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Thought maybe you would like to see how dirty the so called clean VW diesel engine really is I had much the same carbon deposits in the intake of my 1994 Taurus SHO (port-injected gasoline). TDIs do not have a monopoly on carbon deposits in the EGR system; far from it. lawmakers were told that VW leadership has absolutely no idea what goes on in the workshop and that the dirty deeds were committed only by a couple of unnamed low level German engineers whose identity is protected by German law. What did I tell you? I don't think people are going to want to come in for their recall. Yup.
We can agree that drip irrigation is the answer, or irrigation in general. No, we cannot. Anything which depletes the groundwater leads to subsidence and damage to the aquifer. For all intents and purposes, that water is not a renewable resource; if you consume it, you cannot replace it even if you have the water again because the earth has compacted. Mass agriculture in a desert is a mistake, pure and simple.
Okay, they've got a use for these batteries between the vehicle and the recycler. I'd like to see an analysis of how many there will be compared to the size of the fleet as it expands, and how much of the demand-side issue they'll be able to address. My suspicion is that the ratio of buffer-batteries to vehicle batteries will be small, meaning there will be a market for cheap stationary batteries. If those are cheap enough it may make it pay to recycle the lithium ex-vehicle batteries sooner than physical end of life.
Then they will lower the water table and either concentrate the salts in the soil, or have to move them somewhere else. Mining the aquifer is a dead-end move.
Just because it's too briny/salty for other crops doesn't mean there's enough of it to do very much, and it won't until you breed a crop that can subsist on seawater. Physical quantities matter.
Another great benefit of these natural-gas engines in urban service is that they're much quieter than diesels. I'd like to see a TCO comparison between this engine and the hybrid drivetrain that recently crossed these pages in various types of service.
Nothing on the yield (either biomass or finished fuel) per acre, and most crucially, nothing per acre-foot of water. Growing biofuels in a drought-stricken California is the height of foolishness.
Since the cars are capable of meeting the certification conditions when the software is set for them, it's obvious that the retrofit will be software-only.
I beleive VW will offer to buy back the vehicles. Or, they will propose to revise/reflash the current ECM emissions sw to run the correct EGR and NOx trap regeneration routines Buybacks are not on the table. VW will re-flash the controllers and offer compensation to owners for the increased fuel cost, or perhaps a coupon good for a discount on a new, compliant VW vehicle.
1 mV/s is one volt over 1000 seconds. If the operating voltage is 3 volts, it would take 50 minutes to charge from zero. This is far too slow for many applications where ultracaps are commonly used. 480 F/g at 3 volts yields 2160 J/g at 3 volts, 0.6 kWh/kg of active material. That, by contrast, is astoundingly good.
And the irony is that after VW certifies and installs its EPA-compliant fix, lots of VW owners are going to visit tuners to change it all right back again.
Sodium, iron and sulfate are extremely common and cheap. I would not be surprised if edfellite could be manufactured.
Our very low cost, reliable Hydro + Wind has much lower CO2/kWh than stated above. Are you sufficiently deluded as to believe that the world has as much per-capita hydro potential as Quebec? Please remember that neither vertical relief nor rainfall can be engineered. Also, what are your costs of settlement with the First Nations for putting their residential, hunting and burial lands underwater, Harvey? Quebec has roughly 8 million people living on about 1.36 million km² of land, or roughly 6 people per km². That is an extremely low population density. The contiguous 48 states of the USA cover a bit over 8 million km², and housed 306.7 million as of the 2010 census; that is 38 per km², more than 6 times the population density of Quebec. It trivially follows that land-area-dependent energy solutions that are sufficient for Quebec are, ceteris paribus, likely to be insufficient for the USA... or anyplace on earth that is more densely populated. The USA also has large areas which get little rainfall, and the result is just as you'd expect: despite major rivers having been maxed out for decades, hydro produces less than 7% of total US electric generation. The local Micmac Original Nation people are currently installing one of the most productive direct drive very large (89+) wind turbines wind energy farm A whole 150 megawatts nameplate; at 35% CF, just 52 MW average. A look at HQ's list of hydro facilities suggests that HQ has around 20 GW of hydro capacity alone. It would take 38 such farms to equal the nameplate capacity of the Robert-Bourassa hydro facility alone, and wind has zero ability to respond to demand. Harvey will go on and on about wind and solar "renewables" because it's his monomania. The reality is that they are of little use and even less worth, both for the grid and for the environment.
I suspect it would be cheaper to give people new cars than to retrofit new engines or exhaust systems.
Given that the fraction of NOx contributed by the VW diesel cheat is very small, I'd wager that the observable effect of software updates to eliminate the "cheat" will be zero. Diesel cars aren't enough of the diesel fleet to bump fuel consumption much, and they don't make enough of the total NOx to affect the air much either.
That's much better than any figures I've seen before. Did you save the link?
Lithium makes up about 2% of the materials cost in an EV battery What I'm seeing is on the order of $10/kg of Li2CO3, with less than 1/5 being elemental lithium. If a cell requires 1 kg(Li)/kWh there is a price floor of around $100/kWh just for the materials. Unless the numbers I'm seeing are WAY off, lithium is at least 40% of the cell price (if not much more) and there is less and less room for cost-cutting. Sodium is way cheaper than lithium Some distance beneath my chair there is a fossil layer of dozens or hundreds of feet of halite. The oceans are full of the stuff, and there are lakes which are saturated with it. There is no possible way that lithium can be as easily obtained. If you can get the other materials for cheap and you don't care much about mass or bulk, sodium is the way to go.
If the fleet as sold achieves the rated fuel consumption when driven according to the test cycle parameters, the issue comes down to how the fleet is used:How the drive cycle in use differs from the test cycleHow the conditions in use differ from the test conditions You can't expect a vehicle running with max A/C on a hot day in heavy traffic to work as it does on the test. Neither can you expect a vehicle started after an extended cold-soak to have the same fuel economy as one operating in mild weather. The real question is why the economy ratings are diverging from real-world figures over time. It would not surprise me if drivers are reacting to better vehicle performance by driving them harder. The answer to that is to change behavior.
Henrik, for future reference the English "w" is not pronounced like the German "w". A "wain" is a cart. You meant "in vain", as in "ineffectual or futile".
Sodium can be had for close to the price of dirt. Lithium isn't going to be that cheap, ever.
I was referring to the ability of PHEVs to reduce (liquid) fuel consumption. We're a long way from that point (right now hybrids pay off more than PHEVs) but once most suitable applications are PHEV, it makes sense to add more battery until the ICE becomes more burden than benefit.
Such things may still have their uses. A cheap, long-lived sodium-ion battery could be a good stationary storage device even at low specific power, or could make surge batteries for e.g. hybrid cars if the specific power can be made high enough.
Whatever the amount available, I seem to recall that the question "what can we do with tall oil, besides burn it?" has been an issue in the paper industry since its inception. Turning it into the cleanest-burning diesel on the planet (or close) is a good answer to that question. Even if all the on-road and off-road (like the skid-steer machine doing construction next door to me) machines go electric, there's always going to be aviation. As aerodiesels replace Otto-cycle light aircraft engines, everything will be a candidate for this fuel.
Bah. NH3 has 4 times the hydrogen per unit weight.
IME, 12 miles of range per hour is extremely handy for a PHEV. If you are doing errands like shopping, 12 miles of range from an hour in the store would often be enough to bring the car up to full charge. 25 miles from an hour of charging would be heaven (but PHEV chargers are usually limited to 16 amps).