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Ralph Tacoma
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Ig, The vertical column is primarily dominated by the "hot air rises" phenomena of the fire. At the early stages there appear to be a number of small explosions. The upward portion of their force will have been directed upwards as well. IF the explosions have not yet broken down the concrete walls of the building, each "mini-explosion" will have a greater impact on the updraft than it might in the open air. The major explosion will dominate everything for multiple tens of seconds. When the blast wave as dispersed, there will be an influx into the area to fill the void the blast wave leaves behind. All of the mechanisms of really large explosions interacting with the "real" world are still not fully understood since, fortunately, we've not had all that many of them to analyze. I suspect that the Beirut explosion will be being studied for many years yet.
Toggle Commented Aug 6, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
The "negative pressure" wave shown in the one video is actually quite predictable. When the initial blast wave is heading straight up in a column, it's pushing air at the site upwards. This causes the surrounding air to flow INWARD toward the site to fill the void. The same thing happens in a fire storm where the rising hot air from the fire draws air inward to replace it. In this case it's only a "pulse" rather than a continuous phenomenon, and it reverses when the blast wave blows out from the center, and then reverses again when air must rush in to replace that forced out by the blast wave. The intricacies of explosions are rather complex though for most explosions they happen so fast that most observers are only aware of a single "BOOM" and a pressure wave.
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
Jim.nj, I personally think that it was largely a Hezbollah facility explosion whether targeted by the Israelis or just the result of Muzzi incompompetence. IF there was a large amount of contaminated ammonium nitrate in the warehouse for several years, I can readily believe that most people wouldn't have been concerned about it. It's almost like sand. It's not easy to set off, that's why you have to use a TNT booster to set off teh charge in a bore hole. BUT if they Hezzis stored a lot of high explosive ordnance in the warehouse that contained the AN, then IF something sete off one or more of those large HE devices (a 500# bomb, or simply a store of TNT blovks, or C-4, or ....) that might well have been enough to allow the AN to contribute to the overall mess. The pictures of the blast look to me as though there was a 2nd "burst" of explosion about the time the "white walls" deveop a "cap" and then the blast blows outward. It suggests to me that a complex of reactions are taking place, andf that ammonium nitrate may well be acontributor to the overall destruction. A series of blasts from a number of high explosive devices (bombs, artillery shells, etc) could also be the source. For that matter, it could be that the apparent 2nd explosion after the white walled column is "capped" by the orange dome is the result of a cloud of propane being ignited. Perhaps there was a stockpile of 100# propane tanks in the warehouse! Obviously I'm being a bit "playful" in my peculation, but there really is a lot that we don't know. I do think that a lot of the overall force of the explosion could have come from contaminated ammonium nitrate. Given enough "outside stimulation" (stockpiled TNT, etc) that's very feasible. I doubt that it could have happened strictly by chance. I think that someone, Israeli, or other, provided some help. All the Best, Ralph
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
Jim.nj, Now I have to admit being a bit rusty. ANFO explosions are often quite orange/yellow in their smoke but that is generally a result of unequal mixing of the nitrate and oil. Unfortunately it's been too many years, and I forget which direction that imbalance is that drives the color. Extrapolating from experience, I THINK that the orange comes from too much oil in part of the mix. IF this was an Ammonium Nitrate explosion, I'd guess that it came from a "contaminated" lot of Ammonium NItrate that lacked enough carbon source. That would be consistent with a lot of contaminated ammonium nitrate that had picked up some fuel oil from the ship, but not enough to fully provide the fuel necessary for complete combustion. My memory (from literally 40 years ago) is that a completely balanced mix would have had nearly white smoke, the orange smoke was aign of portions of the mix having too much fuel oil. (Note: you could have that happen even if the overall ratio of AN to FO was deficient in FO since the portion that was "swimming in oil" would produce a lot of orange smoke while the AN lacking oil would be mostly inert.) In any case, setting off the ANFO would require a serious bit of high explosive. A 500 or 1000 pound bomb would have been quite adequate, I believe. The comparatively slow evolotium of the major explostion makes me think that ANFO might have been a major component of the event. A true High Explosive event would have hapened much more rapidly due to the greater brisance of high explosives. ANFO is generally considered to be a "medium" explosive. More brisant than black powder but not nearly up to the standard of TNT, and it's actual comparison to TNT is highly influenced not only by the absolute AN/FO ratio, but by how uniformly that ratio exists throughout the mix. All the Best, Ralph
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
Mel, I disagree (and I have some professional qualification with explosives, I'm a mining engineer.) I agree that initially it appeared to head straight up, but I BELIEVE (can't prove it without more information) but I believe that it started in a basement/ground floor with fairly heavy side walls. In that case the bulk of the explosive force would go straight up. When the effect of the heavy walls was overcome the blast went hemispherical. Had it retained it's apparent initial configuration the blast wave would not have been as severe when it reached the site of at least two of those rater distant video cameras. Relatively light structures can greatly influence the effectiveness of explosives. For examlple if I need to break a granite boulder roughly 6 feet in diameter, I can place a charge of 2lobs of Composition C-4 (a "plastic Explosive) on the surface. If I detonate it "bare" it probably won't break the boulder. If I cover the charge with 6-12" of sandy clay ("mud packing") I'll probably shatter the boulder. Boring a hole, and putting the explosive inside it is even more effective. (which is why we generally go the effort of drilling holes for our explosives. This ia rather simplified explanation of of some of the principles of explosives, but it is quite valid. A truly "shaped charge" involves the Munro Effect and it's quite a bit more complicated and nkot something that is done with 1, 000 tons or more of explosives. All the Best, Ralph
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
Industrially it as used as an explosive under tne name ANFO, or AN/FO, which stands for Ammonium Nitrate/ Fuel Oil. The AN that exploded at Texas City was not pure ammonicum nitrate but had been formulated with admixtures intended to make it more water resistant, but that provided a fuel source. Normally ANFO is quite safe since it is only mixed with fuel oil as it is injected into the bore hole. IF the Beirut explostion was bsed on the ammonium nitrate there must have been another element present. Some accounts I've read suggest that it had been salvaged from a sunken freighter so it's POSSIBLE that it had gotten mixed with some fuel oil. Without a fuel source, it should not have exploded, and even with a fuel source it would require a significant detonator to get it started (Industrially, there's a TNT primer at the bottom of the bore hole to initiate the explosion.) Hope this is of some value.
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
Ammonium nitrate is quite capable of generating a massive explosion, though it generally needs to be mixed with a fuel source such as fuel oil to become an explosive. The potential of ammonium nitrate as an explosive was first brought to the world's attention by a massive industrial accident in 1947 when a freighter being loaded with ammonicum nitrate in Texas City, Texas exploded killing nearly 600 people. (A google search will provide you with details.)
Toggle Commented Aug 5, 2020 on Here Comes The Rain Again at JustOneMinute
JimSunny, I'm still way behind, but I saw your question about hydroxychloroquine. American Thinker had a good article about it on 7/25. It's at https://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2020/07/yale_epidemiologist_says_hydroxychloroquine_could_save_up_to_100000_lives.html If you send me an email address I can send you a PDF of it.
Toggle Commented Jul 28, 2020 on Biden's VP Pick at JustOneMinute
I'm way behind so much of this comment may be redundant, but I thought I'd make it anyway in case it provided food for thought for any of you. The situation with the riots now reminds me of what we went through in the 60's, and it seems to me that at this time we may be repeating many of the early mistakes of that time. I remember when I first heard reports of the first riots in Harlem, and the announcer reported that "the police fired volley after volley over the heads of the rioters." That troubled at the time because the only thing I knew about riot control came from an army Field Manual on the topic from the 1930's. (I've probably still got it "some place!") While the troops of the time lacked any of the "less lethal" weaponry that's available today, the goal was still to restore order with the minimum number of casualties. The preferred method to do that was with a "show of force." That's still the preferred method, but the manual pointed out something has often been ignored since then (both in the 60's and now in good old 2020.) That something was that for a "show of force" to work, people must believe that the force WOULD be used of the orders to disperse were not obeyed. One of the emphatic points made was that you should NEVER "fire over their heads." All that did was encourage people to think you were bluffing. If they think you're bluffing they are likely to keep pushing you until you are forced to use a lot more force than you'd prefer to you. The preferred method if you had to shoot was to have your sharpshooters concentrate you hitting the ring leaders, rather than having all the troops open fire. I've often thought that if the people in Chicago in '68 had used a sniper to take out Abbie Hoffman or any of the other bullhorn carrying leaders things could have been controlled much more quickly and with less total damage (and an improvement in the gene pool.) One of the reasons that Kent State ended as it did was that prior to that point any troops deployed had been quite passive even when being pelted with rocks and bricks. The "students" believed that the riots were great fun with no downside. Had earlier responses been more forceful with a few people getting seriously hurt, the students would not have thought that riots were a risk free adrenaline rush. Though I've never seen it pointed out in print, after Kent State there were few, if any, campus riots. I believe to this day that the deaths at Kent State may well have prevented a lot more deaths in the future. BLM and Antifa MUST be shown that there's a cost to their "games." There are, undoubtedly, some hard core Marxists at the leadership level in those groups, but I think that most of them are kids (no matter how old they may be) who want to play at being revolutionaries. Time will tell. Thanks for all of your great commentaries.
Toggle Commented Jul 26, 2020 on A Win For Trump! at JustOneMinute
Happy Fourth of July Weekend!!!! It's been weeks since I've been able to comment. Events have conspired to keep me largely away from my computer, and things seem likely to continue that way for some time. I've been lurking periodically with my Kindle Fire, but Typhus Pad wouldn't allow me to login so I've been unable to comment. I've been pleased to see that you've maintained the generally high level of discourse that I've come to expect from this site, and I've been frustrated by my inability to add my minor contributions. I want to express my condolences to Stephanie and all others who've experienced personal loss since I last posted. While I couldn't comment I did offer prayers to all that I read of. It's been nearly 30 years since my father passed away, but I can still remember the shock that it produced. Caro I would, indeed, like to set up a meet. We've got a great Mexican restaurant that could be good, or a brew pub, if they've reopened for dining (I'll have to check, Drop me contact info at weepingwulf@gmail.com and we can work out details. MT, I haven't forgotten my promise to comment on your article about China, and have actually been expanding my notes for the response in the odd break in my chaos! I've also saved a couple of links "in a safe place" (which I have find again when I get a minute!) that offer some other perspectives on the issue that I think you'll find interesting. Well, got to get back to work. I'm delighted with Trump's July 3 Speech and still remain guardedly optimistic about how this will all play out.
Toggle Commented Jul 5, 2020 on Happy Independence Day! at JustOneMinute
And, in Detroit, "Livernois" is pronounced as "Liver Noise" Stay Safe and Healthy and Drive the Karens Nuts!
Toggle Commented May 23, 2020 on The Man In The Mask at JustOneMinute
ManTran: It's been a chaotic week with a typical round of old fart's medical appointments etc. (Fortunately nothing that serious, not even the car repairs!) I read your link to Friedman's article about China and I plan to give you a more detailed reply over the next day or two ---- "G*d willin' and the creek don't rise." As a quick summary I think that his analysis is about a C+. There are few errors in his article, but more than a few omissions. I'll not belabor that now, but will try to give a considered opinion soon. I'm certainly not an expert, but I see some things that he has not considered. In the meantime, you might find this article: https://www.strategypage.com/on_point/20200520115432.aspx to be of interest. It deals with some the related issues though over not so broad a range as the one you linked. Thanks for some stimulating "food for thought." Stay Safe and Healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 23, 2020 on The Man In The Mask at JustOneMinute
lyle, Mike in Houston, On the subject of people not understanding distances in the States the most extreme cases I've seen have been from Europeans. I used to work for BASF. Their US headquarters was in Parsippany,NJ. It was always amusing when we'd have a German Delegation come to the States for a few days. When asked what they planned for the weekend you find that they were hoping to see Yosemite, and Grand Canyon, and the Florida Keys. The Germans who'd been here long enough to be "Old America Hands" had more fun with the situation than we native Americans did! On the other hand the thing that most struck me about Europe was how old everything is. On my first trip to the UK, I tried to meet up with H. Russel Robinson, a curator of armour at the Tower of London. I had corresponded with him several times over the years and thought that since I had a half day free I should try to speak with him. (The trip had come up on sufficiently short notice that I'd not had a chance to set anything up with him. It was in the days BEFORE the Internet!) His office was in the New Armoury. The receptionist asked me to wait in the library while she tried to locate him. Ultimately she couldn't find him so the meeting never took place. While she'd been gone to seek him I'd notice the size of the oak beams in the ceiling --- they were at least 2x3's as in Two FEET by Three FEET! I asked her when the building was constructed and commented, "Oh, in 1640 or so!" And she didn't think that at all unusual. Of course we have a similar situation though not so extreme just within the US. Anything over 100 years old is unusual in Wyoming, but our farmhouse in NJ was built before 1820 and was not that unusual. Stay safe and healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 20, 2020 on If They Don't Indict, It's Alright! at JustOneMinute
Jane, You have my sympathy. I can partially understand your suffering. I've had both shoulders replaced over the past ten years and during the first "few" (and just who determines how many is "few," the patients, or the doctors!!??!!!) I was severely restricted as to sleeping position. Given an option, I'd normally sleep on my left side, but the infernal slings and their "protective bolsters" forced me to sleep on my back. Hang in there. It will get better, and you'll be delighted with the improvement in your vision Stay healthy and safe, and drive the Karens nuts! All the Best
Toggle Commented May 20, 2020 on If They Don't Indict, It's Alright! at JustOneMinute
FWIW, sorry that I'm late to the party, but I've had to deal with the normal "but we've got that appoint....." issues of our age group. Fortunately, this was only the matter of trying to clear the "outer lenses" of our Mustang's headlights to maximize their illumination. IANAL, but I have NO problem with AG Barr's statements. He continues to present himself as the consummate professional (which I believe he is) and does not want to introduce any objective elements that would allow others to later charge political bias on his part. While I believe that he would truly like to behave as the blind Scales of Justice of the ideal, he realizes that there is an inherent political element to the Attorney General's job. Unlike Eric Holder, he does not want to be, nor to appear to be, the "wingman" of the President administering the President's version of "truth and justice." He wants to be, and, to appear to be, the Champion of the real meaning of "Truth & Justice." This may sound like the mincing of words of the bureaucratic, but I believe that it explains the realities of Barr's position. He would prefer the purely non-political "blind Scales of Justice" scenario, but he realizes that he exists in the real world and his goal is to perform as close to that non-political goal as can be humanly possible. In order to do that he must be VERY careful in his wording of any comment he makes about current events. When he says (I'm paraphrasing here, it's too late for me to look up his exact words.) "Based on my current knowledge ....," he means exactly that. If he's not been informed of any validated data that would justify a criminal investigation of Obambi or Slo Joe, he's telling the truth. That does not say that he's not heard about things that might make him suspect that they deserve a criminal investigation, only that the data hasn't broken the beyond a preponderance of evidence threshold. In truth, given the very REAL political problems that an investigation of Biden or Obambi would entail, he might well be holding out for evidence that met the beyond a reasonable doubt standard. So, I don't think that anything Barr has said precludes an ultimate investigation of either Biden or Obambi. Pollyanna? Might very well be. Time will tell. Stay safe and healthy. All the Best, Ralph
Toggle Commented May 20, 2020 on If They Don't Indict, It's Alright! at JustOneMinute
Clarice, Thanks again. I relayed your answer to Phang and we're going to look at things again at their site. I', certain that we'll have some more questions as we get into it further. Stay safe and healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 19, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
Clarice @8:53pm Many Thanks! It's a pleasure to be able to talk with an expert who can explain to an amateur like me. Stay safe and healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 19, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
Off the main topic: Clarice, or any other talented cooks/chefs out there: Could you explain in terms even a novice cook like myself (grilling steaks and/or hamburgers is my height of sophistication) why you find the Thermomix so useful? Even my wife, Phang, who is a far better cook than I, couldn't see it as being as valuable as you've indicated simply from reviewing their site. We greatly respect the opinions of all the talented cooks here and always try to save any recipes you post, so we feel that we must be missing something here. Thanks for any guidance you can provide. Stay safe and healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 18, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
Caro, The situation here (Wyoming & Utah) is certainly a lot more pleasant than on either of the coastal belts from what I can see. If one is to do the winter/summer home bit I think that St George/Park City is a lot better deal than NYC/Florida! We don't mind Evanston in the winter, particularly since we got some reliable local kids who like to shovel snow and mow lawns! Rather than a winter house we're just planning to install a standby generator to tide us over any power outages (and we don't get many of those.) Stay safe and healthy and drive the Karens nuts!
Toggle Commented May 18, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
Caro, In case you missed my agreement, we are looking forward to meeting you after your return to Park City. Travel safely and stay healthy.
Toggle Commented May 18, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
BIG BOY Info: I posted this link late a couple of nights ago, but just in case anyone interested in the topic missed it, here it is again: https://www.steamlocomotive.com/locobase.php?country=USA&wheel=4-8-8-4&railroad=up#346 The page has a tremendous about of information about the Big Boys including fuel consumption.
Toggle Commented May 18, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
MM2@8:02pm "As far as I am concerned, he is the best president in my lifetime, and I was born in the Truman Administration. Reagan comes in a close second, but he was too polite. I certainly agree that they are, at least, tied. Reagan faced a different set of challenges. The Cold War was an overriding priority. He lacked a majority in Congress. China had not insinuated itself so far into our economy. AND not coincidentally the three Major Networks were dominant, the Internet was in its infancy, and there was no twitter. It may well be that Reagan's more disarming manner was the most effective for that time. His manner was so disarming that most of the nastiest attacks by the press failed to stick to him. I don't know that Trump would have been as effective in that environment. I think that they both did and are doing the best they can with the cards they've been dealt. Trump is doing a superb job now, and I think that he's the right man for the job TODAY. AS good as he is at politics he might well had taken a somewhat different approach had he been in Reagan's position. Politics is the art of the possible Stay Safe and Healthy All the Best.
Toggle Commented May 18, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
Ext @6:49pm: "Trump: "Is there a vaccine for AIDS yet? The common cold? How do we know there will ever be a vaccine?" Over to you, Fouch." That would work IF it were on a debate floor, but not after Fauci testified to Congress (and he may well believe his positions on these things in all sincerity). The Dims would have run with it at a time things were looking bad. They would have shouted about "....chaos in the Administration. Trump won't listen to the Scientists. Millions will die!" The MSM would have repeated it thousands of times, and the panic would have deepened. At that point in times were increasing rapidly in NYC and that was getting a lot of hype. Given what was known at the time I think that the initial two weeks was probably a good call. I was disappointed at the initial extension, but could understand it given the political climate of the time. And that's the time the governors asserted their rights. Time will tell. I don't know of anyone I'd prefer in Trump's job. Stay safe and healthy. All the Best
Toggle Commented May 17, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
OL @6:34PM "So you are as happy as we are that he created 3.5 million jobs in four years but CEO'd the destruction of ten times that many in two months?" While I can understand your perspective, I disagree that he CEO'd the destruction of the economy. My perception is that he's done the best he could to get us through the pandemic. There are things we still don't understand about the virus and its effects and we're all still learning. Unfortunately, the so-called experts seem to know less than those of us amateurs who've been watching. A classic example being the changing importance of ventilators which were once regarded as an essential tool and are now looking more and more like a death sentence. Trump is not an MD so it's not surprising that he didn't know that. Most MDs did not know that until we'd gotten further into the pandemic. Without Trump we'd be looking at waiting for a vaccine and doing so on the old FDA schedule which might take 3 years. Now we've started states moving again and the contrast will make it easier to free Michigan, New York, and California. Remember the governors ordered the shutdowns not the Federal Government. Trump can influence and pressure, but not command. I agree with you things need to be brought to justice but is not easy to command governors to change. I do believe that Barr probably has people building the cases, but I think it's a tricky area of law, IANAL so others are far more qualified than I to comment on that. I've managed some fairly large projects rebuilding chemical plants and have learned to chuckle wryly at all the nasty surprises that come up when you implementing what you thought was an excellent plan and everyone involved had been honestly sharing what they knew about the condition of the facility. You have to think on your feet and readjust your plans continually if you're going to remain on schedule and at least close to budget. The task that Trump faces is far more complex than anything I've ever attempted, and I suspect that might also be true for you. So I think that he's doing an excellent job, and you disagree. I can understand our disagreement and I suspect that when things play out we'll find out that neither one of us has it completely right. Stay safe and healthy and watch out for slippery spots on the ledge. (I used be a rock climber and I know how challenging they can be!) All the Best
Toggle Commented May 17, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute
OL @4:24PM I guess we're just bound to disagree. IMHO the captain of the ship analogy is a strawman. The captain a ship is/was "master under God" over his ship absolutely able to order anything aboard it. Defying his orders ultimately can be construed as mutiny traditionally punishable by death. (Yes, I know minor acts of insubordination were not punished by death, but they would be punished by quite a number of increasingly severe penalties. In the old days, flogging wasa major portion of those penalties.) Though we've done away with that level of severity, a captain still has tremendous power to punish any member of the crew who violates his orders or the procedures he has established. The President of the United States while undoubtedly extremely powerful lacks anything like that level of immediate authority over those in the organization he runs. That is particularly true for someone like Trump who honestly respects the constitution and wants to make it work. As partial proof of my theory, I cite the example of Obama himself who definitely liked the idea of dictatorial authority and who was quite willing to break the law. Even he had to operate in secret. I certain that he would have preferred to have Flynn arrested, "disappeared," and summarily shot, but even he and his cabal of crooks were unable to do that. I think that Trump has been trying to keep the damage to a minimum while not wasting political capital in a fruitless endeavor. Imagine what would have happened had he resisted the "flattening the curve" shutdown. 1) The Dims would have gotten Fauci to go public with statements about how "the President just doesn't understand the severity of the problem. We must shutdown until there is a vaccine." 2) The Dims and the Media (I repeat myself) would have screamed about all the people dying because of Trump's bad decision. 3) Many Congressional Repubs would have criticized the "president's lack of willingness to listen to the experts in a field he knows nothing about." Mittens would not have been a lone fart in the night. 4)People would be panicking even more than they did and a lot of the business damage would be done anyway. 5) Some governors would have reacted and ordered shutdowns anyway. In fact, I suspect that most would have done so given how much criticism there has been of the only governor (South Dakota?) to not order any shutdown. The chaos would have made matters far worse. Think of the absurdities we have experienced, like the Toilet Paper shortage. Without any feeling of order, I guarantee that the panic would have been far worse and the damage much greater. By creating the Corona Virus Task Force with Pence at its head, Trump has been able to maintain at least an overall direction and spot some of the key bottlenecks in the bureaucracy. Don't forget that early on the Governor of Pennsylvania had shutdown the rest areas on the Turnpike and some Interstates. Things like that could have disrupted the supply chain even worse than it was and the resulting food shortages would have exacerbated the panic. Remember that Trump pushed partnering with industry which got us more tests, ventilators, etc much faster than anyone predicted. He kept doing things to undermine the doomsayers. He used the Army to convert the Javits Center and other locations into hospitals, and used the Navy to mobilize an deploy two hospital ships to provide additional beds. He got all of that done before the doomsayers believed it possible. Of course it turned out they weren't needed, but by deploying right away he's helped convince more people that the doomsayers are wrong. Has the pandemic been handled optimally? Of course not, but what could realistically have been done better? The President is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, but not of United States of America. He has to work within our system if he is to preserve it. So, while I agree with you that we should not have shut the economy down, at least past the end of March. Given the realities of the situation I think that Trump has done a masterful job. Imagine what Hilary would have done. Stay safe and healthy, and don't fall off the ledge!
Toggle Commented May 17, 2020 on Sunday Guest Appearance at JustOneMinute