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Timothy McAdoo
Washington, DC
Trainer in APA Style and for APA PsycINFO databases. http://www.timothymcadoo.com
Recent Activity
Hi, Angela. Good question! On page 172, the Manual recommends citing a heading and the number of paragraphs following it, if possible. You may also find this recent post helpful: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2015/03/when-and-how-to-include-page-numbers-in-apa-style-citations.html
Toggle Commented 2 days ago on How to Cite Direct Quotations at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Maria. You've got it! Your Option 2 is correct.
Toggle Commented 2 days ago on How to Cite Direct Quotations at APA Style Blog
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Hi, David. In APA Style, lists should be double-spaced, regardless of the length. However, sometimes teacher guidelines and/or university guidelines vary from APA Style, so consider discussing with your teacher or advisor. For spacing after end punctuation, please see http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/07/on-two-spaces-following-a-period.html
Toggle Commented 2 days ago on Lists, Part 5: Bulleted Lists at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Charlotte. If I understand your question correctly, I think the last bullet on p. 205 of the Manual helps: "identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author: Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.xxxxxx" That is, using your example, you would have Government Author Name. (n.d.). Web page title. Retrieved from Agency name website: http://... I hope this helps! If not, please feel free to provide the exact URL, and I'll be happy to look at the specific page.
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Hi, Mary. You should include each source that you're quoting from or paraphrasing. Each in-text citation should have a matching reference.
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Right. I'm sorry about that confusion. Italicize the test's name when you are citing it directly or citing the database record for it (as shown in the examples). To clarify, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References includes additional examples that show a test or inventory from the web and from a database, and the names are italicized.
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Dr. Muthu, Thanks for writing. Most of these answers are detailed in full in the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.): 1. Figure captions appear under the figure. Tables have titles above the table but notes below. The complete details are too numerous to outline here. Please see pages 125–167 of the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) for details and examples. 2. Tables and figures are numbered sequentially but separately (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, and Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3). See section 5.05 of the Manual, beginning on page 127. 3. Tables should generally follow our guideline of double-spacing, but single or one-and-a-half spacing is acceptable if necessary (specified on p. 229 in Manual). 4. Because the Publication Manual provides guidelines for journal article manuscripts, it does not mention chapters. Dissertation guidelines vary by university (see also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/09/dear-professor.html). Many universities stipulate that chapters begin on new pages. 5. Because the Publication Manual provides guidelines for journal article manuscripts, its guidelines are for an author note: See pages 24–25 for a detailed description of each paragraph of the author note. I hope this helps!
Toggle Commented Mar 23, 2015 on Table Tips at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Jonathan. No, we don't have any rule or guidelines for that. Each author needs to decide whether a list clarifies his or her writing in a given situation.
Toggle Commented Mar 19, 2015 on Lists, Part 6: Overview at APA Style Blog
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garryeri, Yes, feel free to use an edition number if a version number is not available. To quote from a game, create the reference as noted above. I would also recommend that you provide some context, if applicable: Does the quote occur only after a particular event occurs? Is it spoken by a character or presented on screen? etc.
Toggle Commented Mar 19, 2015 on How to Cite Software in APA Style at APA Style Blog
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Rjanyk, Thanks for writing. To cite APA Style references in the text, use the information in the first ("who") position of the reference and the date. You can find examples here: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/01/writing-in-text-citations-in-apa-style.html
Toggle Commented Mar 18, 2015 on APA Style for Citing Interviews at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Garima. If you can find and read the Black and William article, it's preferable to cite their work directly. When necessary to cite a secondary source, use the "as cited in" format, which you can find described at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/05/secondary-sources-aka-how-to-cite-a-source-you-found-in-another-source.html
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Hi, Gloria. Determining the authorship of technical, governmental, and other reports can be difficult. You may have one or more group authors. If you can reply with a link, I can take a look at the document. Or, feel free to write us with complete details at http://www.apastyle.org/contact.aspx
Toggle Commented Mar 13, 2015 on The Frankenreference at APA Style Blog
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Thanks for the clarification. One figure can certainly contain multiple images, depending on their size, of course. See, for example, the figure on p. 164 of the Manual. If you combine all three images into one figure, you'll only need one figure caption. In either case, you won't need brackets, though, if you use the template on p. 38.
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Hi, Pablo. Each image would likely need to be a separate figure, and the permission line for each figure should be placed in the caption. You can find a copyright permission footnote on page 38 of the Manual and in examples on pages 152-160.
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Hi, Jamie. Your understanding of APA Style for figures in a manuscript is correct. You can find that detailed on pp. 127-129, 5.05 "Table and Figure Numbers." But note that the Manual's guidelines are for authors submitting a manuscript for publication. We do not have guidelines for dissertations, specifically. And, universities often have their own guidelines that vary from and adapt APA Style guidelines. Ask your library or advisor if you need help finding those. Those may clarify and you may also need to work with your advisor and/or committee on any final details.
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Laxsh, Good question. The reader should be able to understand tables and figures apart from the text. Define the abbreviations in the table note. You might also spell out a word, if you have room in the table, if the abbreviation would appear only once in the table.
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Good question! Your school's library may be able to help you obtain access to the Bluebook and/or to help you answer this specific question. This post outlines how to cite a court case: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/10/citing-court-decisions-in-apa-style.html
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SERiggs, Good question! Because that URL will take readers to this video, that's probably your best bet. See the template at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html
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Hi, Dana. Glad to help! You can find the wording for a book on p. 38 of the Manual.
Toggle Commented Mar 1, 2015 on Table Tips at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Susan. Good question! Your first example is correct. We prefer to avoid back-to-back parentheses.
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Hi cmneil. This post has everything you need! http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/05/how-to-discuss-the-results-of-an-inventory-or-measure.html
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Good question. The Manual's guidelines are for authors writing manuscripts that they wish to submit to journals for publication. The guidelines are often adapted for other cases (e.g., class papers, dissertations, reports). The use of I or We (in papers with multiple authors) is recommended on p. 69 of the Manual. If your supervisor does not feel this is appropriate for your situation, you may need to make edits.
Toggle Commented Feb 12, 2015 on Use of First Person in APA Style at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Dollo. Yes, that's good. The items are paralle. Using "the" after each letter (e.g., "if they internalize (a) the complaints, (b) the grievances") would be parallel, too, but would be unnecessarily redundant.
Toggle Commented Feb 10, 2015 on Lists, Part 3: Lowercase Letters at APA Style Blog
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Hi, TrudzCR. Great question! Yes, cite it exactly as it originally appeared.
Toggle Commented Feb 9, 2015 on Spelling Success in APA Style at APA Style Blog
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by Timothy McAdoo Note: To learn how to cite individual tweets or posts that include hashtags, see our post on citing social media. This post is about how to talk about the hashtags themselves. The hashtag as an organizational tool... Continue reading
Posted Feb 4, 2015 at APA Style Blog