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The question is where is battery design headed. Are 18650 and 2170 no longer the standard? Will EV batteries use Bipolar 3D designs like ProLogium or EMBATT? What about the 24M semi-solid battery or this semiliquid lithium metal-based anode? We may learn soon.
This does look an important step in the development of Solid State Batteries (SSB). Contact between the Anode, Electrolyte, and Cathode is critical to the success of the SSB. I read yesterday about research at Fraunhofer on Solid State Batteries. and their work with EMPA which used a liquid approach to solid-state battery electrolytes. From the EMPA website: The (solid) electrolyte consists of a closo-borate compound, which is mixed as a powder and pressed into a layer between the anode and the cathode (the two poles of the battery). However, this method had to be optimized, because the necessary contact between the closo-borate layer is impaired by cracks in the surface of the cathode made of porous sodium chromium oxide (NaCrO2). These cracks prevent continuous contact with the electrolyte, which impedes the flow of ions, i.e. the charge carrier, and thus impairs the charging capacity of the battery. Note:The closo-borate electrolyte also works with Sodium batteries (Fraunhofer has partnered with the Finnish battery company "BroadBit Batteries" for their dry cathode processing technology. Broadbit is developing a Sodium SSB. The future of SSB appears to be closely connected to the process now.
This article is really about long life NMC cathodes for a Lithium metal battery that are practical for EV applications. Al-doped full-concentration-gradient Li[Ni0.75Co0.10Mn0.15]O2 cathode . . . Cycled in a pouch-type cell for 500 cycles, the LMB retained 90% of initial capacity. If the conventional electrolyte used in this study is substituted with a solid state electrolyte and a dry processed cathode process, then you have the basis for a high performance solid state battery. BTW the lead researcher in this study, Yang-Kook Sun was group leader at Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology before he became a Professor of Energy Engineering at the Hanyang University.
From this post just above. A paper on the Fraunhofer process, with colleagues from Samsung R&D in Japan is published in the journal Energy Strorage Materials. You can also check the history of the institute here - http://www.samsung-srj.co.jp/en/profile/. Satoshi Fujiki, Tomoyuki Shiratsushi, Tomoyuki Tsujimura, Yuichi Aihara are shown in Energy Storage Materials, doi: 10.1016/j.ensm.2019.05.033 as from Samsung R&D in Japan. Samsung is a major supplier to German auto companies for automotive batteries, e.g. BMW i3.
Let's not forget that this research was done with colleagues from Samsung R&D Institute Japan.
This engine would be a great place for Mercedes Benz to use some of their Formula One technology. Sure the Mercedes-AMG One uses this technology for the road, but it is a 1231 hp $1 million hypercar. This is a series production engine and would be great in a "low cost" AMG GT. Nissan has a concept called the Infiniti Project Black S concept car and uses Renault F1 tech. It has a 3 liter 400hp V6, a 163 hp e motor and a 4.4-kWh lithium-ion battery pack. So put a similar size e motor on this 4 cylinder and you would have a 584 hp PHEV super coupe, more than the AMG GT R!
@yoatmon Definitely looks like EMBATT 3.0 Bipolar ASSB technology. Let's hope it makes it into production in 2020.
Realistically, The BAS has 3 components the 48V battery (probably LiFEPO), the DC-DC Converter, and the Belt Alternator Starter. Continental sources their battery from China so VW may also (VW handles procurement for Audi). An interesting point the Audi still has a 12 volt battery for cold starts (Lead Acid is great for high power, i.e Amps). The total cost for the BAS will likely be less than $1k. BTW I am an SAP consultant and have implemented Procurement systems at many large manufacturing companies. VW uses SAP for their Procurement processes.
10 Ah at 48 V is 480 Wh, that is E-bike battery size ($100 on Alibaba though Audi probably pays 5 times that price).
This might work for school buses which are parked most of the day.
Kudos to VW and Integral Powertrain for breaking the electric record at the Nürburgring-Nordschleife. Remarkable when you consider that it beat the NIO EP9 record with half the power of the NIO (it has a 1000 kW engine). It should also be pointed out that Integral Powertrain of Milton Keynes, UK won the 2018 Dewar Trophy and Integral Director, Roger Duckworth is following his father, Keith Duckworth, who won the trophy for the Cosworth DFW. Integral Powertrain collaborated with Williams Advanced Engineering on the Aston Martin Rapide E 460 kW powertrain. So it would be appropriate that Integral should work on the new Lotus 130 hypercar bringing back the great traditions of Lotus Cosworth cars of the past. Now if they can only get close to the VW ID.R weight of 1100 kg!
After reviewing the Aston Martin Rapide E, noticed that the 65 kW battery used 5600 18650 cells. Williams Advanced Engineering should be able to make the battery with an energy density of 215 Wh/kg at the pack level matching Formula E battery energy density, so 300 kg pack weight for 65 kWh usable energy. If Lotus uses YASA motors (the Ferrari SF90 Stradale PHEV uses YASA) they could use the YASA EDU concept e-motor and controller that gets 300 kW peak @ 700V and weighs 85kg - figure 340 kW @ 800V, one EDU per axle so over 900 hp total.
Correction the McLaren Gen2 Formula E car has 54 kWh of usable energy. The Formula E battery has to propel cars to speeds of up to 225kph for the duration of the race (up to 45 minutes).
Remember the Lotus 130 will be built with the help of Williams Advanced Engineering who has been involved with Formula E (they built the first gen battery). The current Formula E battery weighs 250 kg and has 57 kWh, so we are looking at 300 kg or less. For comparison, the Lotus Evora has a 400 hp supercharged Toyota V6 that weighs around 200 kg, not a 1.2l Coventry Climax 4 cylinder like the 1962 Lotus Elite. The Formula E engines have a power to weight of 8:1 and are designed to operate at high output. Also the battery will use high power density 2170 batteries (probably Sony) and will handle top speed better than a Tesla. The Lotus 130 will be roughly the same size as the Ferrari SF90 Stradale PHEV which weighs 3461 lbs dry, Heavier than a Ferrari 488 or F8 Tributo or Lotus Evora (all around 1435 kg or 3164 lbs). The Ferrari SF90 Stradale PHEV has almost 1000 hp, an all electric range of 15.5 miles and will cost around $1 million.
My guess is the Lotus 130 will be similar to the Lotus Evora, a little wider (78 inches vs Evora 's 74.2 inches). The car is being built with assistance of Williams Advanced Engineering. Williams Advanced Engineering has a joint manufacturing venture called Hyperbat that is building the battery and electric drive for the Aton Martin Rapide E. So possibly a similar 65 kWh battery like the Rapide E or slightly larger if the Lotus 130 has more than 610 hp (estimates are around 1000 hp). Probably have a range slightly more than 200 miles and top speed greater than 155 mph. The key thing to look for will be vehicle weight which is a Lotus trademark (as Colin Chapman said "“Simplify, then add lightness").
When I worked at Southern Company almost 40 years ago I could see that large scale LWR were risky, capital intensive ventures. At that time Vogtle 1 cost over $10 billion and required help from Georgia EMC. France and Duke Power at least were smart to settle on a standard design which reduced risks. NPP have an outstanding safety record, though I still believe that scaling up from the original Nautilus submarine design was not the best idea. Like a super sized jumbo jet if one fails like at Fukushima it becomes a global disaster. Small modular nuclear reactors may not need government support and are less capital intensive than a 1400 MW LWR. As EP points out if you want to go zero CO2 you need Nuclear and Hydro, or you can forget about any Hydrogen economy.
Correction Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies is Singapore based. It was founded in Singapore in 2003 and still has Global HQ in Singapore.
Read an interesting story at Greentech Media about modular and advanced reactor concepts. Never a big fan of conventional LWR mainly because of their size and cost (I don't like jumbo jets, 4000 passenger cruise ships, or oversize anything). Having experienced the cost and schedules problems of Plant Vogtle 1first hand when I worked at Southern Company Services, their current situation is no surprise. Hoping modular reactors succeed and soon!
DHL is apparently responding to FedEx even using the same type of fuel cells. The DHL H2 Panel Van is based on the StreetScooter WORK XL delivery vehicle (really a Ford Transit Van). The DHL H2 Panel Van has a 26 kW Plug Power ProGen fuel cell, a 6 kg H2 tank @ 700 bar, a 40 kWh Lithium Ion battery, and a 122 kW motor. FedEx uses a Workhorse custom built EGEN delivery van with a 20 kW (2x10 kW) Plug Power ProGen fuel cell, 11.6 kg H2, an 80 kWh battery, and a 268 hp motor. A description of the FedEx Van is here. The DHL H2 Panel Van specs are on the Press Release factsheet at dpdhl.com (in German).
@Davemart Remember the GCC post about the SMR system suited for distributed applications, a team from Georgia Tech in 2014 proposed the sorption-enhanced CO2/H2 Active Membrane Piston reactor (CHAMP-SORB). Check the comments.
From the article "projects to offer roughly four times the volumetric hydrogen storage capacity of 700 bar incumbents when used in a system at ambient temperature and moderate pressures, without the need for external heat management because of its unique nano-scale heat sinking mechanism." This is an important aspect of this research. The cost and size of hydrogen storage systems has always seemed to be left out in the discussion of fuel cell vehicles, though one of the most critical areas if they are to be fully developed. Fill times are briefly discussed in the Supplemental Material on page 17, stating equilibrium times of one minute compared to 5 minutes and a "The total measurement time for 54 cycles was 12 days." Not sure what exact operational times would be. Interesting also that research was supported by Hydro Quebec.
The use of a Blended Wing Body is an interesting approach to solve the poor volumetric energy density of liquid hydrogen. However, the need for fuel cells is probably unnecessary. The new GE9X proposed for the Boeing 777X has efficiency that equals fuel cell efficiency and would provide an existing solution (fuel cells would be OK for the APU however). Of course as pointed out the H2 would most likely come from reforming methane, which would be acceptable if the CO2 was sequestered.
Making 500 bar fuel injection economical is a good step to improving the efficiency of GDI engines. Formula One has permitted 500 bar fuel injection pressure since 2014 and are an important component of the 50% plus efficiency of the hybrid turbo compounded F1 engines.
Chunsheng Wang has researched the “Water-in-Salt” Electrolyte in both Sodium Ion and in Lithium Metal anodes . In the last article, he states on page 125 "Pre-coating a graphite electrode or a Li-metal foil with a thin layer of LiTFSI-HFE gel enables the stable cycling of these anode materials in gel-WiSE without apparent hydrogen evolution. "
This could be a significant discovery for two reasons: using a reaction conversion cathode and a safe high voltage aqueous electrolyte. The Conversion cathode yields "an unprecedented energy density of 970 Wh kg−1, almost twice as high as that of transition-metal intercalation cathodes." as noted in the Nature article. From another article, this quote:"The paper by the University of Maryland and the Army team is the most creative new battery chemistry I have seen in at least 10 years," said Professor Jeff Dahn, of Dalhousie University in Canada. Dahn is a leader in battery technology and one of the inventors of the lithium ion battery. "The fact that the LiCl and LiBr reversibly convert and form halogen intercalated graphite is truly incredible. The team has demonstrated encouraging reversibility for 150 cycles and have shown that high energy densities should be attainable in 4-volt cells that contain no transition metals and no non-aqueous solvents. It remains to be seen if a practical long-lived commercial cell can be developed, but I am very excited by this research." It should also be noted that this was done with a Graphite anode. Higher energy density anodes like Silicon or Lithium metal should improve the overall cell energy density.