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All attempts to introduce high speed trains in the USA have been sabotaged by the climate saboteurs. As with so many other things, the USA is decades behind Europe - socially, environmentally, politically, civilisationally. Such a shame. The real American Spirit got Shanghaied a long time ago.
Nuclear – is that what is meant by “what works”? The leading edge EPR reactor in France has cost €10.9 billion so far and rising for a 1.65 GW plant. CO2 heat pumps running from the air, not the ground, have a CoP of 4 under worst case conditions, up to 8 in better conditions. 77% of domestic energy use in France is on space heating and water heating and 31% of the TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION in Europe is for the same – domestic space heating and hot water. Every single CO2 heat pump installed will cut that by 75% minimum. If they had given away for free 2 million heat pumps for that €11 billion, 10% of French households, cutting their water and heating energy use by a factor of 4 they could have shut down 6 of the existing 900 MWe nuclear reactors – superfluous to requirements, instead of wasting it on building yet another NPP. If every household in Europe had a CoP 4 heat pump, Europe’s Total Energy Consumption - Total – would be reduced by 23%. A Quarter. What makes more sense – burning more coal and gas and generating more nuclear waste, the most toxic substances ever known when every dollar and euro spent could instead cut energy consumption by a factor of 4 to 8?
"Consumer Reports urges all drivers to pay close and consistent attention to the driving task," What has happened to the world? "Not driving with due care and attention" is a criminal offence in the UK - not an optional extra.
The new head of EDF has just stated that the cost of building the 1.6 GW EPR reactor will be 10.5 billion euros with entry in service now 2018 at the earliest. Original cost: 3 billion euros, commissioning supposed to be 2012. The London Array offshore wind farm (1 GW) was 1 billion euros to start, increased to 2 billion. So the EPR is 3.3 times as expensive as offshore wind, never mind onshore wind. The DLR study for the Desertec project showed that a negligible chunk of the Algerian Sahara Desert alone could power all of Europe with solar thermal - something like a quarter of Algeria could power the entire world. Solar Thermal is NOT intermittent - heat is stored in molten salt for night-time generation. Archimedes destroyed the Roman fleet at Syracuse with parabolic mirrors - massive energy available for free. The human race must be stark raving mad, off its rocker, collectively hallucinating, criminally negligent and insane not to be using solar thermal power to solve all of its electrical power needs. Safe, fuel free, reliable, robust, long plant service life, low maintenance, simple technology to drive steam or supercritical CO2 or ORAC turbines. An NPP is a kettle to boil water. That's all. So instead of using a parabolic mirror - let's use radioactive decay. As I said - humanity is mad and worse the "engineers" who should know better are all criminally negligent only interested in their miserable jobs rather than doing what is technically and professionally correct. Oh nimble technicians, yes you should hang your heads in shame. (WH AUden paraphrase).
Very simple. The anode is SnC or carbon, with Na atoms intercalated into it, or the anode is a sodium metal plate, just like a LiIon or Li metal battery. On discharge the Na atoms then enter the non-aqueous electrolyte next to the anode, which already contains sodium chlorate, like LiF6 in a LiIon battery. The cathode is like the “air cathode” membrane in a ZnAir or LiAir battery that communicates with the outside environment, which allows oxygen to enter from the air and react with the lithium ions. Except in this case the cathode membrane communicates with seawater and the seawater is the cathode. So just as in a LiIon where the Li ions intercalate into a solid cathode (LiFePO4 etc.), in this case they “intercalate” into seawater. Then when you want to recharge, instead of having a fixed and declining supply of Na ions in a solid intercalation cathode, (declining because they become more and more bound into the matrix over time) you have a limitless and mobile supply of Na ions from the seawater cathode to recharge the anode. So this is very cheap since it replaces the expensive LiIon cathode material with seawater. No need for lithium mining extraction either and purification to high levels to prevent battery reliability problems – you can just make the battery in a discharged state and charge it by sticking it in seawater, to provide the Na ions which then move through the carbon paper and cathode membrane and intercalate into the anode – battery charged up and ready to go. You could use it in a marine application with the cathode membrane simply on the side of a ship etc in contact with the water or in a car/appliance etc with a sealed compartment full of seawater or just NaCl solution. What an excellent idea!! Very simple and cheap.
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Apr 5, 2013