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The current carbon extractive industries are the major contribution to on own imminent destruction let alone the uncountable other species so plain to recognise how important and desirable these alternative options are.
Interesting to see how Harvey' views have shifted over time clearly the brain cells are hard at work and b.s. filters are stronger in response to 'environ' mental challenges! Could be a case of what don't kill you makes you stronger??
Sounds like there is consensus. Industry is leading this with gov'ts persuaded. Investment in clean power gen needs to shift up two gears to keep up.
It makes sense to pair (decent sized ) battery with fuel cells to heavy vehicles. The battery mantra people rightly worry that hydrogen production from renewables is not mature an may divert funding away from battery and R.E. But history tells us that invention isn't serial. I think it was feminists who first coined the idea of walking and chewing gum at the same time ( clever ). Hard to understand the vertical thinkers that can't get the way things work in an interleaved reality. I wish this work well and expect it will encourage partners supplying green hydrogen. There will always be wreckers and obstructionism to any achievement but they eventually become best known for not having constructive criticism or workable ideas.
No special treatment for Tesla if they are not being upfront at the sales desk. To hear '' safest car '' incorrectly repeated often by brand advocates leads to mistrust. Currently in .au there (presumably other countries as well) Toyota Hilux is facing class action over non compliant diesel particulate filter traps. Link to discussion paper PDF How longs a price of string? Seriously that is an important question for discussion but the specific situation o example will decided the answer. I think this will be a while away for many locations but could occur rapidly in some others. Airships may not be as silly as it sounds but while compression may be avoided in a trade off for density, the receiving end will have to deal with it in some way.
To think that a 10 yo old battery pack is more economical to drag about as dead weight is a damming incitement of industry practice . Battery dead ? That's alright just this it away is a big contribution to unsustainable lifestyles. Standard format modules should be required for type certification. Unreasonable?
All could be understood if we had grams per kilometer or city highway average to the ice motor with no change in battery state. At least that would allow comparison across species. That ain't gonna happen with advertising execs running the world?
This is another model example of meaningless emissions figures that the overlords consider to be a true representation of efficiency. Legal yes meaningful? There is absolutely no information contained within this spun advert to the consumer vis: ' bunny'. Maybe someone far clevererer than I could make sense of all those numbers. Any takers? Heck maybe the rig is a good thing - how would anyone know?
mahonj I would suggest that the article is about 0 emissions and he costs refer to end capture of these emissions NaOx and C from the vehicle.
Which is why a carbon tax with the proceeds redistributed to low income households for either subsidiesd grid or renewables installed will work without unfairly penalising low income earners. Either which way the less well off will struggle especially as climate changes disproportionately affect the poor 's living standard.
trying to figure how this fits between engine and trans? the usual P2 arragement is a disk on flywheel arrangement so this is belt drive? something makes little sense.
I thought that point two: replacement cost/kW year would at least partially describe operating costs but no there would be catalyst electrodes storage tanks? mentioned for cost but maintenance and replacement cost unclear etc. I guess if we want to fully understand even manpower, insurance etc etc. Clearly they are suggesting the $4 per kg but again does the production cost include all the above ? - To be meaningful It should. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 11 H2 production cost: Modelling framework & assumptions System configurations and technology assumptions (1 MW electrolyzer) • Capital cost: $1,691/kW • Replacement cost: $18.64/kW-year • H2 storage capital cost: $1000 /kg • Fixed O&M cost: $75.2/kW-year • Lifetime: 20 years • Interest rate: 7% • Efficiency: 54.3kWh/kg • Minimum part load: 10% • Operation modes: Base load and Flexible • Capacity factor (CF): 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 95% • Storage duration: 8 h • Time horizon: 1 year (8,760 time periods) Ref: Eichman J. et al. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, 2016. RODeO Other inputs Utility service ISO/RTO electricity markets Maximum revenue Operational profile Energy & demand charges x RODeO: Revenue Operation and Device Optimization price taker model. It is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model in GAMS.
@ lad, I think we've been shouting concern for over a decade but it's hard to get heard over the noise of jet engines. So many problems but at least they do acknowledge the problems and are proactive in approach and from early days at least not exactly 'in denial. (the worlds military forces are high emitters and seem less relevant to ordinary garden variety humans but much prized you might say invaluable to the ruling classes)
I guess they thought they were on the junior high bitchin' blog. If they want to know , no one gives a fig. It's f'n insulting to the readers and especially the publisher who is gracious enough to let all comers access. Respect. The rest of us open the page to find out more about the topic - H2 economy plans by major national players + the U.N. which for what it's worth is 'going off as far as I hear. a.u. cheif scientist is a 'convert. To ECI, the page you linked to was a bit too cryptic for my comfort but the 54% you mention seems to relate to efficiency as bottled or injected to the gas pipes which sounds about right. The associated costs seem to be volume production rather than the small scale which are surely not cheap. We know that the costs drop quickly as production scales up. The take away argument in favour of this is similar to that presented by the 'authourities or gov'ts with the twist being that otherwise very high intermittent renewables are curtailed and the return could be as low as zero. so 40-50% in no laughing matter. We see people getting very excited over anything more than a percent here or there in any other area I.E a few percent weight reduction a few in fuel economy a few% in efficiency = best practice in the real world. Not load shedding 40% should really make a lot of sense.
I could run a test on a standard 300 litre fridge/freezer but I know they can be from ~100W with 180W on startup. If they run 10% duty cycle + or _ depending on in or outdoor temp and usage they will have no problem meeting 13W av.
Some interesting observations from GKN. Building a unitised housing must reduce manufacturing steps and costs while increasing accuracy. With small form motors spinning to 20krpm improved alignment and tolerances would makes sense. Q.D. swap out and hook up could be an attractive feature. It's interesting to see how difficult it has been for the old trades to rethink after so many decades of traditional practices. One of my pre requisites for the ideal components would be options for alternative motor or transmission components to be developed or supplied in a 'standard format, If we get nearer to universal and high market penetration in a constrained world re purposing, recycling and design that encourages repair or upgrades could be promoted esp if the original design is serviceable. There must be a business model such as 'brand loyalty or 'preferred supplier that supports such an approach. The lack of such an approach leads to short life and lack of recycling along with high embedded energy waste. That traditionally means high costs to the consumer and environment for self interest of of supply chain control. That can be seen in a number of legal challenges in various jurisdiction where products have conditions such as 'illegal to modify or alter' including software meaning that although the consumer pays for and 'owns' the product, it is in fact only leased as the manufacturer has the final say.
ECI, That would depend on the end use. If it were utilised at some step along a chemical path the energy efficiency is as high as any but diminishes each time it changes state. As far as utilisation of infrastructure is concerned it seems unclear whether stop start is harmful or reduces the lifetime of system parts or adds expense as there are a multitude of variations and proposed components envisioned that are not the same as conventional applications which have been designed towards continuous inputs of either hydrocarbons or electrons. The cost of intermittent inputs would also be a factor for pumped, gravity or any other infrastructure not working at its highest possible potential? It may be that the added cost in the case of H2 can be designed way down. I'm guessing that applicable innovation options are very early days and impossible to predict outcomes or time frames in the same way as the many if not most other promising decarbonising solutions. The economics should expect inputs to marginal cost being constantly changing as is the way of the world.
To be clear the 30% is a throw away number for conversion to and from e efficiency across the basket of different uses or needs.
Anyone who thinks hydrogen can't do it or batteries or any other wonder technology would be right. There are so many practical solutions at a full range of scale that make these sort of argumentive debates silly. The low cost hydrogen " cheaper than the cost of the electricity to produce" relies on the salvage of any excess to supply. It would make sense that this a realistic scenario at some level depending on location but unlikey on amalgamated global ledger. As electricity especially oversupply occurs locally, it is sensible to see how large oversupplies can be expected and desirable for supplying 24/7 12months of the year. There are credible estimates up to a high side 8 - 9X average demand (demand as expected) If we arrived at that scenario in the future there would be times when local production surplus reached say 6X the total electrical demand capacity. If hydrogen is manufactured during those times at near the 30% conversion suggested there exists possibilities for a green H2 economy as described. If we understood that transport options are not limited to fuel cell but adapt to many different renewable options I would think mast if not all global energy requirements can be met by zero carbon options. Not cheap not instant and disruptive ideas meet with resistance but it would seem doable. The best bit is every single step in this direction is demonstratively effective and as a part of the whole very important. What I don't believe is that fossil fuels can be considered other than curios for either 'blue as for H2 options or CCS other than by people (i.e those recalcitrant political or industry lobbies ) with vested interests in profiting from dinosaur technologies and yes there are many and they are very effective at deceiving the gullible. The fact is it costs everyone else multiples more to get the pollution safely back in the ground.
As an aside. There are many MEDICAL GRADE products available that contain DME for the freeze removal of ticks on humans. This has become the recommended removal method to prevent further venom injection when tweezers are used. Boiling point -23 oC. There is a list of contraindications when it's use is not appropriate so as always follow the instructions. Mechanics workshops often have 'Aerostart' Start Ya B***' or similar diesel starters but these also contain lubricants and possibly other toxic ingredients. Other product sometimes seen are aerosol can based nuts off and bolt freezing penetrants but they are definately highly toxic mixes containing no DME.
The battery packs are expensive but also heavy so need to be low and centre. Duplication of packs would allow long or off peak recharge times and distance/ battery pack weight variations. The 'truck options may also work for different ride, speed or suspension qualities. Another option would be to have the body cab swap-able on a full skateboard compared to this truck change idea. So many creative choices .
Some amount of the H& O will turn up in the ethanol C2H5OH It's just not mentioned.
A simple way to read that could be that of the C passing the catalyst , the output retains 43% the rest may be activating the cat. Another reading could be that the remaining 56% C contributes to the whole process energy requirement which includes a heat input. Either way it does suggest that overall energy conversion efficiency if the cellulose carbon is given as X (C) shows the 43%X converted . Saying X for (C) saves getting technical r.e. the exact full chemical composition of the 'cellulose input. The other components H&O are not included in the article. An example would be. cellulose C6H10O5. Wiki states. Chemical formula (C6H10O5)n "Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula ₙ, a polysaccharide consisting of a **linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D-glucose units**. " **=my add. Clear as mud?
For sure all the studies agree. Herman mentions AI needs to adhere to proper safety margins and road rules -unless that would cause an accident. If the operator gets a chance they will - as we observe every day on the road - push the limits. Speed has always been a selling point and case in point although consumer legislation bans advertising depicting illegal or dangerous behaviour I'm seeing a series of such ads for the new Mustang on the TV. Just saying that promoting the adrenaline filled stunt driving capabilities can be foreseen. When the older models have to face off against the razor sharp braking and handling limits we can expect they will be disadvantaged in many circumstances. So there is an ethical question when for example the less well equipped vehicles trucks mcycles are not allowed space for their safe operation. The obvious simple answer is to have those removed from the road but as legacy rights have a long tradition there needs to be responsibility for the safety of other road users a high priority. As in understanding courtesy to other nearby vehicles.