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Matthew Rowell
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1. The key take home points would be the wide range of interactions amongst the gasses, wetlands and the surrounding ecological system. Too high levels of gasses can disturb the ecological interactions and negatively affect the health of wetland plants. The negative effects can spread from the health of the plants to the health of the entire ecosystem as wetland plant roots reach higher depths and release larger amounts of carbon dioxide under the soil. 2. A. I personally would take the course just to further my knowledge about ecosystems and if you were the instructor for the course I would definitely enroll. B. I feel that the normal 3-5 credit classes do a sufficient job at teaching us such topics, usually some courses would entitle a lab and those seem to have helped me in the past. Possibly due to the hands on learning and being in an environment where I can collaborate with others.
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I will be doing my 3 minute thesis on the Gray Wolf in Yellowstone
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1. The article discusses the important benefits of wetland management through Hawaii’s endangered waterbirds because they explain how their management strategies were successful. Through these successful management strategies, others can incorporate such management techniques into already existing conservation projects across wetlands. Different areas of projects sometimes require unique management techniques and being provided evidence of a successful conservation project allows others to analyze a successful project. 2. The legal definition of isolated wetlands versus ecological reality essentially causes habitat fragmentation and loss, which is the underlying concern for many scientists and conservationists. Legal definition of this entitles removing environmental protection acts from areas not near bodies of water or connected to bodies of water. Removing protection rights from these areas not only harms the quality of life for plants along that landscape but animals as well. While slowly damaging the ecosystems connected to the unprotected area, due to the fact that all landscapes are generally connected to each other in a way through groundwater. 3. The primary driver of hydrology in the Carolina Bay wetlands is rainfall and evapotranspiration. 4. The basal area of the conifer, Pond cypress is generally greater in medium-depths due to large amounts of deep organic matter is located. This location has greater amounts of nutrients for the tree to access and lower rates of competition for the trees due to the depth of the surrounding water. 5. Ferns within the Oregon Cascades are particularly susceptible to the predicted impacts of climate change because of their depleting main resource, groundwater. Anthropogenic climate change is slowly affecting the amount and dispersal rate of groundwater worldwide and in turn, it has harmful impacts on the Fern population in the Cascades. Future climate change will impact the overall timing, amount and distribution of groundwater throughout the landscape, which interrupts the Ferns overall routine of life. It displaces their habitats while looking for more groundwater resources and impacts their naturalistic variability within the environment. 6. Ferns are critical for biodiversity conservation because they interact with the surrounding environment, creating a sustainable habitat and resources for many uncommon animals but existing plant life as well within wetlands as well. The difference between a bog and a fen is the way the two were formed and their richness in nutrients. A bog is formed in a landscape through excessive rainfall and a fen is formed through groundwater. Since a bog is formed through rainfall, fen’s typically have a higher richness in nutrients.
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1. What Bowman is suggesting is since climate change is unavoidable at this point, resource ecology should incorporate the concepts of renewal ecology in order to defend against environmental degradation. I believe his ideas are feasible when discussing the planting of coral reefs to deter sea level rise at coastal areas, in replace of seawalls or breakwaters. The only difficult part about such a plan is the money and resources it will take to get the plan rolling, start to finish. Even though these plans seem too challenging to accomplish or even persuade the attention towards, I still agree with Bowman. Renewal ecologies concept should be adapted into the study of resource ecology/management, not replace it but the ideas and methods should be incorporated into management plans. To ensure the better of the future, fitting human and environmental needs. 2. When discussing the topic of translocations, the first thought that comes to mind is animals/species dying off due to niche changes and natural selection. The article has the right motives about preserving the species but naturally, it wouldn’t be the right methods. Naturally animal species adapt to the environmental surroundings, whether its growing/shedding fur to keep normal body temp, beak shape/length changing in order to reach food, or forming of webbed feet to enhance swimming abilities. The evolution and adaptation of species it what drives the biodiversity of an ecosystem. Translocating animals from colder to warmer climates will essentially cause more negative effects than positive in my opinion. I feel that we should not open the door to translocations and instead continue to be cautious. 3. The escaped Atlantic salmon issue is a problem to the existing salmon and other organisms residing in that area of the ocean. It increases the rate of competition for resources amongst the organisms in that aquatic habitat, causing for both species to die off and one outlasting the other. For fisherman, they see this as a disturbance to their resource being the native salmon that were already there and now must fight more for their survival in those waters. I don’t believe mixing and matching of species should be incorporated into the Atlantic salmon issue because it didn’t naturally happen and it wasn’t designed to happen. In most cases I don’t believe the mixing and matching plan due to the fact that an environment forms naturally through species diversity and evolution.
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A. In the article “Developing the Science of Reintroduction Biology” it addresses the overall raise in awareness through peer reviewed literature covering the study of reintroduction biology. The model Figure. 1 in the article displays the number of peer-reviewed reintroduction-related papers from the years 1942-2005, the number of papers didn’t substantially increase until the late 90’s and early 2000’s. Another key point of this article was that even though there has been an overall increase in reintroduction biology, doesn’t mean the articles properly cover the general studies and understanding of the science behind it. Most articles to date haven’t followed any recent hypotheses or studies, rather they have just basically designed management plans, which is just altering the landscape with what is available to them and not implementing new strategies for reintroduction methods. B. Yes, I do agree with the argument. Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem, which ties hand in hand together with reintroduction biology. They both deal with restoring a landscape to its ideal natural self, by re-establishing what was once there, for example the plant life and animal species. An ecosystem works together to survive so why not incorporate these two newer areas of study into one to better our understanding of environmental restoration methods through ecological and biological methods. C. Alle effects is dependent upon populations size of the animal species, they influence the individual fitness of the population. When releasing too little of a species, they could run into mate limitation causing stress on the animals and disrupt reproduction methods. In turn, this would be an unsuccessful reintroduction strategy and the main reason is releasing too small of a species for test study. The author argues that case studies provide greater knowledge and meta-analyses from individual case studies, providing comparable studies and statistics. Another point would be that prior knowledge from case studies allows other researchers to ask and answer questions when comparing data/study. D. Some potential problems that may occur during the interval period is a changing landscape, through natural or human disturbances, which could affect the species population. Another could be the overall lifespan across all species isn’t the same, therefore the 1, 5 and 10 year intervals would be inaccurate for the study of all species. E. The species I have chosen for the second planning assignment is the Red Wolf, native in the Southeastern U.S., it’s related to the coyote and gray wolf.
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1. One general thing that should be pointed out is looking at the overlay of forest loss/extent/gain and where you see forest extent, a majority of that forest has been lost between 2000-2019. A significant amount of forest areas along the coast have been lost compared to more inland forest where it has not been affected yet. Another interesting factor to point out is the amount of forest gain and no gain occurring from 2000-2012, which showed very little gain in forests, for how large the forest extent showed on previous data. 2. The historical background of the ponderosa pine is that it originated through natural variability throughout the changing ecological landscape. As they were once great tall trees, they were affected by early logging efforts, agricultural methods and livestock grazing. A natural factor back then would be fire suppression amongst the forests, which actually enhanced the natural variability and growth of ponderosa pine trees. Currently the ponderosa pine still faces many of these issues but increasing fire suppression within forests have become a current issue and possibly a resolution as well. With decreasing numbers of ponderosa pine within our forest it takes away a major key organism out of the environment that many species inhabiting the forest used as a resource. It not only decreases the diversity amongst tree species but other living organisms as well. A Ponderosa Pine forest with Douglas fir and Juniperus species, it would hint that the climate in that area is dry with seasonal moisture and averaging higher temperatures. The most natural way to re-create a l historical condition for a ponderosa pine forest is to, if needed thin out the forest and then using the natural effect of fire suppression on the forest. This would enable for the natural variability and regrowth of the ponderosa pine forest. Fire regimes differ between in the Southwest compared to the Northern Rockies due to their climatic differences. In the Rockies, the mountains limit cloud movement and receive accumulated amounts of rain, allowing for wetter climate conditions. In the Southwest, climatic conditions are drier and hotter which enhances forest fire conditions. 3. Increasing amounts of carbon and a decreasing vegetation density doesn’t provide positive insight on western forests. Higher amounts of carbon in the air allows for drier and hotter climate conditions, meaning higher chances of fires occurring more than they already do. 4. It’s important to look at historical patterns and strategize restoration efforts off those, doing so allows for more natural variability in the growth of the trees. Planting them in an evenly spaced out pattern doesn’t represent the historical trend as they grew randomly throughout the landscape. The best way to re-create the spatial tree patterns and allow for its natural variability in growth is to widely spread/plant the trees over a wide landscape. 5. The blue stain fungus and the mountain pine beetle are attached, when interacting with the trees they essentially infect the tree and kill them off. The mountain pine beetle acts as the transporter for the fungus and when the beetle enters the tree, the blue stain fungus attacks the trees water transport methods, slowly killing off the tree as other insects inhibit the tree. 6. The Northern Goshawks are well adapted to flying through small spaces due to their forested habitat, as they have to fly through tight areas of branches and trees to retrieve resources. 7. I believe salvage logging is controversial due to the amount of organisms and plant species that inhabit snags. Also the death of these trees and re-use of them through natural resources for the environment can re-create the natural variability of the ecological landscape. 8. The western lizard species is facing fragmentation across their landscape as the forest fires are limiting resources and habitat area for them to thrive. 9. A knowledgeable person in plant ecology when working on restoration efforts allows for a better understanding of what belongs on the current landscape and what doesn’t. For example, my old boss was a pro in identifying all types of plants across the Palouse. Using her knowledge we would be able to look at a site and identify which were invasive species and what we needed to plant to help counteract such restoration problems. 10. The news articles displayed humanities poor efforts to combat ecology issues, which displays the incompetence we have when coming together to understand that awareness in restoration ecology can mitigate the issues our society and natural environment face. 11. One of the major cavity nesting birds is the Lewis’s woodpecker, it’s main habitat are Ponderosa Pine Snags. Snags are an essential habitat as the dead trees are used as a major resource for multiple aspects such as nesting, storage for food / hunting for food, using as a perch, and for woodpeckers it’s a place for drumming. The issues being faced are the increasing rates of forest fires and the societal decision to disrupt areas of snags by removing fallen trees and debris as resources for human need. Doing this eliminates the habitat of the Lewis’s woodpecker and disrupt their natural role in the environment. One of their roles is decreasing the number of bark beetles in a tree by removing the bark off the outside of the tree and feed on the larvae. Essentially, woodpeckers provide a longer life expectancy for trees and that is one supporting factor we need when focusing on forest restoration efforts.
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Aug 31, 2020