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FZSoNick Has a 110 volt battery pack for railway car lights when the catenary fails. It would have a 50 year life in most homes and can run most CFLs directly. The electric grid has no need to exist where there is or can be a pipe grid for methane or hydrogen or propane or DME tanks. Turbines and engines are efficient and are built in great quantity. Even some solar or wind energy might make it into such homes, but fuel is concentrated backup beyond compare. ..HG..
Many industrial induction motors use aluminum in their rotors but copper makes a smaller more efficient rotor. ABB has introduced the synchronous reluctance motor with even more efficiency and uses stators identical to induction motors. It is possible to build the highest speed electric motors with switched reluctance designs quite easily however. An electric motor does not really have a horsepower limit except for continuous operation but the electronics does. Hybrid automobiles using hydraulics can be the simplest and most cost effective and cheapest to build and can save half the fuel now used and the engines don't even need crankshafts. ..HG..
Why not a vehicle that converts any liquid or gaseous fuel to H2 and captures the CO2 and the H2O and has no release at all. People forget that H2O is the major greenhouse gas. ..HG..
Recently someone in California ordered electric buses with ZEBRA batteries which will last longer than the bus. Many years ago a California school bus was also equipped with ZEBRA batteries to avoid battery failures. It may still be in service. Never should a bus be built with batteries only or a car. A very small high power fuel electric generator should be provided and fueled by some liquid bio-fuel which might never be used because the generator is seldom or never used. FZsoNick now has a rep in the US for ZEBRA batteries and has renamed the company to promote them. There is no valid comparison between electricity and any fuel in terms of gallons. Electricity will indeed produce so much heat per kilowatt hour, but an electric motor is far more efficient at using it than a ICE is using a liquid or gaseous fuel and there need not be much loss in charging and charging can be done many times with the cheapest electricity. If water or anything else must be heated, a heat pump can do several times as much heating with electricity as can a simple electric heater. In fact, for house and water heating, an engine that operates on fuel but runs a heat pump is the most neglected, fastest to implement and cheapest form of reducing CO2 release. Japan has many more heat pump ECOCUTE units than the fuel powered CHP ECOWILL units and no standard combination. The most neglected idea and fuel and cost saving idea for California is natural gas engine powered air-conditioning compressors. One engine company can build and even retrofit exhaust processors that meet the highest standards. California should also require the use of the highly efficient oil free turbine compressors for air-conditioning.
Free piston Stirling engines are probably more efficient. Exhaust gas turbine electric generators have also been built in the UK. Both of these can also use strange materials for higher efficiencies. As mentioned elsewhere hydraulic hybrids reduce fuel consumption by half without expensive generators, batteries and motors. Great device to have in homes and factories. It is called co-generation and is related to the gas-turbine-steam-turbine combined cycle generating power plants which then can even be more efficient by using steam turbine exhaust heat in a neighborhood heating system. Where natural gas is available every building should generate its own electricity. Honda, Marathon, Capstone turbines and Bladon jets have their units. Most Capstone and other micro turbines can burn flare gas. Flare gas can also be used to operate small steam boilers and engines and turbines. Technology greatly perfected by Livio Dante Porta allows long life steam boiler operation on any water recovered from oil wells, and steam operated pumps with attached generators could be used as they were long ago in oil-gas producing areas. ..HG..
Hydraulic hybrid Automobiles have demonstrated half the fuel use in city driving. More years of optimization can reduce this even more including no crankshaft hydraulic engine pumps that only have a moving piston when energy can be used as in the INNAS Chiron engine. Imagine an automobile with one cylinder and two opposing pistons for low vibrations. One such car was built that used an exhaust turbine to power the wheels instead of hydraulics. See it on UTUBE. Imported oil will not be needed in the US with a fuel reduction of half. California is misleading the rest of the US by not requiring the use of hydraulic hybrids with their cheaper engines, pumps and motors. This would save more CO2 release more cheaply than any other action in the automotive world. ..HG..
Biomass is the current keyword for renewable energy; since we are pretending that the sun is not using fossil fuel and that it will last forever, but mainly we are pretending that the human population of the earth, even the human population of the US, does not feed on biomass directly or indirectly, and that there is unlimited areas of land to grow all biomass needed for food and fuel for all humans, all animals, domestic and otherwise, and all other living creatures of single cell size and larger. We have removed much biomass productive lands, with the possible exception of Las Vegas Nevada, with our large cities. We have been depleting the oceans of natural biomass production, and started farming them. Where there is unlimited water there are deficiencies of essential minerals. Surprisingly it seems that waters of colder regions produce very attractive sources of solar powered biomass. Stop destroying natural forests and all their creatures, including a very few humans as yet not redeemed by electric air-conditioning, for "renewable" oil trees on non renewable land. Every island and other nation destroyed most forests and meadows etc. before fossil fuels were discovered and used. The sun uses the fossil fuel hydrogen for most of its energy. There is some of it left, but the earth only gets 1/2,000,000,000 of the energy, and the sun has lived almost half of its hydrogen life. The earth has wasted most of its uranium isotope 235 and has only a small amount left, but enough to initiate the production of additional nuclear fuels in abundance for the life of the earth. Without Uranium 235 humans would have to institute Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier, US5774514, to enter into the atomic age with thorium and lead where lead atoms are blasted into pieces with high energy protons and produce about 20 neutrons per proton which can be used to produce fissionable uranium from thorium, and gradually building up fuels for many reactors. Uranium isotope 238 can also be used somewhere in the process, and there is enough of that alone without ever needing the three times more abundant thorium, and humans can make food from local fission reactors instead of the present distant fusion reactor. Just to allow people more complaints about the use of fossil fuels it must be said that all iron, nickel, copper etc., all elements on the earth, except some hydrogen, are fossil deposits from exploding stars, and this includes thorium and lead and uranium and gold. All natural elements with more protons and neutrons than iron, can give off energy if split, and the ones with the most, both isotopes of Uranium, give off the most energy per atom. All of the atoms produced by splitting Uranium or Thorium are not radio-active and many others only for a short period of time. Uranium fissions all by itself anywhere it is and this started chain reactions in uranium ore bodies millions of years ago when there was much more Uranium isotope 235, but it also means that all of the radioactive fission products are produced in nature that are produced in reactors, but some radioactive materials are produced from the neutrons of a reactor that are not produced as often in nature such as the many isotopes of plutonium and any such isotopes with higher atomic weight than uranium should be captured and put back into reactors rather than trying to store it. The CANDU reactors can do this most conveniently. Potassium in all plants and animals gives off gamma rays and beta rays, so there is no way to avoid them. Potassium 40 represents the largest source of radioactivity, greater even than Carbon 14. In a human body of 70 kg mass, about 4,400 nuclei of Potassium 40 decay per second giving off a gamma ray and beta ray. So humans have lived with radioactivity all their existence, and a bit more or less makes very little difference compared to drivers texting in a car you ride in as the driver or otherwise and the other dangers of life. Human and other life can exist and has existed with radioactivity and has developed defenses and repairs. One type of mold grows in reactor buildings near enough to get enough gamma rays to use like sunlight and grow. ..HG..
Artemis hydraulic hybrids can reduce automotive and rail fuel use to half or less as they proved years ago; now the money should be spent to introduce laws that make this use required. Parry People Movers did the same for rail transport. The ZEBRA battery was developed for automobiles in the UK and all that was needed to reduce costs was mass production and use in automobiles and now homes. ..HG..
No one comments on the waste of energy that this represents. Pump the electricity into the grid where two thirds of the energy is not wasted and power companies can burn less fuel. Ice is the answer. Ice is now made to build up cooling capacity when power is cheap for when cooling is needed. Turbocor makes very efficient refrigeration compressors needing no oil to make ice or the electricity can be used to pump heat with the same turbocor and this can be stored or used in combination with ice. ECOCUTE machines can turn a small amount of electric energy into many times the amount of hot water that can be produced by a resistance heater. ..HG..
Putting any spare electricity into batteries is much more efficient. NGK makes such units. Liquid Sodium and chlorine could be produced and stored more efficiently and used later in a "sodium fuel cell" which someone can invent. But with a tiny bit of catalytic platinum hydrogen mixtures could be used in self lighting burners. First there was a conversion from manufactured gas to natural gas. Now there can be a conversion to straight hydrogen manufactured from any hydrocarbon and water with CO2 capture. Pipe would need to be larger even if hydrogen flows more freely. By volume hydrogen has only one third the fuel density of methane. Come to think of it, people could "burn" liquid sodium for heat if produced by excess wind power. ..HG..
A major step in reducing CO2 release is to have humans and other animals and organisms genetically modified to be fueled by H2. But carbon is an essential part of the structure of animals and plants so nature did a great adaptation to use carbohydrates and oils as foods. A Nuclear powered plane could be built tomorrow by the US government and it would not expose people in it to radiation more than the sky does to people in planes now. Passengers get at least one percent of their radioactive exposure from their seat-mates. Such a plane could be built out of this same aircraft and could fly continuously for 20 years with only a loss of 25 percent of its power. It would use only half of its initial fuel load in 80 years, but should be topped up every five years or so for full power. The world is somewhat short of this material, but it is what powers the big Mars rover and heated the electronics of the two twin small rovers. Two or three grams in a not too thick walled hip flask would keep hand safely warm for life. Bladon Jets could make a small jet engine generator that would contain all available fuel but only produce 7 kilowatts of heat. Which is about enough to power a small car at about 55 miles an hour on a level road with a tail wind. ..HG..
Good idea. Tepco's NGK has perhaps built the largest battery in the world with its Sodium Sulphur units. Too bad it was not at the Fukushima site. Every home should have the similar Sodium-Nickel-Cloride units which will last the life of a house without maintenance and provide emergency power to the grid if necessary at a small fraction of the cost of a house. They will not burn and are packed in steel in every case. A unit for just the right voltage for US houses, 110 volts, has been built for years for railway car lights. They can use and already partially use Iron if nickel becomes too expensive. Co-generation in homes and larger buildings where natural gas is available is the cheapest way to reduce CO2 release and save energy. Fuels should never be burned directly but in a mechanical energy producing device. Honda Ecowills should be found in every place that natural gas is burned, and where more power or heat is needed Capstone turbines can be added or Marathon units for intermediate needs. ..HG..
Ethanol is not the fuel of future it is a food and its raw materials are also foods for man, animals and organisms even some that capture nitrogen for themselves and other ones to provide growth amino acids. CO2 release prevention could be just burning coal and putting the CO2 in the reservoir. Find out all about wet-oxygen combustion with fuels burned in water. ..HG..
ATT is dead long live ATT. How much does your phone cost you a month?
Electric hybrid airplanes; turboprops are already saving energy. Turbines are the cleanest burning ICE. Fan Jets are just hidden turboprops. Switched reluctance motors can have the lightest weight with no expensive alloys and highest reliability. Vertical take off; a jet was built that had two wing fans and one nose fan and took off vertically; see if it can be found on internet. Bladon Jets could make a whole bunch of their machines work in an aircraft in a small space. There are switched reluctance generators too; They are identical to motors with different timing. ..HG..
Nuclear fission of Uranium found on land and in the ocean can supply any amount of energy that humans will use in the billions of years remaining for life on earth before it is fried in the expanding sun; this does not include any need for Thorium which may be three times or more more abundant. Even Lead, Mercury or Gold are fissionable with the production of 25 percent energy less than Uranium per atom, but we will never need to put such a process into use. If the US had the known reactors for this use in operation all of the unused uranium in storage, with no newly mined uranium could supply all US electricity for a hundred years or more. The human race now can get 3,000,000 kilos worth of coal energy from one kilogram of uranium with less than one kilogram of fission "waste". It is only "waste" because US president Carter declared it so many years ago, and it has killed fewer people (0.00) than wind-turbines in the last ten years. Nuclear energy can extract more hydrogen from water which means that any any amount of automotive fuels can be made. Ammonia is the most well know substance that could be made from air and hydrogen and used as a fuel. It can be burned in specially made turbines of all sizes, but If CO2 is available Methanol or DME can be made in all quantities. Methanol can be used as food for human edible organisms and the animals that humans eat. Besides methanol any other liquid fuel or food can be made using hydrogen as an energy and chemical source. Hydrogen has only one third the energy of the same gas volume of natural gas methane, but it flows faster than methane to partially compensate, but towns should have long installed bigger pipes made of plastic not metals so that hydrogen alone is the form of all pipeline gas. It can be made from natural gas and water or many other organic substances with the CO2 being captured and used. No pilot lights are needed as a small bit of specially formed platinum will light the flame. Perhaps an animal will be created that will breathe in small percentages of hydrogen and air to feed it some of its energy. Or it could be injected into the blood and the animal body has some process for using it already, or the organisms in the cows digestive system can use it. In the form of Urea it is already used to treat cattle feed. All food and food energy can come from fission energy. ..HG..
Lactic acid, as is grass, is a food. When people are hungry, even in the US, why convert food to fuel. Automotive fuel use can be cut in half with hybrids thus eliminating any need for transportation bio-fuels. ..HG..
It is now time to begin, at long last, the end of diesel piston engines. Turbines do not have stringent fuel requirements and produce cleaner exhaust with lower nitrogen oxides, particles and and carbon monoxide than any piston engine and do it without exhaust post treatment. The hybrid automobile will make up for the deficiencies of eliminating pistons and allow for greater fuel efficiency as well. Crankshaft torque is not now needed. The air-bearings of several micro-turbines may not, as of yet, be able to withstand the shocks of operating a railroad locomotive, and this can be corrected, and is not necessary for road vehicles. Ian Wright, formerly of TESLA, is showing the way with heavy production vehicles and turbines as it saves much more fuel for heavy vehicles to be fuel efficient than automobiles; as they are used many more miles a year with very high fuel costs per mile. Electric automobiles, with a tiny rescue engine for eliminating range anxiety but seldom used, are far more than suitable for most passenger use. The ZEBRA battery still exists and can be used for the life of an automobile of more than 20 years and were tested with long range more than ten years ago, and were used in European TH!NK cars. Tiny very high speed rescue engines are well able to move an electric vehicle along with regular city traffic; acceleration, regeneration and partial braking are provided by the main battery. Coates Limited invented rotary valves which can allow very high speeds which can itself allow for very high power to run a tiny high speed alternator to provide a moderate speed to destination where recharging is available. Efficiency of the rescue charger is of no importance because people with greater range and speed desires on a frequent basis will use a larger more powerful vehicle with full hybrid high power. RCV also has rotary valve hobby engines of high speeds and power per size. The ARTEMIS hybrid technology may be the cheapest, most efficient and least used. ARTEMIS was taken up by MHI to tilt at windmills after being buried by BOSCH, and no reports are available as to the efficiency or productivity of the three machines, two with seven megawatt rating. Info about ARTEMIS hybrid automobiles has nearly vanished with the reports that it has been awarded monies to go to the start again and recreate, Salters Ducks, for wave energy. Artemis also gets to prove again, with heavier vehicles and bigger engines, That the hybrid hydraulic rail vehicle can do more efficiency just like Mister Parry and his Parry People Movers did decades ago; this is to remind people that electric locomotives for freight, also with flywheels to bridge the necessary gaps in the rail, did save much coal, during and after WWII, for rail lines electrified with third rail for electrical multiple unit trains (EMU) which allowed gaps to be bridged by two or more cars and electrical conductors from car to car of the complete train. People might care to try the INNAS NOAX crank-free hydraulic pump along with ARTEMIS Digital Displacement technology to complete the system and take the system to the extreme and only use the piston on a stroke by stroke basis instead of starting and stopping an engine. The NOAX is possibly the best current design for an engine that can compression ignite natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, butane etc.) as well as have a long cheap operating life. DME, Di-Methyl-Ether can also be made from synthesis gas much more easily and has the highest cetane rating and is much less likely to form particulates and is handled much like propane in liquid tanks at low pressures. People may not know that synthesis gas can be easily made from natural gas and much is used to make ammonia fertilizer. Whilst a process does not exist, energetically it is possible to get a net amount of heat from combining the oxygen in the air with the nitrogen and water from anywhere to supply energy needs and acidify the ocean (actually only just reduce the alkalinity) at a great rate without the production of any CO2 or H2O the greatest green house gas available. It is not known if it takes less energy to make Nitrogen-Oxides in an engine optimized to do so or to do it with hydrogen from synthesis gas. Until industrial chemistry was created, nitrogen oxides were the main source of nitrogen for plants created by organisms with energy from organic remains in the soil. Leather and ashes were rotted at one time to form one of the constituents of gun powder two or three centuries ago. ..HG..
Oh dear! Co-Routines and multi-routine software was invented in the 1960s or earlier along with priority interrupts. UNIVAC had a small buffer processor with eight sets of registers for process switching which idea was duplicated by Alan Kay in the ALTO machine, and the Propellor is also available now. The Tranputer allowed many machines and many processes in a machine. Memory and processors were combined at IBM research to use the very high bandwidth available in a single memory chip. Microsoft promised Intel that its software operating systems could waste all the cycles that Intel could produce. Riding a bicycle seems so much simpler but far more dangerous. Sneaking a full computer system into the handheld phone was the most powerful electronic pacifier drug ever built to help people feel that they were productive. Now all that is needed is to implant an electrical connection into all babies similar to artificial hearing but sends messages in and out. ..HG..
Electricity in France is highly nuclear generated so these are some of the most carbon free vehicles on the planet. There is enough energy in the wasted fuel rods and depleted uranium in the US to power the world for the next hundred years without mining a pound more of uranium, and the reactors to do this have already been run tested and the unusable radioactive wastes are not multiplied. The ocean and land already contains radioactive minerals widely dispersed in every location. The Uranium in the ocean is sufficiently concentrated to be an energy supply, at costs less than gasoline, for the population of the earth for the life of the earth. ..HG..
Fast chargers are a burden on the local energy grid as well as the grid itself. Electric automobiles without small range extenders should be made unlawful in part so that they are more attractive to buyers. Three kW generators are sufficient for 30 mph roads city or country. Coates Ltd. rotary valves can enable them to run at higher speeds to make them very small like RCV engines. Charging stations that incorporate high capacity batteries themselves could assist the grid by being able to defer power consumption as well as feed power into the grid. Long lived Zebra batteries can be used for over ten years of life, and such systems should also be used in homes even those without electric vehicles. ..HG..
For longer life and safer batteries, these buses should be fitted with ZEBRA batteries that have similar capacity to lithium ones but have far longer cycle lives. And yes they should have a small engine that can slowly charge the battery for emergency operation; The engine can be designed to run on bio-ethanol even if it is never needed. ..HG..
All dead humans are radioactive waste because they were radioactive when they were alive. Look up Potassium 40; it has a billion year half life. The consumption of fossil fuels by automobiles can be reduced immediately by 30 to 60 percent and the technology is known and has been available for many years; it is the use of digital control of hydraulic pumps and motors combined with storing energy from braking and the engine in pressure accumulators. The savings are from energy recovery, little engine idling and smaller engines used more efficiently. The simplest engine to use may be one or more hydraulic pumps demonstrated by INNAS-NOAX that have no crankshaft and the piston moves only when energy is needed and is computer controlled. Hydraulic systems are much cheaper and more lightweight than electric systems and digital control makes them efficient and allows for better energy recovery. The elimination of half of the fuel use is sufficient reason to require all car makers to use the ArtemisIP or a similar system for a transmission. All people who wish to support the limitation of the release of CO2 into the air in any way should never allow themselves to drive over 50 miles per hour. Sufficient information exists that shows driving faster releases more CO2 per mile of travel.
ZEBRA or Sodium Sulphur batteries are more efficient than any possible hydrogen production method of storing electricity. The Zebra battery automobile can be used for any local automotive use and should also be used in each home or business as the BATTERY wall and will last longer than any furnace. Common lights can be used directly from battery terminals including CFL, LED and tungsten as can many heaters. Converters have long been available for any other uses. Many computer and phone chargers will work already and some can be simply modified. no complicated expensive hydrogen systems needed. ..HG..
Finally the present engines and fuel systems can be used in all road vehicles with a savings of up to half the fuel or more by the use of ARTEMIS electronic hydraulic fuel systems or something similar as the transmission. Such transmissions can even be retrofitted for heavy vehicles even and no automobile should be allowed to be built without one. They are cheaper and more efficient than electric hybrids. For clean air and efficient transmission the Wrightspeed turbine combo is already being produced and sold for delivery vehicles and buses. ..HG..