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gryf
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When using Gravimetric Metrics, i.e. MJ/kg you must look at the total weight of the propulsion system. This includes all components not only fuel (which is a minor component of automobiles). One example. looking at the total weight of a Toyota Camry V6 (3572 lbs) vs a Tesla Model 3 Long Range RWD (3814 lbs). The Tesla has much better performance and even lower TCO.
That's right Ethanol has an octane rating of 113, over a decade ago Ethanol Boosting Systems LLC showed that direct injection and turbocharging would increase the efficiency of spark ignition engines. Rolf Reitz who has a recent post in GCC (see https://www.greencarcongress.com/2019/10/20191009-ijer.html) raised the efficiency of an Ethanol fueled Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine to efficiencies as high as 59% (achieved with E85/diesel).
The real Toyota to look at is the RAV4 PHEV.
Boosted spark ignition engines can have a turbocharger and/or supercharger (some have both since turbos have a delay to spool up rpm at low speeds). This also includes electric turbochargers which act like a supercharger at low rpm. Fuel octane requirements for gasoline engines ("spark ignition") vary with the compression ratio of the engine; diesel or compression ignition engines have cetane requirements that vary with the compression ratio. Engines with higher compression ratios, i.e. "boosted", usually require higher octane fuels. Higher the octane rating on fuel the less volatile (anti-knock on spark ignition engines) and the slower the fuel burns.
-SJC You bring up what everyone looks at when comparing ICE vs BEV - the Energy Density of Gasoline vs current battery tech. This looks like 13x, but remember BEV are twice as efficient as the best ICE (so 6.5x close to 700%). Though for LDV that do not require daily long distance travel, current BEV tech is more than adequate. Check another metric on Wikipedia - "Fuel Fraction", which is s the weight of the fuel or propellant divided by the gross take-off weight of the craft. The Fuel Fraction of a Boeing 787 is 40% (an automobile is less than 4%). So the Energy Density of the fuel is critical to the requirement that the airplane travel 8,000 miles without refueling.
The lead author Rolf Reitz has been a leader in the research of ICE efficiency and he is correct that in certain areas in particular "commercial transport",(e.g. long range trucks, ships, and airplanes) will still require combustion engines for some time. Combustion engine efficiency and vehicle electrification will go a long way to reducing liquid fuel consumption and correspondingly reduce CO2 emissions. Battery energy density needs to improve at least 700% to compete effectively with liquid hydrocarbons in long range transport. There are technologies out there, however it will take many years before they progress to commercial use.
Finally, must mention ceramic matrix composites (CMC) that GE is using in the LEAP and T901 gas turbine engines. CMC weigh only 1/3 of Inconel turbine blades and are more durable than the older ceramic materials. However, they are probably too expensive for any auto application. Gurpreet Singh at Kansas State University has developed a Water-like Polymer Ceramic that may be low cost and simpler to manufacture (Reference: https://www.compositesworld.com/blog/post/the-next-generation-of-ceramic-matrix-composites).
I think Christian von Koenigsegg may have outdone everyone in his One:1 auto. It has a variable turbocharger with two housings in one which allows less back pressure at higher RPM. The turbine housing has a complex twisted shape that is fully 3D printed, with moving parts printed within the enclosed chamber, in Stainless Steel.
You also may want to design the Microlattice Turbo like the Honeywell Garrett Dual Boost Turbocharger which uses an axial flow turbine with a dual-sided compressor wheel. They are used in the Porsche 919 EVO. A good read here. Now all I need is a DMLS 3D printer.
Since Borg-Warner EFR Series Turbochargers already have TiAl turbine wheels and ceramic bearings (they are used in INDY Car Racing), we need to do better. They weigh half as much as Inconel, though cost twice as much (3D printing may lower cost a bit). Let's get real exotic and use Inconel Microlattice turbines made by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). We can still use the ceramic bearings.
Remember an earlier GCC post that stated that medium/heavy truck category account for 26% fuel use and an April 22, 2016 GCC Post by by Professor Andrew Alfonso Frank, CTO Efficient Drivetrains Inc. and UC-Davis Emeritus, Bruce R. Thomas and Catherine J DeMauro on The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Long Electric Range . Efficient Drivetrains is now part of Cummins which probably thinks that PHEV might be a good idea for medium/heavy trucks. Also, note that E-P had some good points on BEV/PHEV which are still valid particularly for larger vehicles.
E-P is correct this is over spec for an LDV and SJC is also correct about the Tesla Semi. The biggest negative about the Tesla Semi was "battery longevity". A Commercial, long haul Semi could travel 125,000 miles in a year and requires an 8-10 year life, that is a million miles.
The NMC532 battery chemistry looks interesting for use in PHEV applications (note: PHEV includes Range Extenders, e.g. Fuel Cells). If the voltage was reduced and DoD managed, >10k cycles could be achieved. The million miles are achieved in a 300 mile range battery. If this was 50-80 mile range PHEV, one could expect 500k miles with battery management. Also, it should be pointed out that NMC532 is not a Tesla battery chemistry (Dahn works for Tesla). This battery chemistry would work well for Grid applications. However, another thought would be that Tesla could be looking at a mixed chemistry battery similar to the Williams Advanced Engineering battery. Use NMC532 as the PHEV and add a low power density/high energy density Range Extender chemistry ,e.g. Metal Air or Conversion Cathodes. Tesla has patents on a setup like this.
Schönau biogas comes from the "paper mill Palm GmbH & Co. KG, where we source our biogas, converts raw paper into corrugated board and cardboard for further processing. In paper processing, wheat starch and organic acids dissolve out of the waste paper and accumulate in the process water." Reference: https://www.ews-schoenau.de/biogas/. https://www.ews-schoenau.de/ is in German.
It appears that the 2.2 million kilometers is for the entire fleet of 45 Toyota Mirai. Suspect that few if any vehicles have exceeded 100,000 miles/160,000 km.
Important question: How many NiMH batteries were used in the 2.2 million kilometers?
We need to stop thinking in terms of kWh for EV, PHEV, and HEV and start looking at Energy Density and Life Cycles. Look at the 2013 Ford Fusion Energi PHEV for example. It has a 7.5 kWh battery (5.8 kWh usable), weighs 125 kg (46 Wh/kg Energy Density), and 22 mile range. The Tesla Model 3 has an 80 kWh battery (75 kWh usable) and weighs 478 kg (157 Wh/kg Energy density), and 310 mile range. The Tesla Model 3 can get at least 1500 cycles or over 450,000 miles. To get that life a Ford Fusion Energi PHEV battery would need over 20,000 cycles (that will not happen). So if a Lithium battery has a 600 Wh/kg energy density (possible with Conversion Cathodes and Lithium metal Anodes), 99% Recycle rate like the Lead Acid Battery business, and is produced using "non-Coal" grid electricity then you you have a "Sustainable Battery". Note: Conversion Cathode is made from Iron, not Cobalt or Nickel. We have a long way to go yet!
Actually those are 2018 numbers. For the month of June-2019, OPEC was 1.518 million barrels per day (Saudi Arabia accounted for 570k barrels per day of that number) and the U.S. exported 1.012 million barrels per day to Non-OPEC countries. For August-2019, this number looks like it is going down further. This also does not include Natural Gas Liquids where the U.S. is a major exporter.
According to U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) the U.S. imports 2.34 million barrels of oil per day (in 2009 the number was 10 million barrels per day). Saudi Arabia accounts for 897 thousand barrels per day and OPEC makes up 2.571 million barrels per day. The U.S. exports to Non-OPEC countries a net of 231 thousand barrels per day.
This is important research. Conversion Cathodes are the next generation Lithium batteries and Iron Fluorides are much cheaper than either Cobalt or Nickel. Previous research has shown that Iron Fluoride Conversion Cathodes can reach >800 Watt hour/kg. Also, Gleb Yushin has ties to Sila Nanotechnologies, so commercialization may not be far off.
Ironically, the 1992 Ford Escort RS Cosworth was a real classic. Also, Mahle Powertrain which is part of Mahle can be traced back to Cosworth. Maybe Ford could steal a page from the past and turn the Ford Focus ST into a 400hp+ AWD PHEV Supercar using this Mahle powertrain with a few extra components, kind of like a low cost Ferrari SF90.
That's right SJC.
The 2020 Ford Escort plug-in hybrid is 585 pounds heavier than the version with the standard 1.5-liter engine (battery included).
The 207 grams per kilowatt hour " is expected to drop to 195g/kWh in lean operation, helped by Mahle’s Jet Ignition" ref:https://www.sae.org/news/2019/09/mahle-mmhd-hybrid-system. That is diesel engine efficiency and should be attainable based on Mahle's experience in F1 racing. The article also mentions that the "powertrain with a battery pack giving an 80 km electric range" which is probably similar to the Honda Clarity PHEV range and 17 kWh battery. The real question is the reference to "Weight of the complete hybrid powertrain is similar to that of a current 4-cyl. 2.0-L gasoline engine with manual 6-speed transmission." Does this include the battery? BTW Car and Driver states the weight of the 2020 Ford Escort plug-in hybrid is 585 pounds heavier (battery included).