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The Junkers Jumo 205 was an outstanding engine. However, opposed piston engines were developed by many companies, e.g. Fairbanks Morse, Commer, Napier, Rolls Royce, Leyland, and KMDB. Today, KMDB in the Ukraine still markets a two-stroke multifuel engine with six cylinders 1500 HP version of the 6TD series of engine.
How about this if you can solve the H2 Infrastructure issues and use Blue H2 or Geothermal H2 ("Toyota in on geothermal generated hydrogen project", https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20210801_07/). An H2 ICE has two problems vs an FCE: low efficiency and a corresponding greater H2 storage requirement. First, use an HCCI engine like the Mazda SPCCI Skyactive-X engine (not far off, read "2022 Mazda6 With A Toyota Straight-6/RWD Smokes Mercedes",https://www.motorbiscuit.com/2022-mazda6-with-a-toyota-straight-6-rwd-smokes-mercedes/). Second, use LOHC instead of Compressed H2. LOHC needs 200 degrees C for H2 release. Not easy on a PEMFC, on ICE use exhaust heat recovery. A 400hp inline 6, SPCCI hybrid H2 Toyota Tundra would be an interesting application.
"Toyota President Akio Toyoda will participate in the race". Noticed this on NHK TV (here is another reference: "Hydrogen-fueled Toyota vehicle conquers 24-hour endurance race", https://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/14362893). The article points out- “We will increase options for decarbonization technologies,” said Toyota President Akio Toyoda, who also served as a driver in the endurance race. “And we have just taken the first step.” So which tech do you think he prefers?
It is difficult to find the weight of the Toyota RAV4 battery. The Toyota Prius Prime 8.79 kWh battery weighs 128.83 kg using 25Ah Panasonic cells (95 cells, 25 Ah, 91,675 Wh per cell). The RAV4 has 18.1 kWh (96 cells, 51 Ah, 188.7 Wh per cell). The RAV4 battery is water cooled, mounted outside so probably weighs more- estimate 140 kg. Battery pack energy density, around 130 Wh/kg. By comparison, the Chevy Volt PHEV 18.4 kWh battery weighed 181 kg.
At 160 Wh/kg at the cell level, this battery can be used in EV. The Nissan Leaf 40kWh battery is 132 Wh/kg at the battery pack level, CATL "Cell-to-Pack" can achieve this weight energy density (85% of cell energy). The CATL LFP battery used in the Tesla 3 Made in China has only 165 Wh/kg (140 Wh/kg at the pack level). So the Gen 2 could easily handle that requirement. (Check out Moneyball -"LFP Tesla Model 3 — Nothing to See Here", https://moneyballr.medium.com/lfp-tesla-model-3-nothing-to-see-here-8c241ef38399).
From: https://www.pv-magazine.com/2021/07/29/catl-claims-to-have-made-sodium-ion-batteries-a-commercial-reality/. The Cathode is Prussian white material (NaxFe[Fe(CN)6]y·nH2O) and the anode is a hard-carbon electrode. Low cost materials that have already demonstrated long cycle lives and fast charge/discharge cycles.
To get to volume scale quickly just replace Lead Acid batteries.
From one of Niron Magnetics references: The key controversies around this material have now been successfully addressed through our long and persistent efforts from 2002 to 2012, first reported in APS 2010 and then at INTERMAG 2012. Since then, α″-Fe16N2 has been picked up as one of the most promising rare-earth-free magnet candidates because of its use of environment-friendly raw materials, confirmed giant saturation magnetic flux density (2.9 T), and reasonably high magnetic anisotropy constant (1.8 MJ/m3). Its coercivity temperature coefficient (~0.4 Oe/°C) in the range of 27–152 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of commercial NdFeB magnets (e.g. N40 ~ −81.9 Oe/K). "Environment-friendly bulk Fe16N2 permanent magnet: Review and prospective",Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Volume 497, 1 March 2020, 165962 (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304885319325454). Neodymium magnets can create magnetic fields with up to 1.4 teslas.
@Roger, You may want to read this Car and Driver article, "Ford F-150 Electric Pickup May Get Newly Patented Range Extender in Its Bed". https://www.caranddriver.com/news/a34277725/ford-f-150-range-extender-ev-pickup-patent/.
I would like to believe that Toyota believes in PHEV and BEV, but reality tells me that they are "Plug Averse". Why are there only two Toyota PHEV and are not produced in greater numbers? What could be the best BEV in the world is the Toyota BZ - a joint venture between Toyota, BYD, Subaru, and Suzuki. It has the BYD "blade LFP battery" and Cell-to-Pack battery design. You only need a 65 kWh battery and for those rare occasions you need a 400 mile range Suzuki could build a Range Extender. Sadly, this is only a "China Compliance Vehicle", so don't expect a worldwide rollout. What Gill Pratt is saying is "Please do not outlaw ICE vehicles". BTW the best auto I ever owned was a 1982 Toyota Supra, wish I still had it, too.
@mahonj, Good question. Only suspect they are using current components, e.g. Williams Formula E battery, which is in the 370 kg range. Maybe they need to talk to Mate Rimac (his company is now partly owned by VW Porsche division). Rimac made a 4.5 kWh, 65 kg 500 kW battery for the Koenigsegg Regera. Probably, made the 15 kWh Koenigsegg Gemera battery which has 900 kW power. So definitely could save 180 kg for a smaller battery. However, would need a new BMS and inverter.
YASA is one of the top electric motors. The Ferrari SF90 Stradale hybrid and Rolls Royce Accel electric aircraft use their motors.
Check earlier post. My comments fit the design nearly perfect.
Renewable diesel is about using carbon fuels where electric transport does not look feasible in the near future. Sustainable Aviation Fuels that are drop in replacements for jet fuel is one area, Maritime replacement of Heavy Bunker Oil is another. The Aviation and Shipping sector each contribute about 2.5% of Global GHG. Renewable diesel will be important for these applications.
EV are evolving all the time. Hewland which has been building racing transmissions for decades is now working with Formula E and their rules allow multispeed transmissions. However, most teams stay with 1 or 2 speeds, no more than 3 (https://www.hewland.com/formula-e-transmission-evolution/). @Vmacd69 - Thanks, checked out Exro Technologies. Exro's Dynamic Power Management (DPM) is a software system, which controls electric motor coils (in the stator) to enable two separate torque profiles within a given motor. The first is calibrated for low speed and high torque, while the second provides expanded operation at high speed (https://insideevs.com/news/430331/exro-ev-motors-electromagnetic-gearbox/ and expo.com). Also, Exro Technologies has a development partnership with Zero Motorcycles, which sounds interesting.
Toggle Commented Jul 12, 2021 on Bosch demonstrates CVT for EVs at Green Car Congress
Not a fan of CVT on any type of auto. However, multispeed transmissions do have benefits for EV. Please read this Car and Driver article which states: "Having a multispeed transmission in an EV provides the same benefits that it does in a gasoline-powered car: improved low-speed acceleration and increased efficiency at high velocity by lowering the rotating speed of the power source. In other words, the ratio spread of the two-speed transmission will help the Taycan's highway driving range while also making it quicker." Reference:https://www.caranddriver.com/news/a28903274/porsche-taycan-transmission/ A two speed automatic is all that is necessary like in the Porsche Taycan.
Toggle Commented Jul 12, 2021 on Bosch demonstrates CVT for EVs at Green Car Congress
I was thinking about efficiency, not top speed. The Porsche Taycan two-speed transmission makes the highway range as good as the more efficient Tesla. Bottom line: EV do not have any real issues anymore unless you think you need more than 250 miles more range (which until the 21st century was adequate for all cars). BTW the Chevy Bolt is an outstanding value and finally selling well. GM just needs to start making all of their vehicles EV (soon I think). Definitely on my short list.
@sd Thanks for the input. My 8 year old Nissan Leaf will need to be exchanged soon, so appreciate your info. One question: the Bolt EV blogs mention that using recirculate keeps that range deficit low. Do you use that setting? Otherwise, it is important to dispel any concerns one has on climate impact on EV. Highway range is the other and the VW group use of multi-speed transmissions seems to be the answer.
@Lad, Good point about heat pumps. The Car and Driver article points out that their Tesla Model 3 did not have a heat pump. The Tesla Model Y has a special "octovalve heat pump" that gives a 10% improvement in efficiency. Given that Winter/Summer conditions do reduce EV range around 30%, then one of the big issues for EVs may be eliminated with heat pumps and Daikin’s new refrigerant.
Double checking Car and Driver numbers: range change is 35% - 173 miles vs 234 miles. So 50% would be 156 mile range, so maybe Tokyo traffic is part of the equation.
A car with a range of 200 km on a full charge could travel an additional 100 km with the new refrigerant, according to the report. Not 50% of available power, more like 33%. Car and Driver tested a Tesla Model 3 loses about 35% of range by turning on the HVAC. Reference: "How Much Does Climate Control Affect EV Range?" https://www.caranddriver.com/news/a31739529/how-much-does-climate-control-affect-ev-range/.
Carbon Dioxide at higher concentrations leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death.
Good points! The Transport & Environment web site has some other good posts, like "Private jets: can the super-rich supercharge zero emission aviation?" It calculates that a jet fuel tax applied proportionately to flight distances could raise €325 million if applied to all private flights departing from the EU and UK. If some of that money could be reserved for making green hydrogen and electric planes a reality, then the richest flyers would be indirectly paying towards cleaning up aviation. https://www.transportenvironment.org/news/could-super-rich-super-polluters-private-jets-clean-aviation. Or "Making aviation fuel mandates sustainable" which promotes advanced biofuels, (done correctly based on true wastes and residues) and the use of e-fuels for the aviation sector. One company that may lead the world in e-fuels is Zero Petroleum. The company is the brainchild of Paddy Lowe and his business partner Professor Nilay Shah, Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Imperial College. Paddy Lowe was formerly the executive director of the Mercedes Formula One (F1) racing team and now F1 plans to move to e-fuels in 2025.
ZeroAvia made a good choice with Dornier 228 since DLR and MTU chose the same airframe for their FC aircraft; "DLR and MTU Aero En­gines study fu­el cell propul­sion sys­tem for avi­a­tion", https://www.dlr.de/content/en/articles/news/2020/03/20200805_dlr-and-mtu-aero-engines-study-fuel-cell-propulsion-system-for-aviation.html. DLR/MTU will only change one engine to a 500 kW FC+electric motor (both in the nacelle), keeping one Honeywell TPE331 turboprop engine for safety purposes (standard aviation practice). MTU also views direct combustion of liquid hydrogen in gas turbine engines as a potentially faster means of adopting the alternative fuel. Wonder if another "liquid hydrogen carrier could be used, e.g. Hydrogenious LOHC? The existing fuel tanks could store the LOHC and with the HyPoint HT-PEM like ZeroAvia wants to use would solve two problems: releasing the H2 requires heat and the FC waste heat is removed from the aircraft, Can this be done in the aircraft, possibly? This article discusses LOHC in a train based scenario ( though weight of the H2 Release Unit is not as critical as an aircraft) - "Reliability of liquid organic hydrogen carrier-based energy storage in a mobility application", https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ese3.646.
@Davemart, Concrete is difficult. However, now there are some companies like CarbonCure, Solidia, and LC3(Limestone Calcined Clay Cement) that are working on reducing CO2 in Cement and Concrete. You can read about it here:"Carbon-sucking concrete is capturing attention and funding", https://www.greenbiz.com/article/carbon-sucking-concrete-capturing-attention-and-funding and in this detailed UN Report: "REACHING ZERO WITH RENEWABLES", https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2020/Sep/IRENA_Reaching_zero_2020.pdf.