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Rose is now following Chelsea Lee
Apr 12, 2020
Earlier in this thread, a reply to Mooneyes stated: Hi, Mooneyes. The "16–30 kHz" example comes from page 108 of the Manual. All ranges shown in the Manual use an en dash, so we would write a percentage range as "5%–15%." Actually, in the 6th edition, p. 76, in section 3.16 Age, third sentence, the range is expressed as "aged 13 to 17 years." Please believe me, this is not a "gotcha" comment. I am mentioning it only because I spent the past hour looking through the publication trying to find examples of ranges within narrative because (as best I can tell) there is nothing about ranges in the index. So, if you are collecting wishlist items for the next edition, please add an index entry for how to write ranges in a variety of instances (years, ages, statistics, pages, ...; within narrative, within tables, etc.). If p. 76 is an error and APA truly uses only the en dash in all cases, then I am doing the mother of all happy dances(!) because there is a guideline that can be followed without having to think about inside/outside of parens, in main body/not in maid body, etc.
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Hello? Is anyone home? Still seeking guidance about when/how to include an ISSN in a references entry.
Toggle Commented Feb 1, 2019 on Got Volume? at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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APA 4.15 states "... capitalize all words of four letters or more." Yet APA publishes papers where (for example) four-letter prepositions are in lowercase. See https://www.apa.org/pi/disability/dart/survey-results.pdf The URL goes to a paper published in 2009. Did the capitalization standard change between now and then? Note: This is really important to know because certain, ummm, academic reviewers keep editing the editor (me). If I'm getting it wrong, then I'll gladly apologize and mend my ways. And point back to this blog as the arbiter.
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Just want to say what a gem you are, Chelsea, with your quick replies and succinct answers. Danke schoen.
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I'm confused about the use of ISSNs in a reference entry. I cannot find an example in the 6th edition. And the opening example in this blog post doesn't show an ISSN in the entry at all. Is this correct? Getkin, K. (2009). Reforming or changing educational leadership. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 32(2), 15-19. ISSN 10409602.
Toggle Commented Dec 8, 2018 on Got Volume? at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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I'm editing a document. The author wrote: "I followed the guidelines published by CITI (2017) that included adherence to cultural competencies in an international study." The references entry looks like this: CITI Program (2017). Collaborative Institutional Training. Human Subjects Research. Retrieved from https://www.citiprogram.org/index.cfm?pageID=88 The "CITI" site is new to me. After poking around the website, I figured out that - the website name is CITI Program - CITI is an acronym for Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative, and - Human Subjects Research is a course pack, and the author probably needs to cite the specific course. However, I'm still at a loss as to what needs to be edited and how. Here is my best shot. In Text I followed the guidelines published at the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative Program website (CITI Program; 2017) that included adherence to cultural competencies in an international study. In References Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) Program (2017). [[insert course name here]]. Human Subjects Research. Retrieved from https://www.citiprogram.org/index.cfm?pageID=88 Help, please?
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Is there an APA guideline about when or whether to use back-to-back tables, or that discourages it? If yes, I could not find it in the 6th edition. Also, if the answer depends on a specific context, then here it is for the situation I have in mind. Example [[The stem sentence to introduce the tables appears at the bottom of one page; both tables appear in their entirety on the immediate next page.]] ... blah blah blah. The participant demographics are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 (for the demographic data collection form, see Appendix B). -page break- [Table 1 appears here] [Table 2 appears here ] -page break-
Toggle Commented Oct 26, 2018 on Table Tips at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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This is not a wordiness question, but I couldn't figure out a better place to post it (I was searching for "words to avoid" and this post kept popping up). I'm almost certain that I've read to avoid using "like" when writing about examples. For instance, instead of "leaders face diversified problems like resource constraints and political pressures," write "leaders face diversified problems such as resource constraints and political pressures." Is it (avoiding "like") in the 6th edition or covered in this blog, or am I making it up?
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It's good to be blessed. 8) Regarding "US" versus "U.S.," using the periods makes absolute sense, a very practical stopgap in case "US" is mistakenly changed to lowercase. Now I just have to save this link to share when needed (you know, to prove that I'm not going rogue). 8)
Toggle Commented Sep 13, 2018 on An Abbreviations FAQ at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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Thought I should clarify what I meant by "delete many of those references." My question is about using USA as a noun within the narrative of the main text and *not* about in-text citations or entries in the list of references.
Toggle Commented Sep 9, 2018 on An Abbreviations FAQ at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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It's my understanding that within the main text any references to the US as a country (i.e., used as a noun) should be spelled out as "United States" or "United States of America." I'm editing a paper where the author refers to the United States so many times that just reading it makes me cross-eyed. Ideally, I'll be able to delete many of those references. But if the author balks, I'd really love to be able to say "APA gives its blessing to abbreviate as 'USA'." So ... can you bless "USA" in main text as a noun, or not?
Toggle Commented Sep 8, 2018 on An Abbreviations FAQ at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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Hello? Anyone answering questions? Do I need to elaborate on what's concerning me about the two examples I posted?
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I'm editing a paper with several nonstandard web references. The references in question all have this syntax: Author. year. Article title. Retrieved from Name of Website: url Here are two examples using nonsensical data. Example 1 Bunny, B. (2005). Carrots. The Gardeners Guide for Composting Criticism. Retrieved from Gardeners University Press website: https://www.toons.edu/1065.html The link goes directly to the article at Toons school. On that same page, there is a link that goes to the home page of Gardeners University Press which requires a login. Toons school and Gardeners are both well-respected and different institutions. Should I delete the phrase "from Gardeners University Press website:" or leave as is (or do something different)? Example 2 Yosemite, S. (2015). Are cowboy hats passé? Retrieved from International Cowboy Association website: https://www.ics.org/sgp/secy/R6587.pdf In this example, the link opens the pdf. The words "International Cowboy Association" are completely absent. There's nothing in the pdf content, headers, or footers or the url to indicate "International Cowboy Association" Should I delete the phrase "from International Cowboy Association website:" or leave as is (or do something different)?
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Is N always a stable number or does it change as you drill down? The context for this is a modified Delphi study that required five rounds to find consensus. Round 1 = 100 initial opinions about best practices for choosing pets Round 2 = participants agree on 60 of the 100 opinions. The researcher organizes the opinions into three themes. Round 3 = within each theme, rank order the importance of the best practices. Some are discarded but overall consensus about rank order of remaining practices in any one group is inconclusive. Round 4 = within each rank ordered theme, rate the importance of each practice. Results are inconclusive. All best practices are still contenders. Round 5 = within each theme, decide which practices are deal-breakers (the practice must be implemented). Consensus results in more practices being discarded. In this example, is N always 100 and every subsample is n with a subscript descriptor? Or is there a new N with a subscript descriptor when the sample changed due to discarded practices? Does this question even make sense?
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That is bizarre...I'm seeing my post all in bold italic, though I (thought) I was careful to use the italic tags correctly. Let's try again, but I'll use asterisks to indicate italic. ===== From reading the APA text and this post, my understanding of what to italicize vs. put in quotation marks is to think hierarchically; i.e., if it's at the top of the hierarchy, then use italics (**Book Title**); otherwise use quotation marks (the "Three Thieves" chapter). There is no example I can find in the manual or here, but I'm guessing that the same hierarchy applies when referring to classroom training, marketing campaigns and so on? Example: Graduates of **Designing Content for the Web** indicated that "Reader Orientation" was the most useful of the six modules.
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From reading the APA text and this post, my understanding of what to italicize vs. put in quotation marks is to think hierarchically; i.e., if it's at the top of the hierarchy, then use italics (Book Title); otherwise use quotation marks (the "Three Thieves" chapter). There is no example I can find in the manual or here, but I'm guessing that the same hierarchy applies when referring to classroom training, marketing campaigns and so on? Example: Graduates of Designing Content for the Web indicated that "Reader Orientation" was the most useful of the six modules.
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Given the guideline to count everything for a complete paper (title page, abstract, main text, etc.), does the same guideline apply to major parts within the paper? For example, the guideline for abstracts is up to 250 words. Does that include the title, byline, body, and keywords, or just the body? I'm deducing that it means everything, but word count in an abstract is so precious that I thought it prudent to double-check. As a sidebar, I took care to state, as you do, "guideline" because it's so maddening that so many proclaim it gospel.
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APA 4.22 "Deciding whether to abbreviate" (p. 107) states "In general, use an abbreviation only (a) if it is conventional and if the reader is more familiar with the abbreviation than with the complete form or (b) if considerable space can be saved and cumbersome repetition avoided." In the case of (a), it's odd (to me) that the guideline doesn't state "is as familiar or more familiar with," because surely "US" and USA" are as recognizable as "United States." Comment? In the case of (b), how would you gauge considerable space saved and cumbersome repetition avoided? I do realize at some level it's a judgement call, but when you have multiple reviewers jockeying for their editorial "take," well, it's helpful to have a guideline. Comment?
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Just want to confirm my understanding of what I read in the APA manual. Is this correct: All notes are preceded by "Note" If a note has only one type of note, then start it on the same line as "Note" If a note has more than one type of note, then start the first note on the same line as "Note" and each subsequent type of note on its own line, flush left. Correct Example Note. aControl variables... Incorrect Example 1("Note" on its own line) Note. aControl variables... Incorrect Example 2("Note" is missing) aControl variables...
Toggle Commented May 10, 2017 on Table Tips at APA Style 6th Edition Blog
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Hmmm. The reply didn't specifically mention being sure to add context by adding the nationalized long and short term to Definitions. But that's how I'll do some CYA, which I think is needed because: the narrative could be authored or read by anyone around the world, andoften, someone from one nation can join the military ranks of another. ~~~~~~ Tell it well! Rose Johnston, Certified Ghostwriter Content Matters® LLC 6547 N. Academy, PMB 534 Colorado Springs, CO 80918 +1 719.338.4990 Cell Rose.CMLLC@gmail.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/rosejohnstonghostwriter
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For capitalization of military organizations within text, is this correct? air force, army, coast guard, marines, merchant marines, navy U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Marines, U.S. Merchant Marines, U.S. Navy If the above is correct, then what if you add the terms to the Definitions, i.e., "The word 'Army' means the U.S. Army." Ok then to use the capitalized short form?
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I'm unsure about how to cite content that I summarize by transforming it into an exhibit (table or figure). Example The author of a previously published instrument has granted permission to reprint the instrument. The instrument has 100 questions to be answered on a Likert scale. The answers are then sorted into two or more smaller groups and scored. Certain scores are then added to summative scores. So I want to use an exhibit to summarize how the instrument is organized, such as by using a table with columns and rows to show the groups and the groups-of-groups, or a figure to show the relationships. In either case, I would be using the actual names of the groups; i.e., the same names that are used in the instrument. In the table or figure note, how do I cite it? 1. From [author, year]. 2. Adapted from [instrument]. Copyright [year]. 3. Something else? I'm not adapting the instrument per se, nor am I reprinting it at this particular place in text. It's more like I'm paraphrasing the instrument. So item #1 seems appropriate; i.e., just author and year in the table or figure note, and the name of the instrument in the References. As I type this, I almost feel like I'm overthinking it...
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In the dissertation, several amendments are mentioned in a general way. Is there a preferred way to write it? Examples Justice Douglas addressed the Eighth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment ... Justice Douglas addressed the 8th Amendment and the 14th Amendment ... Addressing Amendment VIII and Amendment XIV, Justice Douglas ... I looked in the APA 6th edition, which shows examples for in-text citations and for reference entries. But could not find any examples of a general nature. I do not have access to the Legal Bluebook.
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I do understand that 12 words is a guideline. But I'm curious about how APA counts words, whether for a title or an entire manuscript: As individual words, regardless of the length of any individual word. This is how MS Word seems to count words; i.e., a space between characters signals the start of a new word. By counting characters only and dividing by some number (such as 5 or 7). By counting characters and spaces, and dividing by some number (such as 5 or 7). ???
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