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3900 Nm is probably wheel torque. For example the wheel torque on the Tesla Model 3 is 3700 Nm, the motor torque is 416 Nm (307 lb-ft). Multiply the motor torque with the final drive ratio 9:1.
Just for reference, the Tesla Model 3 RWD Integrated Drive Unit also with inverter weighs around 90 kg and has 211 kW power (283 hp). The Chevy Bolt Drive unit weighs 76 kg with 150 kW though it has separate power inverter, power distribution, and DC-DC converter modules. Not sure what the BMW iX3 specs are, they should be impressive if it is based on the iFE.18 drive unit.
I have always liked deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities with their tube worms and other amazing creatures that have prokaryotic chemolithoautotrophic microbes as primary producers using the oxidation of electron donors available in hydrothermal fluid (H2, H2S, and Fe+2) to fuel carbon fixation, and they do it very efficiently too.
Audi Sport Abt Schaeffler which competes in FIA Formula E has already built an amazing 4ePerformance concept based on an Audi RS3 sedan that has 4 220 kW motors (one per wheel connecting them via a spur gear unit). The result is 880kW, which is equivalent to 1,184bhp and torque vectoring. These motors weigh 26 kg each so power to weight is over 5hp per pound. The YASA motor (one of the partners in this Innovate UK project) has a current motor with 160 kW(214 hp) peak power @ 700V and weighs 24 kg (4hp per pound). So imagine 40% less weight (power to weight of 7hp per pound). So with the Alvant tech we are looking at aerospace applications, e.g. eVTOL or hybrid electric aircraft. For example a GE T700 turboshaft engine used on an AH-64 Apache helicopter has around 4 hp/lb. even the brand new T901 probably gets around 6hp/lb.
BTW the BMW i3 increased range is due to the Samsung SDI 120Ah battery cells. the battery pack has 8 modules with 12 cells each. Total battery capacity around 42,62 kWh (96 x 120 Ah x 3,7 V).
@Bernard Not sure about your comment. There are many 2014 BMW i3 available for around $15K USD less than 50k miles and with a Range Extender provides around 150 miles range. UC Davis was a pioneer in the field of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles. Dr. Andrew Frank is considered to be the father of modern plug-in vehicles (the original title probably goes to Ferdinand Porsche and his 1900 Lohner-Porsche). Dr. Frank is the CTO of Efficient Drivetrains now a division of Cummins. The 2019 BMW i3 has a 120Ah (42.2 kWh) battery twice the size of the 2014 model and the exterior dimensions of the battery pack remain unchanged. So it could be upgraded to the new battery.
An earlier GCC post on 12-05-14 and an SAE article ( discuss the OGeco unit in more detail. Not much yet on the H-RAM (hybrid rear axle module). Looks like this tech could expand hybrid and plugin tech to a wide variety of vehicles including high performance vehicles(the SAE article describes converting the Mercedes 435-kW (583-hp) V8 SLS AMG to hybrid) or large trucks/SUV.
How about an electric Lamborghini Terzo Millennio. CTO Maurizio Reggiani told Automotive News that said a Lamborghini EV should exceed a 186-mph top speed and provide enough juice for three full laps of the Nürburgring. Oerlikon Graziano transaxles are standard in the cars produced by Aston Martin, Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati, McLaren, Audi and some of the most recently announced new cars.
A hybrid or PHEV version would increase efficiency to over 50% (reference Mercedes Benz F1 Hybrid Engine). This would add increased performance as well, though with additional weight and complexity. Note: Cummins already has plug-in hybrid electric powertrains - The added benefit of this system is the dual fuel capability that a pure fuel cell system would not have, particularly since there are still few H2 fueling facilities. If Zero emissions are a requirement, e.g. urban areas and the economics make sense then this might be a solution.
Johnson Matthey projects that by 2021 the eLNO cathode will lead to $100/kWh battery cells. . . . . Add to this news the fact that earlier this year that Cummins acquired Johnson Matthey’s UK automotive battery systems business. Johnson Matthey will focus on developing high energy battery materials, including eLNO product and Cummins will work on BEV and Range Extended Electric Vehicles (Bus and Trucks).
The Subaru uses a Toyota-sourced hybrid system (based on the Prius Prime with a similar sized 8.8 kWh battery). Actually E-P many auto manufacturers are coming out with PHEV. Even Ford which will bring back the Lincoln Aviator with a PHEV that will compete with Porsche and BMW SUV PHEV. They will also have a "Mustang" based SUV PHEV and an Escape PHEV. My interest is in Honda which already has a successful PHEV in the Clarity PHEV. They plan to have 2/3 of their vehicles electric based by 2030. They are wisely partnering with GM on a next generation PHEV battery. GM has excellent PHEV and EV designs, though like in the past Marketing seems to be at odds always picking "new designs", i.e. the Volt and Bolt instead of working with successful models like Subaru is doing with their Crosstrek. Next year Honda could be bringing out a Honda Pilot PHEV, maybe even one for their new Passport SUV (based on the Honda Pilot and made in Alabama). Stay tuned!
Why would the price go up $10k? The Toyota Prius Prime is roughly $4k more expensive than a Toyota Prius, admittedly with a smallish 8.8 kWh battery. In addition The Prius Prime has $4500 incentives and makes up a significant percentage of all Prius sales.
The e-Power system looks like a good sales strategy for Nissan and should expand to other Nissan models as well. My only question is when will Nissan make this system a PHEV. Toyota has done exceptionally well selling the Prius Prime. FCA will be expanding their current PHEV lineup (currently only Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid which would compete with the Serena e-Power and is the best selling minivan) with new Jeep PHEV planned for 2020. The Jeep Renegade PHEV will have a 1.3 L turbo with 177 hp and an electric rear axle. The small SUV market looks like a good place for future PHEV.
Good point. Fluorinated gases are powerful greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect up to 23,000 times greater than CO2! A better use would be to recycle the plastic bottles into sportswear like Adidas and Parley are doing, which probably has a much better Return on revenue.
The GE Affinity engine class looks like an updated GE F101 military engine used on the B1 bomber and also proposed for the F16 fighter. The core of the engine became the basis for the very successful CFM56 Commercial turbofan. This engine has supercruise capability to Mach 1.6 and would make an excellent engine for sixth generation military aircraft thanks to it's improved fuel economy versus the current generation of low bypass military turbofans.
While this is interesting work with 3d printed Aluminum Metal Matrix composites, the following statement is not exactly correct: "Titanium is the optimal metal for manufacturing products for the aerospace industry, however it cannot be used in 3D printing because of the fire and explosion hazards of powders." Yes Titanium is the optimal metal for the aerospace industry, however, large 3D printed Titanium parts are being used today in the Boeing 787 and saving Boeing millions of dollars per plane. Norsk Titanium (the supplier of the 3D Titanium parts) uses their patented Rapid Plasma Deposition (RPD) process, where titanium wire is precisely melted in an inert, argon gas environment and rapidly built up in layers to a near-net-shape part. Reference: and
If you are interested here is some additional information about the Mazda EREV Rotary and possible directions where a EREV Rotary could develop. . . . . . Mazda details the EREV Rotary in Japanese Patent 6,390,553 ( "the power generation engine in the range extender car is disposed below the rear floor panel" and "arranging the rotary engine of one rotor below the rear floor panel in a posture in which the axial direction of the eccentric shaft faces up and down". This means the engine is simple, does not take up useable space in the vehicle, and being a rotary has low vibrations. (Think of a BMW I3 that is not noisy in range extending mode.) . . . . . No mention is made of how efficient the rotary would be, which is important for a series hybrid. However, it would be possible for Mazda to apply some of it's Skyactiv-X tech (Spark Controlled Compression Ignition) to the rotary. Rolf Reitz at the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) which patents and licenses discoveries arising from UW–Madison research has a patent 9057321 on "Improved Compression Ignition Combustion in Rotary Engines for Higher Efficiency and Lower Pollutant Emissions" which details their work with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition. This is similar to the Mazda Skyactiv-X tech.
The 2018 Shell Oil Starship so far has a 10.2 mpg average (Reference: The 2012 AirFlow BulletTruck achieved 13.4 average MPG according to their website ( The key point of course is that aerodynamics is critical.
Correction: Bob Sliwa AirFlow BulletTruck achieved 13.4 average MPG Coast-to-Coast from Connecticut to California while carrying 39,000 load.
The Renault design does not look as optimal as the Shell Oil Starship which has achieved 10 mpg with standard Diesel components. Shell Oil or Bob Sliwa (Airflow Truck Company) copied the Japanese Shinkansen Bullet Train design. Both the Tesla Semi and the Nikola One have designs similar to the Shell Oil Starship.
I really don't have a dog in this hunt, but here is what I know. . . . . Yes, the BioGas is from Dairy waste btw Dairy is CA’s #1 crop. It comes from the San Joaquin Valley over 100 miles north of the Port of Los Angeles . Reference: and . . . . The Heavy-Duty Hydrogen Vehicle Fueling Station to be built by Shell Oil will use pipeline gas. "Leveraging previous experience in demonstrating and operating a Tri-Generation (Tri Gen) fuel cell technology for three years at the Orange County Sanitation District in Fountain Valley, FuelCell Energy will, under a separate project, construct and operate a new Tri-Gen system using bio-waste gas sourced from California agricultural waste to generate water, electricity and hydrogen. The renewable biogas produced from the instate resource will be injected into the natural gas infrastructure. The same amount of gas injected into the pipeline will then be extracted from the pipeline onsite at the Toyota facility at the POLB." Reference: and . . . . Finally, BYD has delivered a battery-electric Class 8 truck was grant-funded by the California Air Resources Board to the Port of Oakland.
I worked at Southern Company in the 1970s when Vogtle 1 was being constructed and it had cost overruns even then (costing $10 Billion at that time) and needed help with low cost loans from MEAG and Oglethorpe Power. I don't think it was political because Duke Power was building Nuclear Power Plants for $4 Billion. Also, the AP1000 in China had cost overruns as well so design must be a factor. I still believe Nuclear Power has an important role if we are going to meet these electrification goals, however costs must come down. I have always thought that the size of the large power plants is a key factor in these cost overruns and in safety issues. The record of the US Navy is a good example both in scale and standardization of reactor design, I only wish they would follow the French Navy and use LEU fuels or revisit the Shippingport Light Water Breeder. Maybe now that Electric Utilities are able to manage Distributed Electric Power Generation they will forget about 1000 Megawatt Nuclear Power Plants and focus more on Small Modular Reactors.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and the HP Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) have identical total printing time, however MJF is significantly faster than SLS in bin cooling and post-processing.
Great post that shows the complexity of Fuel Cell tech. Mahle has been involved with heavy-duty commercial vehicles for almost a century and would be an excellent supplier. If Fuel Cell tech is going to find a niche it will probably be in heavy-duty commercial vehicles, e.g. Toyota, Hyundai, and Nikola Motors, where component cost and volumetric concerns are not as sensitive as in passenger vehicles. In addition, a significant percentage of heavy-duty commercial vehicles have significant daily long range driving requirements.
In the U.S. two companies, ConocoPhillips and Praxair, currently store hydrogen underground. The hydrogen is stored in salt caverns, both which are located within the Clemens salt dome in Lake Jackson, Texas. (Reference: Praxair supplies approximately 170 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen (not renewable) to the Yara Freeport LLC, world-scale ammonia plant in Freeport, Texas 50 miles away. The plant, which is a joint venture between Yara International and BASF, has a capacity of 750,000 metric tons per year. (Reference: Market Insider, Apr. 12, 2018 Press Release "Praxair Starts Up Gas Supply to New World-Scale Yara Freeport LLC Ammonia Plant".)