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Both Volvo, i.e. Geely and Daimler make some excellent high end PHEV cars. Also, Daimler in the Mercedes Formula 1 has one of the most efficient ICE engines with >50% efficiency. However, long term this makes even more sense if one considers Class 8 trucks which are manufactured by both (Note: Geely owns Volvo Car Group and has a stake in Swedish truck maker AB Volvo).
Nuvera is a subsidiary of Hyster-Yale Group, Inc., which designs, engineers, manufactures, sells, and services a comprehensive line of lift trucks . . . Hyster-Yale is the 6th largest lift truck manufacturer in North America (Toyota is the largest). The lift truck market is already mostly electric, currently lead acid though migrating to Lithium Ion (this year the ratio of electric to internal combustion units sold was 73:27). With sales of over 250,000, there is a great potential to use FC lift trucks to eliminate diesel powered lift trucks, and hydrogen infrastructure is onsite (today typically H2 is generated from NG, however, warehouse roof top solar H2 generation would be a better solution).
E-P, You said, fuel is changed on a schedule rather than by burnup. Good point, Planned outages for refueling 1100 MW NPP are a major operation for public utilities. Shutting down a large NPP for a refuel outage lasts an average of about two months (reference:https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=1490). Since an SMR could schedule refuel outages by unit (77MW), a great advantage to the utility and could be closer to fuel burn usage.
Check out the NuScale website: A NuScale plant, with its NuFollow™ load-following capability, has the means to change power at rates that can offset the reduction in intermittent generation to ensure grid stability, no matter the time of day, season, or the weather forecast. The unique features of a NuScale plant allow its modules to respond to meet the power generation demand in the evenings by increasing from 20% to 100% power in 96 minutes (significantly faster than conventional nuclear power). (https://www.nuscalepower.com/newsletter/nucleus-winter-2019/nuscales-diverse-energy-platform) It might be silly, but so are negative electric prices. So unless Public Utilities use a method to dump loads at a profit, e.g. H2, electric heat, pumped storage, etc. Load Following is a method to manage Load Dispatch.
That was a quote from Forbes/Biden Plan. In France EDF ( Électricité de France) and Germany Nuclear Power Plants are operated in Load Following mode. Here is a quote from Power Magazine,4/1/2019,Flexible Operation of Nuclear Power Plants Ramps Up "According to the IAEA, the reason the French nuclear fleet—which today provides 75% of the country’s power—is so markedly flexible is because in the 1970s, it “correctly anticipated” that nuclear power would have to broadly participate in balancing of generation and demand."
Fuels cells do reach peak efficiency at low loads probably at around 33% peak capacity and then drop off somewhat, then with relatively flat curve. Of course then you want to operate the fuel cell in a 30-60% power range, using the battery to handle acceleration and zero load states (like a hybrid auto). Here is a good reference, though based on a railroad FC, "Energy efficiency and fuel consumption of fuel cells powered test railway vehicle", (http://www.railway-research.org/IMG/pdf/ps.2.26.pdf). The Cummins HyPM HD90 Fuel Cell Power Module (originally a Hydrogenics FC, now a subsidiary of Cummins) has been operating in Scania trucks since the start of this year in Norway (https://fuelcelltrucks.eu/project/scania-four-hydrogen-gas-trucks-with-asko-in-norway/) and in Chinese Blue-G buses. Cummins/Navistar will be a real Class 8 FC truck, similar to the Toyota/Kenworth truck unlike some others.
Good comments. From Forbes magazine article, 8/17/2020 What Will A Biden-Harris Administration Do For Nuclear Energy? "Biden’s plan calls for development of small modular reactors, specifically because SMRs are ideal for load-following or backing up wind, even better than natural gas. The Plan calls for “leveraging the carbon-pollution free energy provided by existing sources like nuclear and hydropower.” So let's hope the NuScale reactor moves forward on a fast path. When I worked at Southern Company during the 1970's I could see that the custom approach to Nuclear Power was too costly (Plant Vogtle units 1 and 2 cost over $10 billion). Duke Power and France had the best approach then relying on a standard design. Today, the best plan is to use SMR.
Saietta Group is a company with origins going back over 30 years, most outside of the UK have never known. Unless you know motorbikes or the history of the Lynch Motor. In 2015, Saietta Motorcycles merged with the Agni Motor company to form the Saeitta Group. Saietta won the first electric TT at the Isle of Man in 2009, and also created the high-performance NGS electric superbike. Axial flux motors have excellent performance, e.g. the YASA electric motors used by both Rolls Royce and Ferrari. So good luck to Saietta if it can achieve low cost objectives.
There really is not a lot of information on the Intelligent Power Generation (IPG) website. So you have to search the internet to find a lot more to see if there is anything to this. 1. IPG CEO is Dr.Tobias Gill (PhD, University College London). The financial backers are: Simon Hansford and Martin Rushton-Turner, CEO and Founder respectfully of ITERO (Itero-tech.com), a clean tech company that uses chemical recycling technology. 2. A US DoE project achieved 42% net electrical efficiency using a Capstone designed and integrated a low-pressure compressor and turbine system using a modified version of the C200; high-pressure, high-temperature compressor and turbine system; combustion system; intercooler; and high-pressure recuperator to create a two-shaft C370 engine (200 kW to 370 kW) Reference: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/07/f33/0432-High%20Efficiency%20Microturbine.pdf. 3. ALZETA nanoSTAR™ Lean Burn Gas Turbine Injectors, were developed with a grant from California Energy Commission, and in cooperation with Solar Turbine (an industrial gas turbine manufacturer), and perform with single digit NOx emissions in an elevated pressure (10 atm) and temperature industrial gas turbine combustor environment (patent: US8215951B2). 4. Another website shows the IPG truck range extender with a recuperator (https://ipg-transport.com/range-extender.html). IPG Transport is part of the Intelligent Power Generation Limited (IPG). IPG Transport was formed to design, develop the IPGT Range Extender (using IPG Turbine Technology) for incorporation into electric drive trains for Commercial Vehicles. So is this IPG Ceramic Gas Turbine with 51% net electrical efficiency possible. Probably, (recall that Mercedes Benz Formula One engines with lean burn have greater than 50% thermal efficiency), but are grid applications or truck range extenders the best application. A Ceramic, Recuperated Gas Turbine using drop-in renewable jet fuel would be perfect as an eVTOL range extender, though I believe GE, Rolls Royce, and others are working on that application.
Here is an interesting post from the International DME Association. https://www.aboutdme.org/aboutdme/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000002505/DME_Fact_Sheet_LPG_Blends.pdf It claims 65% of the DME produced globally is blended with LPG. Up to 30% DME can be blended with Propane and would make it a bit greener. So maybe the Suburban Propane/Oberon blend will look more like European Autogas and also run in standard gasoline engines.
SJC, DME and Propane are not competitors, but are working together. Suburban Propane has acquired a 39% stake in Oberon Fuels (rDME blends with Propane so it can be distributed in the same system). Renewable Propane is a expanding as well. Renewable fuel refineries like Neste have already produced renewable Propane in Europe (https://www.neste.com/releases-and-news/renewable-solutions/neste-delivers-first-batch-100-renewable-propane-european-market). Propane vehicles are much cleaner than diesel and are cheaper to run. Over 200,000 vehicles are in the USA and this could expand soon.
The Chevy Volt (basically a Cruze PHEV) and the Chevy Bolt designed by a team from GM Korea, formerly Daewoo were not vehicles GM sold in the USA (which are mostly SUV and trucks). The Cadillac Lyriq is a "7-passenger large SUV" that will compete with the Tesla Model X and the Cadillac Lyriq has a spectacular interior, much better than the Tesla Model X. The HUMMER is a total badass truck with great off-road capabilities and decent looks. Tesla started with the top end Model S and X, then came the Model 3 and Y. GM should have a good profit margin on the HUMMER and Lyriq. When the price of batteries comes down the other mainstream EV should follow.
Watched the HUMMER ad, couldn't hit the Skip Ads button. The HUMMER is a badass truck. Sure it is $100K, but it is a "Halo Vehicle" and the real GM luxury vehicle. The tech will trickle down to the other trucks which typically sell for more than $40k. This is the EV GM should have sold from the beginning. Smart marketing. (Why did they think they needed Nikola?) LG Chem makes great batteries, too. Tesla buys LG Chem batteries and rumor has it LG Chem will make a 4680 battery. This definitely looks like the future.
Also from the U.S.DOE Alternate Fuels Data Center:"Chemically identical to conventional propane, renewable propane is produced from biomass-based feedstocks, including used cooking oil, animal fats, or 20% dimethyl ether. Although the number of producers is small, renewable propane is currently produced in biodiesel refineries." Reference:https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/propane_production.html
LPG and propane are the same thing. Propane is classified as LPG (LP), along with butane, isobutane and mixtures of these gases and are also referred to as natural gas liquids – NGL. Typically, Autogas is either propane or a propane and butane mix. From the U.S. DOE Alternate Fuels Data Center:"Propane is produced from liquid components recovered during natural gas processing. These components include ethane, methane, propane, and butane, as well as heavier hydrocarbons. Propane and butane, along with other gases, are also produced during crude oil refining."
BioPropane may be the answer! After reading the GCC post on the "ROUSH CleanTech Gen 5 propane autogas fuel system", I wondered if this could help make the Electrochaea process more economical and usable for fuel applications. The Alkcon Process uses a dielectric barrier discharge (non-thermal plasma) reactor, methane gas to convert Methane to Propane (Reaction: 3CH4 --> C3H8 + 2H2). The excess H2 may be used to feed the Electrochaea process. (Reference: https://www.alkcon.com/alkcon-process/). So ROUSH Clean Tech using Renewable Propane could replace Diesel fuel in most Class 3-7 trucks with little modification and it is widely used in School Buses.Though this use looks better suited to BEV. However, for long range applications BioPropane might be a perfect fuel. Cummins is working with the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) to develop a 6.7 propane demonstration engine based on its B6.7 diesel, that it claims will outperform diesel in key areas. If You could use this engine combined with the Cummins PowerDrive hybrid system (which has already been demonstrated in a electric hybrid Kenworth T370 utility truck) for long range trucking.
Probably one of the best uses for the Electrochaea process will be to use the methanogenic archaea on biogenic sources like landfill gas or dairy wastes which actually contain about 39% CO2 and are a significant source of greenhouse gas. As pointed out, instead of pitting the methane into a pipeline it would be better to convert it to methanol which is a key feedstock for the production of chemicals or for fuels.
The VEGAN is a great concept, however, it could use some better design. While the geared hub is a good idea, it adds complexity and impacts reliability. The use of 6061 Aluminum Alloy is cheaper, though does not have the strength of 7075-T6. Why use a AGM Lead Acid battery when there are low cost LiFePo batteries or energy dense 2170 batteries that other E-bikes use?
Producing an average speed of 30 km/h, the VEGAN has a top speed of 70 km/h—via increased acceleration through its own designed internal gear hub. Actually, it may just work! Currently, two companies make a 2 speed geared hub motorcar E-bikes: SRAM’s “E-matic” system and XiongDa, that provide a low/high speed operation (you can read about it here:https://www.electricbike.com/2-speed-e-matic-xiongda/).
Mahonj, Completely agree. Again plugged in a real world "E Bike" the Delfast Top 3.0 into the simulator and got good results. The Delfast comes close in size and has a real range probably of 110 miles (175 km) and a top speed of 50 mph (80 kph). Note they claim a 200 mile range, however that is probably at low speeds. The Delfast has a 72V 3.5 kWh battery, a 5 kW motor, and a MSRP of $6,799. So a Trike built to these specs would agree with @Yoatmon's comments.
Plugged in the specs of the Zero FXS ZF7.2 and the Electric Bike Simulator verifies minimum range and power (which on power the FXS blows those minimums away). Zero Motorcycles is partnering with Polaris. Polaris will develop, manufacture and sell electrified ORVs and snowmobiles using Zero’s powertrain technology, hardware and software. The current RZR Trail 570 has a 45 hp motor so the Zero ZF7.2 powertrain with 46 hp will work. Just keep the cost under $12k. This would be the one to get.
Nuvera is a division of Hyster-Yale, the sixth largest forklift manufacturer(Toyota is the largest). H2 Fuel Cell forklifts make a lot of sense. Most large forklifts use diesel engines like (Kubota or Yanmar). Since you could generate all your hydrogen on site with renewable electricity, this could be a real zero carbon solution if costs are competitive. Walmart and Amazon are already using them (Amazon plans to use fuel-cell forklifts at 11 of its fulfillment centers and is investing in Plug Power).
The real value to the Skeleton Technologies Hybrid Ultracap will be in 12-volt electrical systems that run the air conditioner, windows, the stereo/infotainment system, the heating and all the other bits of a car that need power outside the powertrain itself. This includes all vehicles: BEV, PHEV, FCEV, and ICEV.
Good points mahonj. The SSAB HYBRIT project is another "Fossil- free" Steel production process that uses Biomass and could possibly be combined with the Arcelor Mittal H2 process (here: http://www.hybritdevelopment.com/articles/three-hybrit-pilot-projects). Some thoughts: - Steel production does not have the infrastructure issues of auto transportation. - H2 does not have good volumetric energy density except in liquid form which is expensive and difficult to handle. Liquid H2 use in long range aircraft which has been tested is still not practical and compressed H2 brings up "Hindenburg" images. - Use H2 and renewable NG to make Methanol which can be used for both chemical processes, long range trucking, and ships.