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Natalie McCaffery
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Milovich’s paper analyzing the effects of aid on reducing poverty combines data of US delivered aid from 1949-1999 and the multidimensional poverty index data since 2000 to derive a relationship between US delivered aid and the decreasing rates of poverty in developing countries. His analysis covers 64 developing economies and recognizes a 14.6% increase in aid from the US with a 1% increase in average amount of aid received causing a 0.61% reduction in the MPI. With a 14.6% increase, this would be a 8.906% decrease. In the light of this correlation, it seems US aid, properly allocated, makes a positive impact on developing economies. One idea that came to my mind is the combination of providing aid based on a condition and ensuring a gradual allocation of that aid. Resource-rich countries, like those in this study, especially when it comes to agriculture, are reliant on long-term benefits from inputs. A reliable, incentivized allocation of aid could ease some of the stressors of uncertainty for the next yield while also providing some sort of structure to investment in human capital. I’d be curious to see how certainty in financial security affects one’s ability to invest in long-term gains. Long-term gains allow economies to then find stability and growth, as opposed to maybe an immediate response to aid that isn’t sustainable.
Toggle Commented Dec 8, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
As this was my first introduction to Conditional Cash Transfer programs, I am a bit surprised by the contrasting effects a program like this has on women vs. men. I think that men, from an early age, showing less benefit from a program like this further emphasizes the gap in gender roles that appears especially in rural, low-income communities. I think that the targeting of roll-out is effective, but I wonder how the continuation of this program’s effects can be monitored if migration is considered, as once an individual has the means and motivation to move to a better community, they will (and those communities aren’t necessarily in the target demographic). Would the program have a different effect on men if the conditions to be met were specific for men and women? For example, if a condition for a man is that he mustn’t be affiliated with a gang, then that could do one of two things: reward non-violence, or target members affiliated in violence (providing better tracking and containment of such). That might be a bit of a stretch for a gender-specific condition, but the point would be to meet the population where they’re at, in terms of gender roles, and create motivating conditions from there.
Toggle Commented Dec 2, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
I agree that the externalities associated with the conditions of populations has a major emphasis on the return on investment in human capital. The Mincerian earnings function makes unrealistic assumptions, but it is STILL proving the point that education leads to higher incomes and greater economic development. Imagine if the costs of being a teen mom were brought into the equation? Both social and economic costs are completely neglected, but the strength of the argument for education is still enough to be shocking. The race between education and technology is also interesting because it shows how the feedback or product of an education is performing for a population (in the form of development through technology). There are additional factors of growth that could be included in that same comparison, the first I’d add would be food/water waste. With greater levels of education and more technology, we should see the waste of human resources decrease, as individuals learn more sustainable methods of management. This metric would also be correlated to the living conditions of a population, which is vital in determining the available effort to put into an education.
Toggle Commented Nov 10, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
This is just one of the many "reports on climate change" that I've read through, and they all state the same science of 2 degree shifts in temperature leading to exponential changes over time and drastic deviation from the Earth's natural cycles, yet we keep seeing these reports, and they're not changing. I would like to look into more of the purpose behind producing these kinds of documents, or rather ask, "how much prodding and articulation do policy makers need to actually implement any change?" These grim reports don't actually imply that there is anything we are on track to do in order to greatly lessen the effects of GCC, however they are more a drop in the bucket when it comes to producing quantitative awareness of our conditions.
Toggle Commented Oct 28, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
Reading this article, I found the frequency of discussion about many of these facts to be quite ironic when compared to the frequency at which change is made. The emphasis on implementing policy, and the struggles women face when implementing gender-influenced policy stood out most directly to me. Additionally, the discussed effects on population development in response to birth control pills stood out as a key area in which policy could potentially make a big difference. Without focusing on women, the majority-male-policymakers could find a parallel solution to birth control pills for men that would potentially show a similar exponential impact. Their policy could be for birth control companies to invest the same amount of research and manufacturing for male birth control, as the probability of female birth control pills reaching less-developed populations is extremely slim due to the quantity necessary to be successful and the lack of access to health care that is necessary to support women in regulating hormonal cycles.
Toggle Commented Oct 20, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
Although the growth of South Korea is referred to as an "economic miracle" the morality of some of the plans in action to achieve their development goals is quite questionable. Surely transitioning through the advancement of education is a good approach, but sterilization of women to effect birth rates... Anyways, the reliance on and interconnectivity between South Korea and other nations already in an efficient state, such as Japan and the US, was a great export plan that allowed for large markets and capital. I think that this rapid economic development of South Korea is a good study of the social cost of growth. The social cost of SK's growth tapped into health and resource availability (in the form of human capital) in ways many other countries would deem immoral. Yet, under the regime of this government, and at the time, this solution did lead to long-term success.
The international export mentality of the fast-growing countries mimics Sen's argument for agency being the key factor to pull communities out of poverty, as being an export-driven society allows for greater job opportunities when the employment protocols undertake reforms to engage all citizens. The ability to work and ultimately feel like a contributor to society pulls people out of poverty more so than reliance and the 'patient' mentality of import-dependent nations. The two main points I see from this article are one, Sen's approach to instilling agency in citizens supports a community, and two, instituting reform in governmental processes to provide for opportunity goes hand-in-hand.
Toggle Commented Sep 29, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
I found this article a bit frustrating because I prefer there to be a 'right' answer in modeling and science. This mathematical approach gives me, alike many others, certainty and platforms to build off of. Nevertheless, I understand Krugman's argument that a model is just what we see as important about a concept at a time in the most simplified manner. This made me think about the convergence of economics and psychology and how if leaders are able to influence what is deemed important at a time, they can base models for growth off of that importance. This highlights the ignorance engrained in human nature, proving the inability to ever be 100% accurate in a model reliant on people. This goes back to the 'if' statements we spoke of in class, where capital was to be distributed back to the state earned, jobs are 100% guaranteed, and there is 0 opportunity loss. IF constants are held, we can develop models. Thinking about health and food access, hypothetically, the model could be derived backwards so that the 'ifs' necessary to build it out are met by the population before the model is introduced. What might be the 'ifs' of the UN's SDGs? Have they been met?
Toggle Commented Sep 22, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
Sachs does a good job recognizing the inter-connectivity between these goals, and I fully agree that it will take a ‘systems approach’ to achieve any sort of progress in the economic, environmental, and social realms at this global scale. Lacking in Sachs’s analysis of the MDGs and SDGs is a common thread that ties together solutions that are available (resource-wise and economically to many countries). One example of a joining subject is agriculture. The basis of human and environmental development is nutrition, for the person and the earth. This being said, I see an opportunity through the wide-spread agriculture industry to capitalize on diverse populations feeding their communities as a means to spread ideas and drive change. Agriculture dominates many regional economies in developing nations, and the small-holder division is often relied upon for regional food access whereas large-scale ag feeds the bank. Empowering (financially and through information) all farmers to feed people and the earth will in-turn support the advancement of these inter-connected goals.
Toggle Commented Sep 15, 2022 on Paper for Friday at Jolly Green General
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Sep 15, 2022