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Which is why a carbon tax with the proceeds redistributed to low income households for either subsidiesd grid or renewables installed will work without unfairly penalising low income earners. Either which way the less well off will struggle especially as climate changes disproportionately affect the poor 's living standard.
trying to figure how this fits between engine and trans? the usual P2 arragement is a disk on flywheel arrangement so this is belt drive? something makes little sense.
I thought that point two: replacement cost/kW year would at least partially describe operating costs but no there would be catalyst electrodes storage tanks? mentioned for cost but maintenance and replacement cost unclear etc. I guess if we want to fully understand even manpower, insurance etc etc. Clearly they are suggesting the $4 per kg but again does the production cost include all the above ? - To be meaningful It should. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 11 H2 production cost: Modelling framework & assumptions System configurations and technology assumptions (1 MW electrolyzer) • Capital cost: $1,691/kW • Replacement cost: $18.64/kW-year • H2 storage capital cost: $1000 /kg • Fixed O&M cost: $75.2/kW-year • Lifetime: 20 years • Interest rate: 7% • Efficiency: 54.3kWh/kg • Minimum part load: 10% • Operation modes: Base load and Flexible • Capacity factor (CF): 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 95% • Storage duration: 8 h • Time horizon: 1 year (8,760 time periods) Ref: Eichman J. et al. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, 2016. RODeO Other inputs Utility service ISO/RTO electricity markets Maximum revenue Operational profile Energy & demand charges x RODeO: Revenue Operation and Device Optimization price taker model. It is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model in GAMS.
@ lad, I think we've been shouting concern for over a decade but it's hard to get heard over the noise of jet engines. So many problems but at least they do acknowledge the problems and are proactive in approach and from early days at least not exactly 'in denial. (the worlds military forces are high emitters and seem less relevant to ordinary garden variety humans but much prized you might say invaluable to the ruling classes)
I guess they thought they were on the junior high bitchin' blog. If they want to know , no one gives a fig. It's f'n insulting to the readers and especially the publisher who is gracious enough to let all comers access. Respect. The rest of us open the page to find out more about the topic - H2 economy plans by major national players + the U.N. which for what it's worth is 'going off as far as I hear. a.u. cheif scientist is a 'convert. To ECI, the page you linked to was a bit too cryptic for my comfort but the 54% you mention seems to relate to efficiency as bottled or injected to the gas pipes which sounds about right. The associated costs seem to be volume production rather than the small scale which are surely not cheap. We know that the costs drop quickly as production scales up. The take away argument in favour of this is similar to that presented by the 'authourities or gov'ts with the twist being that otherwise very high intermittent renewables are curtailed and the return could be as low as zero. so 40-50% in no laughing matter. We see people getting very excited over anything more than a percent here or there in any other area I.E a few percent weight reduction a few in fuel economy a few% in efficiency = best practice in the real world. Not load shedding 40% should really make a lot of sense.
I could run a test on a standard 300 litre fridge/freezer but I know they can be from ~100W with 180W on startup. If they run 10% duty cycle + or _ depending on in or outdoor temp and usage they will have no problem meeting 13W av.
Some interesting observations from GKN. Building a unitised housing must reduce manufacturing steps and costs while increasing accuracy. With small form motors spinning to 20krpm improved alignment and tolerances would makes sense. Q.D. swap out and hook up could be an attractive feature. It's interesting to see how difficult it has been for the old trades to rethink after so many decades of traditional practices. One of my pre requisites for the ideal components would be options for alternative motor or transmission components to be developed or supplied in a 'standard format, If we get nearer to universal and high market penetration in a constrained world re purposing, recycling and design that encourages repair or upgrades could be promoted esp if the original design is serviceable. There must be a business model such as 'brand loyalty or 'preferred supplier that supports such an approach. The lack of such an approach leads to short life and lack of recycling along with high embedded energy waste. That traditionally means high costs to the consumer and environment for self interest of of supply chain control. That can be seen in a number of legal challenges in various jurisdiction where products have conditions such as 'illegal to modify or alter' including software meaning that although the consumer pays for and 'owns' the product, it is in fact only leased as the manufacturer has the final say.
ECI, That would depend on the end use. If it were utilised at some step along a chemical path the energy efficiency is as high as any but diminishes each time it changes state. As far as utilisation of infrastructure is concerned it seems unclear whether stop start is harmful or reduces the lifetime of system parts or adds expense as there are a multitude of variations and proposed components envisioned that are not the same as conventional applications which have been designed towards continuous inputs of either hydrocarbons or electrons. The cost of intermittent inputs would also be a factor for pumped, gravity or any other infrastructure not working at its highest possible potential? It may be that the added cost in the case of H2 can be designed way down. I'm guessing that applicable innovation options are very early days and impossible to predict outcomes or time frames in the same way as the many if not most other promising decarbonising solutions. The economics should expect inputs to marginal cost being constantly changing as is the way of the world.
To be clear the 30% is a throw away number for conversion to and from e efficiency across the basket of different uses or needs.
Anyone who thinks hydrogen can't do it or batteries or any other wonder technology would be right. There are so many practical solutions at a full range of scale that make these sort of argumentive debates silly. The low cost hydrogen " cheaper than the cost of the electricity to produce" relies on the salvage of any excess to supply. It would make sense that this a realistic scenario at some level depending on location but unlikey on amalgamated global ledger. As electricity especially oversupply occurs locally, it is sensible to see how large oversupplies can be expected and desirable for supplying 24/7 12months of the year. There are credible estimates up to a high side 8 - 9X average demand (demand as expected) If we arrived at that scenario in the future there would be times when local production surplus reached say 6X the total electrical demand capacity. If hydrogen is manufactured during those times at near the 30% conversion suggested there exists possibilities for a green H2 economy as described. If we understood that transport options are not limited to fuel cell but adapt to many different renewable options I would think mast if not all global energy requirements can be met by zero carbon options. Not cheap not instant and disruptive ideas meet with resistance but it would seem doable. The best bit is every single step in this direction is demonstratively effective and as a part of the whole very important. What I don't believe is that fossil fuels can be considered other than curios for either 'blue as for H2 options or CCS other than by people (i.e those recalcitrant political or industry lobbies ) with vested interests in profiting from dinosaur technologies and yes there are many and they are very effective at deceiving the gullible. The fact is it costs everyone else multiples more to get the pollution safely back in the ground.
As an aside. There are many MEDICAL GRADE products available that contain DME for the freeze removal of ticks on humans. This has become the recommended removal method to prevent further venom injection when tweezers are used. Boiling point -23 oC. There is a list of contraindications when it's use is not appropriate so as always follow the instructions. Mechanics workshops often have 'Aerostart' Start Ya B***' or similar diesel starters but these also contain lubricants and possibly other toxic ingredients. Other product sometimes seen are aerosol can based nuts off and bolt freezing penetrants but they are definately highly toxic mixes containing no DME.
The battery packs are expensive but also heavy so need to be low and centre. Duplication of packs would allow long or off peak recharge times and distance/ battery pack weight variations. The 'truck options may also work for different ride, speed or suspension qualities. Another option would be to have the body cab swap-able on a full skateboard compared to this truck change idea. So many creative choices .
Some amount of the H& O will turn up in the ethanol C2H5OH It's just not mentioned.
A simple way to read that could be that of the C passing the catalyst , the output retains 43% the rest may be activating the cat. Another reading could be that the remaining 56% C contributes to the whole process energy requirement which includes a heat input. Either way it does suggest that overall energy conversion efficiency if the cellulose carbon is given as X (C) shows the 43%X converted . Saying X for (C) saves getting technical r.e. the exact full chemical composition of the 'cellulose input. The other components H&O are not included in the article. An example would be. cellulose C6H10O5. Wiki states. Chemical formula (C6H10O5)n "Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula ₙ, a polysaccharide consisting of a **linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D-glucose units**. " **=my add. Clear as mud?
For sure all the studies agree. Herman mentions AI needs to adhere to proper safety margins and road rules -unless that would cause an accident. If the operator gets a chance they will - as we observe every day on the road - push the limits. Speed has always been a selling point and case in point although consumer legislation bans advertising depicting illegal or dangerous behaviour I'm seeing a series of such ads for the new Mustang on the TV. Just saying that promoting the adrenaline filled stunt driving capabilities can be foreseen. When the older models have to face off against the razor sharp braking and handling limits we can expect they will be disadvantaged in many circumstances. So there is an ethical question when for example the less well equipped vehicles trucks mcycles are not allowed space for their safe operation. The obvious simple answer is to have those removed from the road but as legacy rights have a long tradition there needs to be responsibility for the safety of other road users a high priority. As in understanding courtesy to other nearby vehicles.
The T model could travel across continents where no roads existed, modern cars are designed with inter connective GPS and ground based connectivity and near future no seering wheel. What will happen whe the links don't work the roads don't exist etc What if the vehicle spends 90% of it's time out of range or maps? What happens when connected vehicles 'encounter (or try to factor in at greater distance) 'dark vehicles. Will it be a similar experience for drivers of vintage vehicles ( most of which are now running those new fangled hydraulic brakes I'm told! ) where high speed computer dynamic enabled ABS are tailgating at ridiculous freeway speeds whilst reducing separation to reduce air resistance? I can see how that would get older vehicles off the road earlier and the drivers? well they were probably on a low income and a terminal condition was best for them any way? Curious to understand how developers approach these questions.
Can the grid mix be compared to a Caeser salad? That would be Greek for many There is an important tradition of comments in this space questioning proposed future - often revolutionary or disruptive technologies that 'may' change our lives in the near future. The most unlikely examples have been described as vapour ware and associated with fund raising promotion or over enthusiastic ambitious and unrealistic perspective. Occasionally the crowd miss the mark and the idea flies in under the radar. Scepticism works best in a world where things change slowly or predictably but as people have both recognised new urgency about global warming amongst other pressing issues and at the same time have new tools in technology that are being adapted to previously undescribed processes and outcomes, it becomes harder to predict outcomes based on previous knowledge. It is certainly important to understand the history as well as stay informed to the present thinking but as the future is as close as tomorrow, we also need to adjust our planning to take account of possible future developments while not loosing common sense to enthusiasm . We must also include understanding something of the system operator or us - as humans. That's where things become a bit worrisome for me.
E.P. I don't get your comment If the aim is to create employment by duplicate effort I'd agree. If the aim was to keep parts available through restricted supply including second hand or re purposed in order to generate higher profits then yes. If the aim is to keep costs to a minimum and have the ability to recycle then a dominant component with standard or plug and play senssors and standard software options would help keep all sorts of E.V's running. Optionally separate cpu's for H2 and body if that made sense may not be so far from the dominant. when the reality today is that with 5G networking becoming the new standard on trucks cars and motorbikes, and manufacturing costs for redundant accessory marginal there will be cost and practicality benefits to large production runs. We see this with many consumer level processors today . It would be possible to disable unused functions through software and let the geeks (including the ordinary auto workshops) download etc through secured networks.
EP It's interesting to hear of renewables reaching oversupply in 'several states of the U.S. on occasion. These reports are not uncommon in various countries so we can assume others are not far off. That suggests it is timely to look at such as nameplate requirements and 'off peak' uses. 1.5 to 2 times demand cannot begin to describe the complexities of oversupply. As soon as spare electrons have a destination, they meet demand exactly. Knowing that new uses will be found when the current needs are met especially those technologies that can work well and match variable supply. One number that would help is nameplate X average demand. IF any spare is generated then there is the export option. It seems that when export of chemical based H2 renewables is discussed as an economically attractive option, that it will be at fairly low efficiency so need to be a high value .
Lead acid batteries would be a disaster. 'Bubble' cars IMO are not at all scary from the drivers seat they do tend to 'grow on owners as they are so economical and useful in urban areas esp as they are very maneuverable but the tank drivers are less convinced. If I had to live in such poor air environs I would value the thousands an millions of road users no contributing to poor health outcomes. Remember that many .eu cities pedal or postal options work well that would be totally inappropriate for motor city USA style.
I'd like to understand what solutions are used with in to wheel motors get power to oscillating component as it follows the bumps and turns without fatigue in the cable
It really only shows that in some areas the TREND is decreasing but that does not equate to a decrease in the rate of emissions from Any of those sites. That would be a different question and the answer would be different. This article abstract we see here shows the target audience is - well basically scientifically illiterate and incapable of understanding the language used. The type who would use this as evidencee of something totally unrelated. The uneducated experts that we see are the oil and gas industry shrills , climate deniers and born to rule morons that - unfortunately somehow manage to scam their way into government. I wouldn't be surprised if the 2015 date barely scrapes the new year as we know that horizontal fracking has really only more recently started to show the much prized returns to America's oil independence. The other unanswered question is the only one that really matters. The national methane emissions from natural gas pipelines and total infrastructure. As plainly exponential production increases equals higher emissions across the total continent. Once respected NOAHH should not be politicised in this way.
New to me but 'Utility' seems progressive and informative like it would appeal to the readers here. There is some on sodium ion. About: "Utility is the title of choice for decision makers at all levels of water and energy utilities, as well as other major players like consulting engineers and first-tier contractors. Utility is integrated across print and online, and explores the biggest news and issues across the utility industry. It is Australia’s only dedicated utility magazine, and covers all areas of the utility sector, including water and sewer, gas, electricity, communications and the NBN. (that's National Broadband Network) Every issue of Utility features thought-leading content from senior figures and independent experts in the utility space. These industry leaders look at major projects, policy, technologies, equipment, processes and the significant factors impacting Australia’s utilities now and in the future. Utility is Australia’s most powerful and widely-read communication tool for the utility industry." The a.u. federal elections are due in a week with climate change top on the concerns. Federal Labor is the major party currently in opposition. The Science party is the geek end of possible.
An edit function would be icing but nil makes for disciplined texting so can't really complain.
Of course the tailpipe emissions are better than 60% of conventional but the fugitives can give a worse than number. So fracking with their water table dust actors is a non starter. Like if this fossil dude don't stack try another fossil angle that can be sold as 40% lower CO2 except fugitive emissions can tell the lie as it is easily not any benefit . So sad for the deceiving promote any plausible (if they have a scintilla on of ethics - in their mind) the medium of peer reviewed evidenced baseball science says All fossil fuels buried and staying buyers are tesponsoble for nothing more than 1000's of years of climate statistis that have enabled civilisation to reach it's supposed pinnacle we mostly accept as modernity. The NG dream has been debunked conclusively from science based aggregated from published peer reviewed analysis sadly. They can try to sell the same disproved as failed in real time dreams but if reason matters it (NG) is a non starter as far as holy grains are concerned. No magic bullets here just more magic bulshit.