPG for the evening, I don't consider this too bad because it's hardly an every-day thing.
At today's $200/kWh, 16 kWh should be down to $3200; at a near-future $130/kWh, about $2100. I think your biggest limit is going to be the existing charging system, because designing and retrofitting a high-current system for a low-volume vehicle might not have a big enough market to justify the effort.
We just had a post about the 48%-in-5-minutes battery; call it a 6C charging rate. At 6C, it takes a ~60 kWh battery to absorb 350 kW. A Leaf-class battery could take about 150 kW at 6C. If you take a Leaf and stop for 5 minutes after a half-hour of driving, you have a not-totally-impractical vehicle for longer (infrequent) trips; at $200/kWh, it's roughly $5000. The 60 kWh battery (low-end Tesla) is good for about 170 miles, so you'd stop about every 90 minutes and top up in 7-10 minutes. Lots of people stop that often for bathroom breaks. The 60 kWh battery is $12000 at $200/kWh. What do we need hydrogen for again?
maybe secure high temperature solar thermal plants can be built in the Sahara Holding yourselves hostage to Muslim energy monopolists has worked out so well in the past.
Ivanpah barely exceeds 550°C steam temperature, which is very high even by modern standards. You're not going to crack methane with its concentrator systems.
But not even a Norway interconnect is done yet (a Norway gas pipeline is in operation IIRC). If it's that hard to connect Norway with the British isles, the feasibility of connecting Germany with Australia and Chile to provide overnight heat and electricity in winter has to be dismissed as total fantasy... but that is practically what some of these claims amount to. They cannot withstand any degree of scrutiny.
Yes, but you need very clear skies for any of those things to reach your minimum required temperature. Deserts, essentially. And you can't use the Ivanpah cheat of burning natural gas when a cloud rolls by or your CO2 emissions go south very rapidly. Oh, and you need to be able to endure daily thermal cycling... and you have to ship your natural gas TO the desert, then ship the H2 back again. People pushing solar-thermal for this scheme haven't thought it through.
I'm not sure hydroelectric power would do much. It doesn't travel well (otherwise Ireland and the UK would be buying power from Iceland) and neither do hydrogen or methane for that matter. Aluminum works much better as a product for surplus/stranded hydropower. Hmmm, perhaps cracking bio-gas to H2 and using it to make e.g. urea nitrate, then using the urea nitrate as a binder for the carbon as a combined fertilizer and carbon-sequestering soil amendment?