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Thomas Pedersen
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Methanol and methane have the same ratio of hydrogen energy input to output, i.e. energy efficiency of conversion. But methanol does not have to lose additional 2-digit percentage points of energy for liquefaction. Methanol can be stored in un-insulated tanks of any form (not pressure tanks). Only drawback compared to LNG is lower energy density. However, when including the volume required for insulation of LNG tanks, the system-volumetric-energy-density is probably similar.
Re Power train weight: It probably refers to: ICE+e-motor+gearbox = ICE+gearbox. 207 g/kWh is grams of gasoline, whereas 200 g/kWh in the Irish grid is most likely grams of CO2. 200 g gasoline/kWh = 640 gCO2/kWh. About this ICE: I have been waiting for years for news like this! Some years back, there were lost of news on this site about simple ICEs to be used for series hybrids or range extenders. But in the mean time, most car makers have opted for their most popular (and expensive) ICEs with twin-turbo, cylinder cut-off, variable valve timing, double overhead camshaft, etc. This is what is needed; a simple, inexpensive, not-powerful, Millerized ICE, which depends on a battery to deliver transient performance. And no gearbox, please. Either twin-motor series/lockup, or go for broke and make a car which cannot operate below e.g. 20-30 mph on ICE power (only the final gear). Use the weight a space saved for the gearbox to install more batteries.
About battery replacement: 1) The battery will probably last at least 300 k km. I say that because Tesla offers lifetime guarantee, although I am aware that Tesla partners with Panasonic and VW gets their ID.3 batteries from LG Chem (currently). 2) Battery packs for the MEB platform will have to conform to just a few form factors for millions of cars, creating a wealth of suppliers including for the aftermarket. This ought to drive the cost down. So when we get 250-300 Wh/kg batteries in 8 years (guess), your car is not just a useless lump of expensive metals with an unsaleable battery range. PS: Legislation should be put in place to keep car makers from tying customers to their batteries only. If you have purchased a replacement battery legally, it should be replaceable by an appropriate agent (your regular mechanic...), who also handles the old battery responsibly.
It also offers: - No having to flick on the 'Mobile Hotspot' in your phone settings - Complete instantaneous and logged spying of your driving; speed, acceleration, no. of passengers, etc. - No guarantee that these data will not be sold to 3rd party, such as your insurance company or dubious data harvesters Enjoy :-)
Great. Now stop using the beefed-up starter/generator and use an e-motor integrated in the gearbox and decoupled from the ICE. Then loose 1st gear in the transmission and/or increase overall drive ratio to reduce rpm of the ICE and use the e-motor for all small accelerations, possibly combined with information from nav computer (stay in top gear over a hilltop) and possibly front radar to allow the e-motor to absorb all those little changes in vehicle speed in traffic. I can physically feel the energy lost in the torque converter when starting from zero, and it would be so great to get to 2nd gear speed with the e-motor and engage from there. Also, I daily drive on rolling hills where the gearbox shifts down for <10 sec to climb over a hilltop and I'm sure a lot of energy gets lost there. Especially great, if this energy could be supplied from recuperated brake/coast energy.
"However, I am not holding my breath waiting for this future to arrive." Neither am I. I am actively working on it. The non-power-producing sources of CO2 I can think of to combine with H2 from electrolysis include: - Biogas (the most easily available CO2 source in Denmark) - Cement plants (from calcination proces, CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2) - Waste incineration plants - Steel production - Etc. By my calculations, the amount of carbon emitted from the calcination process - globally - is about twice as much as the amount used for jet fuel - the hardest fossil fuel to replace.
Much needed information for perspective: Total annual tonnage of plastic waste vs. total annual tonnage of jetfuel consumed for >300 mile flights. I suspect the former is <10% of the latter, i.e. hardly consequential. We need REAL measures. A few percent here and there simply won't cut it. It's dwarfed by the relentless rise in demand for air travel
E-P, The picture says: Cooling: water/glycol
How do these weight savings compare to the weight of fully-electric ventilated, watercooled massage leather seats in my 7-feet tall aerodynamics-like-a-brick SUV? Strip out all the really expensive parts of the VW XL1, and be happy with a commuter car that 'only' gets 150 mpg. Simple starter/generator-based 48V micro-hybrid boost for acceleration to supplement a frugal, small-displacement diesel.
In Denmark it is illegal to even touch the phone in any way while in traffic. Except if it is firmly mounted and connected wirelessly - then you're allowed to receive calls. If you get caught, there is $220 fine and a cut in your licence (3 cuts within 3 years and you have to retake the licence - which usually costs at least $500-1000, provided you pass the tests the first time around). Using a handheld phone, and particularly texting on a smartphone (in the old days with actual keyboard, many were able to type successfully without looking at the display) seriously impairs ones ability to pay attention to the surroudings and operate a vehicle safely.
This proves what I have said many times in discussions of battery energy density: The limitation for car makers is the volumetri energy density [Wh/litre] (of the whole pack), rather than the gravimetric energy density [Wh/kg]. Nice to see that there is still room for good-ol' mechanical improvements - which is what's responsible for this recent development.
Ironically, Poland gets most of their electricity from dirty lignite-fired power plants with horrible gCO2/kWh figures... But for air quality in cities, this is good news. PS. They can offset some of the polution from the Euro 3 and below cars retired from "Western European" countries that they also drive.
Once they get to real series production, the shipment becomes less of a risk. The reactor is shipped without fuel, so there is no risk there, only loss of equipment. And even that is less of a risk with series production, where a replacement can be made. If they make the reactors truly identical (which nobody ever does...), then they could even have a small (2-10) stock of reactors to smooth out hikes and dips in demand. Many regions world wide would be well served by nuclear + solar, with the latter capturing 60-85% of the power delivery (GWh).
The added cost of an electrical car to ensure acceptable working conditions in the cobalt mines are probably less than a dollar and certainly ten dollars. End users of Cobalt, i.e. the battery and car manufacturers cannot turn the blind eye; they have a moral responsibility to pursue this issue, once they become aware about it. Private consumers cannot take care of this, since they cannot, and should not be required to, ask questions about the chemistry of their battery and its origins. Big buyers have the purchasing power to instigate changes. There is nothing wrong with cobalt, or any other substance, as long as it is produced and used in a responsible manner.
The X-ray drawing of the van wonderfully illustrates how the battery could easily be 10 times larger... This proves what I have often said: nearly all other vehicles, except long-haul ships and planes, are easier to electrify, because they either run predictable trips, or have a much, much better payload-to-weight ratio. And to top that, most other vehicles than cars have more spare volume (relatively). Even long-haul trucks. 57 kW electric motor... Why?!?!?
I imagine massive, unlit, unmanned buildings with hundreds or thousands of these machines churning out parts with near-zero material waste. Their speed is utterly unimportant. The only relevant parameters is price per part and their quality and refinement (material/strengt and surface). Of course speed factors into the price, but only as one of many factors.
Holy cow! The same battery capacity as a Tesla P100!... They are really pulling all the stops on this battery initiative /sarcasm On the positive side, it should be really trivial to fit 10 times as much battery capacity in a train (with a floor height of typically >1 m) and achieve 400 km / 250 mile range, which would be suitable for many locations. Less batteries can be used with shorter distances or possibility for opportunity charging. Possibly add a 150 hp limp-home diesel for emergencies (although I dread that this system will markedly increase complexity, not least wrt licensing and maintenance.
The emergence of very cheap solar and wind power leads me to think that aircraft OEMs should really revisit the concept of hydrogen powered air crafts. Using liquid hydrogen, there would be a cooling medium available for low-temperature super-conducting electric motors. But can fuel cells be made powerful and light enough to power a plane, say at cruising load +20%? Takeoff load would come from batteries, making the plane a PHEP. Or is is better to accept the additional losses by converting the hydrogen to synthetic hydrocarbons? PS. I wonder how they calculate the efficiency of the electrolysis process. It is known that there is the loss of evaporating the water (the liquid water is turned into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen). thyssenkrupp has stated 82% efficiency at HHV, whereas Wikipedia states that LHV should be used for electrolysers that require liquid water supply (other types, such as PEM and SOEC can use steam generated from waste heat). In that case the efficiency ends up at 69,7% based on LHV.
This is awesome! I'm no fan of these little noisy smoker-diesels in diggers, dozers, etc. No noise. No smoke. What's not to like? From what I've heard about entry of electrification into work vehicles so far is only positive
"EDI’s hybrid system is the most versatile on the market today, able to switch, in real time, between fully electric, series and parallel modes." LOL Like ANY other hybrid on the market.
I positively loathe low-floor buses, including in particular the Mercedes Citaro. The interior is cramped and like a 3D maze. In winter operation with huge jackets and school bags, it is nearly impossible to get around. The windows are so high that your elbow is below the window sill. This sounds like a minor thing but is actually a major inconvenience and space- and comfort-reducing factor. Having the elbows, which is typically the widest point of the body of a person, above the window sill effectively gives 2'' extra seating width. If the buses didn't have to be low-floor, you'd naturally place all the heavy, bulky equipment low, improving the handling of the bus and the serviceability. I'm wondering why a 12 tonne bus should have less power than a Tesla..? A bit more zip to the buses (with CPU-controlled acceleration profile to minimize the jerkiness of the bus) would improve their operation and adapt better to the other city traffic.
Mahonj, In the US, you see very little container trucking. For two reasons, I suppose: 1) This trailer holds a lot more than a 40' container 2) Trucking distances can be very high, with up to 2000 km from the ocean For hauling from shipping port to central storage in the middle of the country, this truck would be great. For delivies to a multitude of customers, it may lack too much in practicality. P.S. All refer trailers should be fitted with solar panels. Installation cost should be negligible in a factory.
What's under the hood? Literally! Bla bla fifth generation bla bla fresh package of technology bla bla. "We lowered the floor of an X3 to make space for the batteries, and then we have half a cubic meter of unused space under the hood where the gas engine used to be." 400 km range from a 70 kWh battery with that bodyshape..? HA!
Brian P., Good analysis. A quick glance at the system architecture sketch shows that roughly 5 times more battery volume could be put in place, provided that they are taken into account sufficiently early in the engineering. This boosts the claim of many, including myself, that vans and trucks are actually better equipped to accommodate an adequate battery pack than passenger cars.