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E-P Your point of looking at 2 stroke engines without complex valve trains describes where the U.S. Army is headed for the next generation combat infantry vehicle using the Achates opposed piston engine and a more electric transmission as well, check here. This could filter down to possibly a 3 cylinder PHEV pickup.
Thanks E-P. The Honda Clarity and Chevy Volt both excellent PHEV had less IC power than a top end Fiat Twinair (it has 105 hp). They are/were just too expensive. If battery tech can provide a lower cost solution than PHEV will be successful.
Vitesco Technologies (formerly the powertrain division of Continental AG) is a major supplier of e-axles to Groupe PSA (soon to include FCA) and Hyundai. So this may be used in many future PHEV. The MAHLE Modular Hybrid Powertrain (MMHP), integrated, plug-in hybrid drive (GCC, 9/10/19) has a similar approach with emphasis on an efficient 2- or 3-cylinder, turbocharged gasoline engine using the MAHLE Jet Ignition (MJI) system. This MJI is used on the Ferrari F1 and Mahle is a key supplier to FCA. One could imagine a Fiat Twin Air 900 cc engine with MJI and the Vitesco Hybrid transmission (with a good battery) would make an outstanding range extended or PHEV.
This looks like a good application for H2 FC vehicles. 1. Infrastructure, no problem: Remote mines are required to ship in large quantities of diesel fuel, so once you build the generation structure you own the energy infrastructure. 2. Mining trucks typically use AC induction drive systems (no change needed except additional batteries (the ENGIE truck will have 900 kW FC - so needs to up power to 2400 kW). Reference: check Caterpillar 795F AC. 3. For Anglo American platinum mines looks like good advertising.
This looks like a good application for H2 FC vehicles. 1. Infrastructure, no problem: Remote mines are required to ship in large quantities of diesel fuel, so once you build the generation structure you own the energy infrastructure. 2. Mining trucks typically use AC induction drive systems (no change needed except additional batteries (the ENGIE truck will have 900 kW FC - so needs to up power to 2400 kW). Reference: check Caterpillar 795F AC. 3. For Anglo American platinum mines looks like good advertising.
The KIT method is actually a competitor to the Allam Cycle which does use the energy in the carbon again as E-P suggests. So we will have to see which "Blue" H2 works.
"Blue Hydrogen" appears to be a good future prospect. The Allam cycle used by 8 Rivers (aka NetPower) plans to build a $1B Blue Hydrogen plant in New Zealand to produce hydrogen for fertilizer and electricity. The process is 87% efficient and captures all of the CO2. However, they plan to sequester some of the CO2 in Urea fertilizer which is not a good idea. Using either the KIT method, or the Stuart Licht of GWU "C2CNT Process" carbon nanotube wools production, or as E-P says locked in minerals as nature has done, would be the best approach. There are many uses for hydrogen that could greatly reduce CO2 emissions. Automobiles would require a very large infrastructure unlike many of the industrial uses. Even Nikola Motors that still plans to use H2 fuel cells, now ("if we believe the hype") would use batteries for shorter range trucks, allowing the new battery to double the range of the FCEV truck and that would greatly reduce their H2 infrastructure.
Update on the Nikola battery from Forbes : Trevor Milton tells Forbes those gains come from eliminating costly metals such as nickel, cobalt and magnesium, use of a “free-standing electrode” and a “whole different type of chemical, with a lithium component.” The article also says that the new cell was developed by a specific university lab Nikola was involved with from an early stage and “locked up all the IP," and Forbes quotes that some experts believe it is Lithium-Sulfur. One place to look would be the University of Utah where Nikola Motors Chief Engineer attended and has developed a novel natural nanoclay halloysite filled Solid Polymer Lithium-Sulfur battery. Halloysite is a natural nanotube material that is a unique Utah resource.
Based only on the presentation, the Cybertruck has a stressed skin structure. Basically a true monocoque that carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and with the absence of a load-carrying internal frame, i.e. no vertical stiffeners or longitudinal stiffeners. Most aircraft and racing cars are semi-monocoque. One early example of a true monocoque aircraft was the De Haviland Mosquito (which was made of plywood). The fuselage was made in two monocoque halves, which were glued together, One problem with stressed skin structures is their lack of rigidity under compressive loading which gives them a tendency to buckle. One method to provide more rigidity is to use a sandwich construction.This is used in some aircraft and most race cars. Not sure how this is handled by the cybertruck. Carbon composites could also be used, the current 2020 Corvette has structural carbon fiber in the passenger compartment floor. The battery module would add some rigidity similar to the way internal tanks do for missiles. Finally, one of the more modern true monocoque structures was the Beech Starship which was made of fiber composite using both “lay up” and “filament winding”. It was a pioneer in aircraft composite design (with the help of Scaled Composites - now part of Northrop).
All it needs is a 30 mm gun mounted in the flatbed and "real bullet proof" glass. Looks like it would fit nicely next to a Ratel IFV (South African Army Armored Vehicle), maybe that was Elon's intent.
It is intriguing to guess just who this "a world-class battery engineering team" is. It probably is not an established battery company. Also, it would help if that same team had done extensive research into Hydrogen production and/or H2 Fuel Cell technology. We only know that this is a binder free, free-standing electrode automotive battery. There is a team led by Dr. Yang Yang at the NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida that fits this description. One of their recent papers is on NiS2/FeS Holey Film as Freestanding Electrode for High‐Performance Lithium Battery , this uses a freestanding NiSx porous film as a binder-free electrode. We will just need to follow Nikola Motors for more informtion.
Just as a point of reference, the Formula E battery has a weight of 250 kg (551 pounds) and 54 kWh energy, and peak power goes up to 250 kW. That corresponds to a total battery energy density of 216 watt-hours/ kg.
One should be skeptical until this is verified by third parties and demonstrated at Nikola World 2020. Is this possible? Maybe. This is the world’s first free-standing electrode automotive battery, all other commercial batteries have slurry coated electrodes. That would be an outstanding accomplishment. The battery does not use Nickel or Cobalt and has an energy density up to 1,100 watt-hours per kg on a material level and 500 watt-hours per kg on a production cell level. This probably means a Conversion Cathode and most likely Sulfur. If it uses Sulfur, it must avoid dissolution of Li-polysulphides into the electrolyte or the capacity will fade (certainly not last "2000 cycles"). There is one example that might fit these specs, check out "A free-standing reduced graphene oxide aerogel as supporting electrode in a fluorine-free Li2S8 catholyte Li-S battery." We will wait and see how this develops.
Is the Nikola Motor Battery for real? Just a guess, there is a free-standing electrode battery that uses none of the Lithium Ion metals and could have up to 1,100 watt-hours per kg on a material level basis. Check out the "A free-standing reduced graphene oxide aerogel as supporting electrode in a fluorine-free Li2S8 catholyte Li-S battery." Again we must wait until some time next year to see.
Very interestingTruck news from Nikola Motors about batteries not H2. From the Nikola Motors web site Press Release: World’s first free-standing electrode automotive battery Energy density up to 1,100 watt-hours per kg on a material level and 500 watt-hours per kg on a production cell level including; casing, terminals and separator -- more than double current lithium-ion battery cells Cycled over 2,000 times with acceptable end-of-life performance 40% reduction in weight compared to lithium-ion cells 50% material cost reduction per kWh compared to lithium-ion batteries We must wait until 2020 to see if this is real.
Not this catalyst, though maybe these based on the work of Erwin Reisner at Cambridge UK (here and here). Possibly renewable Methanol.
Maybe a better way to project the fuel economy of this future Infiniti would be based on recharging the roughly 5000 watt-hour battery at 40% efficiency (for the VC-turbo). This would require 12,500 watt-hours or .37 gallons of gasoline (@ 33.7 kilowatt hours of electricity equivalent to one gallon of gasoline). So if the 5000 watt-hour battery delivers 20 mile range, this would give 54 mpg. Realistically probably less.
Was not thinking -- should say: recharges at 150 kW (it also has over 500 kW electric power), and has a 22 mile electric range; you have a "similar" high performance HEV. I mention this because the Infiniti could charge the battery at a high rate, e.g. 100kW.
Maybe this Infiniti Hybrid is not crazy after all. If you look at the Koenigsegg Regera which has a 4.5 kWh battery, recharges at 150 kWh (it also has over 500 kWh electric power), and has a 22 mile electric range; you have a "similar" high performance HEV. I mention this because the Infiniti could charge the battery at a high rate, e.g. 100kWh. So if you have a 20 mile electric range and a short 5 minute/5 mile recharge (@ 60 mph), maybe getting only 25 mpg at that charging rate, i.e. 1/5 gallon gasoline. Would that be 100 mpg? Check my numbers please. This could be a EV for those who do not want a plug-in. Of course, if you want a BEV the architecture is already there.
@EP, you are right the Nissan VC-turbo has a Miller Cycle (Also here, though Nissan refers to it as Atkinson). The 2019 Infiniti QX-50 which uses a 2.0 l VC-turbo gets about 22 mpg and can hit 60 mph in 6.4 seconds. One of it's problems is the CVT that got bad reviews. The 2020 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid in top end models costs almost the same. It gets 37 mpg and has a 7.4-second zero-to-60-mph time. The 2021 Infiniti QX=55 SUV Coupe will have a 4.5 second 0-60 mph time, the e-POWER AWD will no longer have the CVT, and it will have only 3 cylinders so much better fuel economy. Next year we will find which will be better Toyota or Infiniti.
Maybe if they made this like the Honda Hybrid and switch to direct drive above 75 mph after 5 miles at that speed (one good use for the larger battery). The one problem withe Honda is that it switches too often between direct and charging mode. Since this is a high performance vehicle, you can drive it quite fast (just not too often at top speed).
This Infiniti hybrid makes no sense! The MR15DDT VC-Turbo engine has low compression with a turbo when high performance is needed, except this is a series hybrid which should be operating at optimum speed all the time, i.e. high compression, high efficiency mode, and the electric motors providing the high performance. Maybe Nissan after spending billions and 20 years R&D needs to make use of the VC-Turbo engine for something. The Toyota RAV4 PHEV will have better overall fuel economy, though maybe not have the peak performance of this QX model.
LION Smart developed a “LIGHT Battery” concept that uses infrared communication to replace complex sensor wiring in the battery. Check this video also. Though this is not exactly what ANL experiment involved (it used broadband white light, too). The point is we could embed light deep with the battery possibly using fiber optics for both sensor functions and faster charging.
Also Synchronous reluctance motors. No mention if permanent magnet (PM)-assisted synchronous reluctance machine using ferrite magnets would be investigated. Check this example. Other criteria such as gearboxes to increase torque at the wheel and high rpm speeds should be included in the cost optimization.
Actually the Tesla Semi went over Donner Pass. From ARS Technica 3/9/2018: "Laden with heavy batteries, the trucks will make their way from 4,400ft in altitude at Sparks to 7,200ft at the place where I-80 crosses Donner Summit, before the trucks ride the route down to sea level. On the return trip, when the electric trucks have to gain 7,200 ft in altitude, they'll be empty and lighter." The Tesla Semi was spotted recharging in Rocklin, CA (outside of Sacramento) midway between the Giga Factory in Sparks, NV and the Tesla Factory in Fremont, CA.