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In-situ gasification has been around for decades, though not in heavy oil/tar sand areas or for extraction of only hydrogen. Linc Energy in Australia tried in-situ gasification and caused serious environmental destruction, e.g.contaminated groundwaters, methane leaks, etc. From the Gilbert & Sutherland experts report "Releasing contaminants to the overburden and the soil profile where they are now trapped and at risk of release during normal land use including agricultural operations." Also, "In August 2007, Linc injected air into the coal seam to create a connection between its G2 production and injection bores. Not only was the pressure high enough to fracture the coal seam, it was also high enough to fracture the overburden. "Fracturing the overburden in this way meant the 'safety blanket' Linc was relying on to contain its Syngas, wastes and contaminants had been breached." So Proton must provide safeguards that all the contaminants are kept in the ground.
According to the patent application WO2017136924A1 "in situ gasification, water-gas shift and /or aquathermolysis are employed to produce synthesis gas in the subsurface reservoir, such synthesis gas comprising steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, where the carbon oxides are rejected from being produced to the surface by means of a hydrogen-only permeable membrane in the wellbore. The process then produces a gas product largely comprising hydrogen to the surface." and also "the hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, steam, and other gas components remain in the reservoir while the hydrogen alone is produced to surface". So it does appear to be carbon neutral.
-SJC Maximum rate of climb on the Piper Malibu is 1143 fpm. Typically, max throttle to 8000 ft (7 minutes plus), then cruise climb to 25,000 ft. So at least 5 kWh needed. LiPO batteries would be the standard approach. However, they could be looking at a UK company called Superdielectrics that has a 26 W-hr/kg SuperCap using a contact lens polymer (supposed to reach 50 W-hr/kg this year) which would have energy density competitive to LiPO.
Just quoting the AvWeek article about no batteries. It could be SuperCaps which work well with Fuel Cells. In Miftakhov eMotorWerks company that had BMW EV Conversion Kits they used LiPo batteries and are probably using them in the current "FC-free"prototype. Like to know their creative solution.
Not much is reported about the ZeroAvia powerplant, though some details are in the Aviation Week article, "Startup Sees Fuel Cell Future For Regional Aviation” Aviation Week Aug 14, 2019. ZeroAvia is using a Piper PA-46-350P Malibu Mirage aircraft . The original motor, a Lycoming TIO-540 engine has 260 kW (350 hp, weight 199 kg) will be replaced by a pair of 130-kW electric motors. Note: Siemens eAircraft (now Rolls Royce) has a 260 kW motor -SP260D - that would work. It weighs only 50 kg and runs at 2500 RPM non-geared. ZeroAvia CEO Miftakhov mentions in the Aviation Week article that "a fuel-cell pack capable of producing 150 kW weighs around 50 kg". This is better than Honda or Toyota (they get around 100 kW for a 50 kg fuel cell), maybe it is the Horizon Fuel Cell which gets about 50% better using bipolar plates. It would be interesting to know. Also, a 150 kW fuel cell would handle cruise power, however, takeoff and climb would require higher energy outputs. Miftakhov says "the company has had to get creative to overcome this hurdle, insisting that batteries will not be used to provide additional power during such profiles.” ZeroAvia has some good ideas. It will be interesting to see how they develop.
Peter_XX Any thoughts on how this is different or more efficient than the MAHLE Jet Ignition® which is used in some form by all Formula 1 engines and achieves 50% BTE.
Just when you thought the next generation lithium battery needed a solid electrolyte, Jeff Dahn proves otherwise. Most thought that a lithium metal anode was needed to raise battery energy density to 500 W-hr/kg, but dendrites reduced the cycle life, so a solid electrolyte was necessary. Enter the Anode-free or Anode-less lithium battery. Many have tried some variation of this approach: Pellion Technologies (lithium coated copper electrode), SolidEnergy Systems (minimal thickness anode), Jason Zhang of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (highly concentrated electrolytes) and others. Dahn's "dual-salt liquid electrolyte” may be the answer. Also, I wonder if the Carnegie Mellon semiliquid lithium metal-based anode with "lithium microparticles distributed in a dual-conductive polymer matrix" would also be in this category and help improve cycle life?
If Propane looks good as a fuel why not Ethane? We have a surplus of Ethane and mostly export it (the US is the largest exporter of Ethane in the world). It is mostly used to make Ethylene though we could use Methane for that purpose if necessary. Ethane is a good automotive fuel, it is like Propane in it's properties and much better than Methane.
Bruce Power of Ontario signed a MoU with NuScale last November.
Correction - Petroleum is still number one in 2019, Natural Gas second.
From the U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. natural gas production in 2017 was the second-highest level recorded. Most of the production increases since 2005 were the result of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, notably in shale, sandstone, carbonate, and other tight geologic formations. Natural Gas in 2019 is the number one energy source in the US mostly thanks to unconventional gas resources discovered after 2005, something I learned in 2006 when I worked in Texas (at that time most people thought we were running out of Natural Gas). Recently, I read about another unconventional natural gas source from the Center for Biogenic Natural Gas Research at the University of Wyoming. They are looking into innovative technologies that would bring economically depleted hydrocarbon reserves back into production and extend their productive life, e.g. as the Powder River Basin where the University is near. They have a recent paper written in the journal Nature "Low carbon renewable natural gas production from coalbeds and implications for carbon capture and storage" 9/18/2017 you can read it here. You never know what could happen.
A good source of information on biomass and biogas can be found here.
It should be pointed out that according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration that energy from Biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in the US. Of course, this might have to do to the 15,000 Pit BBQ restaurants in the US.
Biogas has several sources in addition to Agricultural Biogas produced from wastes, these include Landfill Gas, Biogas from waste water, and synthetic gas from wood biomass. E-P points out some important issues with Biogas which is a combination of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other components. Haldor Topsoe also has products that handle the purification of Syngas. It should also be pointed out that Topsoe’s eSMR technology can be used for Ammonia production as well as Methanol.
if you are interested in reading the article, check here. Obtained via Google Scholar.
Good points Juan Carlos Zuleta, Toyota Marketing along with GM and Ford have given up on PHEV at least for sedans and small SUV/Crossovers. Maybe the truck or large SUV market might interest them (at least FCA, BMW, and Land Rover think so). Automotive marketers have determined that consumers have either accepted BEV or only want ICE, they do not want to plug-in. So all auto companies will concentrate on BEV and Hybrids (particularly mild hybrids).
This is an important announcement. The current Toyota Prius Prime PHEV uses Sanyo 25Ah PHEV2 prismatic battery cells. The same size 2017 CATL PHEV2 prismatic battery cells have 50 Ah - these will expand to 75 Ah by 2020. Even using the 50 Ah battery cells, the 8.8 kWh Prius Prime PHEV would have a 17.6 kWh battery - roughly the size of the Honda Clarity battery at a significant reduction in battery weight.
The Lotus 130 is the lightest production EV hypercar at 1,680 kg. Close to my prediction of 1435 kg. Of course 2000 hp is insane, though it had to beat the Pininfarina Battista which has 1900 hp and makes the NIO EP9 look anemic with only 1341 hp (1 MW). This is a £1.7 million hypercar so it is not suppose to be practical, only excessive in all regards.
Multi-shell fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs) were discovered by Daniel Ugarte in 1992 (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), are structured by concentric shells of carbon atoms.
It is kind of like an "onion". Basically, a multi-layer fullerenes, e.g. graphene, also known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs). Also good for lithium ion batteries.
At Nurburgring the VW ID.R had a 45 kWh battery. At Goodwood since the since the track length is just 1.16-mile, it had a smaller battery.
Corrected: My concern is that only a low cost option would make widespread adoption possible.
Davemart: The Punchpowertrain does look interesting and like the new ZF 8HP automatic transmission makes converting a vehicle to a hybrid or PHEV relatively easy (BMW and FCA use the ZF 8HP in their current and future PHEV). My only concern is that a low cost option would make widespread adoption possible. Both Toyota and Honda have been able to do well by making their hybrid and PHEV vehicles by leveraging their original investments. Though others particularly GM have moved away from PHEV.
Valeo also has shown a 48 Volt PHEV here. You could even add more power than the 30 kW Continental 48V by using a Boost Converter like Toyota does on their hybrids.