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Two other very import factors: (1) Newer more efficient mid range airplanes have reduced fuel consumption a lot over older airplanes. (2) Shorter flights carrying less fuel are lighter and therefore burn less. Read about the breguet range equation... Long range airplanes burn more fuel to carry extra fuel and structure. All airlines could reduce their carbon footprint easily by flying with navigation computer set at Cost Index = 0. Carbon fees will encourage this. Eventually the greatest carbon reduction could be by flying electric powered airlines with multiple stops. Much of the decent energy can be recovered, or utilized to glide to the destination.
BIO Gas = Bovine Intestinal Output Gas Perhaps it could be easily captured and concentrated using a tent that siphons the lighter methane gas from the top.
30kw/48V=625 AMPS! There must be a lot of batteries in parallel or supercaps, and beefy wires!
Massive battery production expansion makes this whole discussion moot. Almost 2 gigafactory every year is forecasted. Also new dry cell tech will allow massive increases in production at each factory upgraded. Therefor for long range this article really makes the point of mandating MHEV or even HEV at about the same cost with only a bit more battery. MHEV's have reached optimum cost and efficiency, but BEV and HEV have much room the improve so will eventually dominate without subsidies. On a per kwh of battery basis, just increasing CAFE standards, forcing better aerodynamic designs... is superior and low cost. For example Tesla Model 3 has 41% less drag than Chevy Bolt, but about the same passenger + cargo volume (M3 112.3 vs Bolt 110.9 cuft).
Al7La4Ni density is 62% more than Aluminum, but has a lower ultimate tensile strength. Lanthanum cost is much more than Aluminum. Maybe this is good for some niche, but not for widespread use.
Could an Aluminum ion battery (AIB) negative electrode be combined with a liquid positive electrode? A Hybrid solid/liquid battery...?
Anything with the potential to bring launch costs down will accelerate space based solar shade and/or power, which may be critical to avoiding runaway warming without using Sulphur Dioxide to make acid rain.
Better aerodynamics could reduce this designs energy consumption by 20 to 30%.
Nuclear geothermal storage seems like an overlooked option, and it seems least resource limited. "GIGAWATT-YEAR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY STORAGE COUPLED TO NUCLEAR REACTORS AND LARGE CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS"
I bet $100 with 100:1 odds this will not be cost competitive without subsidy, for at least 30 years. Caveat: Continued growth and business as usual, earth destructive path, will give it a chance to succeed if oil prices increase long term, but the environmental cost will be horrific.
The lack of critical comments is stunning!
Why no mention of offshore wind power effects? I suspect there is less or opposite effect for ocean wind power.
This alloy could enable much higher coolant temperatures, making engines more like an adiabatic engine, and reduce cooling drag, and keep a high cooling ability in very hot climates.
Looks like D-EGR is still better but hard to tell with Mazda's missing BSFC graph scale: (see page 24)
The dust on my panels here in California the dust is lighter color, which is more transparent and does not affect the panels more than 10% at peak power, not sure about off peak. I could see how black carbon would have a much bigger effect.
"fossil fuels should stay buried" is the not a viable way. A better strategy carbon capture and re-purposing fuel to be feed-stock for graphene, and carbon tax. This will ensure full support of the fossil fuel industry. Otherwise reducing demand will lead to lower prices which feeds back to encourage demand.
How up to date are those stats? > 1 is scary!
Can someone explain the math behind zero drag for GSF2 at Yaw angle greater than 23 deg? It must be a tail wind? But the standard and correct way of presenting Cd should never allow negative Cd. Instead show lift and drag coefficient. It's misleading.
How about making AdBlue supply free, paid for by diesel tax.
Ammonia has a specific energy that is 40% of diesel or kerosine. See
Too heavy! Either gear reduction to a shaft to an inboard motor, or a high power density hub motor.
If the next gen 5X batteries come soon, they should dump the H2 system and adapt quickly.
How will this be utilized for crash avoidance? In 1 year it will be possible!
Excellent comment and to the point HarveyD! Requiring V2V and V2X on all road vehicles and autopilot on all new large commercial vehicles will prevent the collisions. V2V can be quickly universally adopted with low cost high volume production wifi like transceivers for aftermarket adoption. Insurance incentives can encourage adoption. So the USDOT proposal is a 100% wrong approach with no vision, only looking back to the past approach that has been abandoned.