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Timothy McAdoo
Washington, DC
Trainer in APA Style and for APA PsycINFO databases. http://www.timothymcadoo.com
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This post has what you are looking for: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/05/secondary-sources-aka-how-to-cite-a-source-you-found-in-another-source.html
Toggle Commented Jan 28, 2016 on How to Cite Direct Quotations at APA Style Blog
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To your first question, you can omit the date when you repeat the author name in the narrative, so using "he" or "she" is similar, as long as you make clear who the pronoun refers to. That is, saying "Morin (1988) described two separate but linked epidemics. . . . She distinguished the HIV..." is the same as "Morin (1988) described two separate but linked epidemics. . . . Morin distinguished the HIV ... " (For more on that, see http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/04/when-to-include-the-year-in-citations-appearing-more-than-once-in-a-paragraph.html) To your second question - The important thing is to be as clear as possible about which words/ideas are your own and which are not. In the example you give, to ensure that readers are fully aware that you are returning to the ideas of Konstantinidis et al., I would recommend clarifying with another citation. Something like "Next Konstantinidis et al. mentioned Conceptual Plagiarism, which ..."
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Good question! No, keywords do not have to be listed in alphabetical order.
Toggle Commented Dec 17, 2015 on Keywords in APA Style at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Mish. Good question. Unfortunately, the Manual does not specify. Your solution certainly works.
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This post might help: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/12/citations-within-quotations.html Including a reference to the work you read and are quoting is enough. But, for clarity, if the quote doesn't explain that it's a paraphrase of another work, you might want to make the situation clear with the context. It's difficult to say without seeing your exact case, but you might also reconsider the quote altogether if you think there's a possibility of confusing the reader. And, see also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/05/secondary-sources-aka-how-to-cite-a-source-you-found-in-another-source.html and http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/01/alligators-and-academia.html
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Hi, Amanda. The Manual does not address this exact case, but because the goal is to ensure that the reader knows when you are quoting or paraphrasing other authors, I would not recommend combining them. In your first example, the citations are clear, so you could do that, but only if you (or your teacher, reviewer, editor, etc.) don't mind the redundancy. The second case is ambiguous, and the reader might assume that only the quoted part is from the original authors. Again, this is not addressed in the Manual, but to ensure clarity, I would recommend splitting those into two sentences. Exactly how to do so might depend on what you want to emphasize, but just as an example, you might write, Sexual orientation microaggressions are “communications of prejudice and discrimination expressed through seemingly meaningless and unharmful tactics” (Shelton & Delgado-Romero, 2011, p. 210). According to Shelton and Delgado-Romero (2011), sexual orientation microaggressions may be verbal, behavioral, or environmental in nature. I hope that helps!
Toggle Commented Nov 30, 2015 on How to Cite Direct Quotations at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Samantha. These are great questions. To your first question, I would strongly recommend that you discuss this with your advisor or professor. This is an area where people may have different opinions, and you’ll want to know what your thesis committee or the professor grading your thesis thinks, if possible. I can give you only my opinion: Some ideas or hypotheses have well known sources (e.g., Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) - for those, tracking down the original source is relatively simple. For the ideas that are harder to find a definitive source, try to find the most authoritative source. You might find a source that many other people also cite, making it a well known source, if not the original one. Or, you might find a meta-analysis, a theoretical article, or a literature review. There may be other approaches to follow as well (again, please ask your advisor). In your paper, you can make plain that the idea is one with a long history that many people have studied and then cite the best sources you can. To your second question: You’ve expressed very well the problem that ensues if the author has not made clear which ideas are his or hers and which are paraphrased. Unfortunately, if you can’t tell this from the paragraph, you might have to query the author or look to the cited source and read through it to see if it was paraphrased in the paragraph you read. You might also be interested in http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/03/citing-paraphrased-work-in-apa-style.html & http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/04/when-to-include-the-year-in-citations-appearing-more-than-once-in-a-paragraph.html
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Hi, rana. To your first question, there is no set guideline. You should place the "as cited in" directly (or as close as possible) after the information you are citing, much as you would a typical citation. To your second question, you could but using the "as cited in" wording might unintentional convey that you are citing a secondary source, when in fact you have read the original interview. You might consider rewording to something like "The humanistic psychotherapist Rollo May, when interviewed in 2009 by Schneider, Galvin, and Serlin, described therapy as..." or other similar wording. See also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/apa-style-for-citing-interviews.html
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Hi, Sherrill. You can learn more about the format for numbered lists at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/02/lists-part-4-numbered-lists.html In your example, because the parenthetical items are full sentences, I would punctuate them as such: 1. focus on client (e.g., "All the attention is given to the client." "The client receives all the therapists' time."), 2. focus on....
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Hi, Jennifer. You only need the a if you have two references with the same author and same year (see http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/10/reference-twins.html). So, if you have only those two references, the dates would be simply 2013 and 2015 in the references and citations (AABC, 2013, 2015). But, let's say you have three references, one from 2015 and two from 2013. You would then have an a and a b in the 2013 references (only). So, your in-text citation might be (AABC, 2013a, 2013b, 2015). Those letters would stay even if you cited only one of the 2013 references in a given sentence (AABC, 2013b, 2015), because both references are there in the reference list. I hope this helps!
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Good question. The Manual doesn't show a case like that, but it's a fairly common construction. I would format just as you have: keep the capitalization and the word and.
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The dash is not needed with years (see http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/10/reference-twins.html), you would have 2015a and 2015b. The dates for in-text citations match those in the references. If the name of the organization is AABC, you might have this citation in text (AABC, 2015a, 2015b).
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Hi, Loreerojas. The example in the post above is one where citations happen to appear in a section of text you are quoting. Your question is about secondary sources, which is a different scenario. You can find the style recommended by the Manual for those cases at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/05/secondary-sources-aka-how-to-cite-a-source-you-found-in-another-source.html
Toggle Commented Nov 9, 2015 on Citations Within Quotations at APA Style Blog
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This is similar to Example 32 on p. 206 of the Manual. Thus, I would recommend using this as the author name: "National Research Council, Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments."
Toggle Commented Nov 2, 2015 on Group Authors at APA Style Blog
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There are probably several ways you could do that. Your example looks just fine. See also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/03/lists-part-5-bulleted-lists.html
Toggle Commented Nov 2, 2015 on Lists, Part 6: Overview at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Mike. The answer depends on whether you want the students to follow APA Style guidelines, a variation, or another style altogether. Any one of those may be the "right" answer for you and your students. But, if you want them to use APA Style, the examples at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html and http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/02/how-to-cite-an-annual-report-in-apa-style.html should help.
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Hi, Bethany. The in-text citation uses the usual format (author names and the year). See also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/01/writing-in-text-citations-in-apa-style.html & http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/08/how-to-cite-materials-from-meetings-and-symposia.html
Toggle Commented Oct 28, 2015 on How to Cite a Speech in APA Style at APA Style Blog
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You've got it. See also http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/01/writing-in-text-citations-in-apa-style.html
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This post may help: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/02/how-to-cite-a-psychological-test-in-apa-style.html. It includes an example for a test retrieved from a website as well as one retrieved from a database. If you need more help, feel free to leave a comment on that post and/or write us (see email at http://www.apastyle.org/contact.aspx) with the exact links you are using.
Toggle Commented Oct 14, 2015 on Group Authors at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Jeff. Great question. You can certainly rephrase as "the research conducted by Smith et al. (1999)..." Or, if you want to keep the first version, you write that as "Smith's (1999) research on..."
Toggle Commented Oct 8, 2015 on Et al.: When and How? at APA Style Blog
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Good question. Use ("as cited in..."). So you might write, Albert Einstein once said, “You cannot solve a problem from the same consciousness that created it. You must learn to see the world anew” (as cited in Waddock & Rasche, 2012, p. 295).
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Hi, Cat. This post has what you need: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/10/how-to-format-an-epigraph.html
Toggle Commented Sep 25, 2015 on How to Cite Direct Quotations at APA Style Blog
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Hi, Pangaea. In APA Style, words used as linguistic examples are also italicized (e.g., "The word style has five letters."). So, one approach you could consider is writing something like "The term obsessive character, as coined by AuthorX to describe people with ... is similar to compulsive personality, as coined by AuthorY." However, in later cases, where you are using the terms, no special formatting is needed.
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Hi, Pangaea. Great question! Generally speaking, those would not be considered labels and not italicized.
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Hi, CS. Good questions! In your text, when you refer to a test, don't italicize it. Likewise, if you use an abbreviation, don't italicize that. However, the name of the test is italicized in the reference. You can see examples at http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/02/how-to-cite-a-psychological-test-in-apa-style.html
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