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HD the USA could be energy independent with the political will, that and the Greens getting the Fout that way we have over 1.6 Trillion tons of coal that is accessible with UCG tech, we have 1.3 Trillion barrels of shale oil that Shell and others have demonstrated is economical at >~$55 bbl, have over 120 years of shale gas, and that number does not take into account the GOM and our EEZ's of the OCS plus permafrost AK the size of the hydrate resource is staggering. World wide the hydrate resource is so large that if humans burned it all we could reduce the O2 content of the atmo a few percentage points they are that large. No NA is fortunate to have HUGE hydrocarbon reserves accessible with todays technology and by today I mean this decade 2000+ the peakist Cassandras never take into account how rapidly tech has improved nor that in mineralogy there is a law that for every doubling in price of ANY mineral you can go to sources one order of magnitude lower in concentration. Let me put it this way the global average crude oil recovery rate is 21% from any random well string @ $25bbl avg which has been pretty constant till 2005. Now with secondary and tertiary EOR the reconvery rates have hit 70+% in existing wells that have undergone these processes. Why because price tripled and EOR became profitable from 21% to 70% recovery is 2x more oil from the existing wells. Its widely known that of the 11 trillion barrels originally in place on this planet we have got 1.5 ish trillion out at 21%. We have the tech to get at 70% of that 11 trillion now this planet is not going to run out of oil anytime soon, 20 buck oil is history but at ~>75bbl there is another 3 to 5 trillion barrels left of light crude and as pointed out here a couple of trillion of heavy crudes worldwide @50% recovery, the THAI process hits 80% for tarsands and heavy crudes its a advanced EOR technology that is economical in the $70s range. There is another trillion of tarsands which THAI can get 80% all economical at 75-100 a barrel.
Stan is right about the Deep Hot Biosphere right now archaebacteria are doing chemosynthesis under every oceanic crustal area there is no dispute of this. The main byproduct of archaebacteria anaerobic chemosynthesis is methane. This methane is believed to be the main source of the massive methane hydrates found in every ocean basin where the pressure temperature stability curve crosses the subsea sediments. The size of these deposits is mind blowing on the order of 200000 trillion cubic feet or 2 orders of magnitude more than all the other fossil carbons anywhere and everywhere. Methane hydrates C12 to C13 ratios are skewed to mantle chemistry not Atmospheric or biospheric ratios this can only mean that the archaebacteria are chemosynthesing carbon from the lower lithosphere not the biosphere or atmo. Not surprising since the lithosphere is full of carbon containing minerals. The debate scientifically is how much these archaebacteria are producing over time and does this methane get converted to polyhydrocarbons of CH2n+++? researcher's have taken rocks of mantle composition and put methane co2 and water in a anvil cell then pressurized it to mantle pressure n temp. What they got out shocked even the most hardened Geologist who holds abotic oil to be a fairytail, they got polyhydrocarbons that were metastable once the pressure temp was released such as ethane and the like. That one discovery rocked the Geosciences because if you can take chemosynthetic methane and iron rich rocks plus water and get polyhydrocarbons then this planet should be awash with these look deep and look for structural traps above the mantle crustal interface. This also explains why some oil in production today has carbon ratios closer to mantle chemistry and not biospheric. We have not looked deep enough to find the abiotic stuff but some fields do show in 4d seismic recharge from a very deep source area and this recharged oil is of mantle chemistry. I can think of 2 fields in the GOM that this effect is actively being studied right now as the oil is of dare it be said abiotic chemistry the carbon 12 to 13 is almost undeniably of lithosphere and not organic origin.
Go Linc GO! UCG is the bar none one of the cheapest form of primary energy on the planet, syngas costs of <2 mmbtu have been demonstrated that's like $12 a barrel oil on a btu to btu basis. Using FT or some other kind of petrol synthesis <2 US gal @ 15% ROI +OM & Capexp is within reach. They need short term revenue to continue the technology upsizing for large scale UCG I wish you well Linc. UCG + microchannel FT is going to make some people very very rich, while providing a product that every industrialized nation is pining for. Linc onward and upward my friends.
EP CH4 makes good motor fuel when you have to massively change the existing infrastructure to use it. You have to modify the vehicles to hold a pressure tank or cryotank, you have to build out filling stations were talking hundreds of billions of dollars in structural changes. This allows cheap plentiful methane to be converted to something that is fungible on the existing market and usable by the existing infrastructure. Not only is the USA awash in shale and tight sands methane over 100 years at 100% current production levels and we have not even broken the surface of the potential of shale gas we are the Saudi Arabia of shale gas. The GOM has massive methane hydrates that would be economical at 6-8 MMBTU very very soon were testing the technologies successfully I might add in Canada and Alaska right now in preproduction for methane hydrate gas. The GOM and American OCS are estimated to hold 20000 Trillion cubic feet of Methane recoverable as hydrate gas this technology when perfected will give us over 1000 years of Methane for domestic consumption the deep hot biosphere is always making methane as a byproduct of chemosynthesis, research is showing life at over 3km deep in the lower crust with archaebacteria churning out CH4 as a byproduction of anaerobic chemosynthesis. This is confirmed by the fact that the C12 C13 ratios of hydrate gas is skewed to the mantle side not the atmo/biosphere side. this points to an almost unlimited supply of methane subsea hydrates they are found anywhere the pressure temp curve crosses the stability point worldwide, the estimated world reserve is in the ~200000+ trillion cubic feet if even 10% is recoverable that's hundreds of years of use. This also says nothing of using the estimated 7000 Trillion cubic feet of stranded gas too remote from market to be economically transported currently this gas is flared or has to be recompressed and injected back down bore adding to the total cost of oil. monetizing this gas is the golden dream of remote field operators. Put this type of catalysts on a microchannel reactor system and put the whole thing in a ISO 40ft container unit and ship it to the remote field as a modular system build inmass using Fordist production methods. Transporting liquids is an order of magnitude more economical than pressurized or cryoliquified gas. No this is significant going from methane to petrol range liquids is huge. Liquid fueled ICE already can hit PZEV standards and soon will be ZEV as in CO2 and water only at the tail pipe once GDI engines get particulate traps CARBS job is done the exhaust is cleaner than the air going in.
From the report they are taking in to account CO2 Air Capture this can also clearly be seen in the graphs above too. They include in the cost analytics capital cost for CO2 capture and the cost to electrolysis the resulting CO2 with water to yield syngas for FT. There was a similar report on this website no less that also shows with 1-3 cent busbar nuclear power CO2 air capture to fuel is economic at 3 bucks a gallon. Only nuclear power is cheap enough to do it no other form of primary energy has the economics to compete with ~$55bbl oil. This is the most Eff way to get atmo CO2 "The minimum power consumption within the operation conditions studied in this work was 0.57 kWh/kg-CO2 (or 0.57 MWh/t-CO2 equivalently), which was achieved at the current density 2.4 mA/cm2" 570 kWh a ton at 2 cents per kwh for 24/7 co-site located nuclear power is $11.40 per ton of CO2 in electrolysis energy costs. The air flow needed across the carbonate solution could be combined with cooing tower system from the reactor a updraft cooling tower in natural draft mode moves massive amounts of air and water every second 24/7. using the waste heat to drive the convection updraft. Also as EP pointed out K-carbonates dissociate at reactor waste heat temps so colocating the air capture next to the nuke site is a no brainer. Now stop building boutique reactors and Fing get on with the standardization process of plant designs and make the NRC issue operators licenses the time for endless litigation is over.
sorry word messes up the copy n paste meant 98.5% uptime for nuclear reactors and 24/7 busbar power at full load. I have read the report we get access to Scidirect 3-5 cent power = 3 buck petrol if its 24/7 power only nuclear can do that for the price. Going to a standardized plant design would lower the costs even more for large plants 1-2 cents at the buscar is possible including 10% ROI and O&M costs for a gen 3 reactor.
Stan and Thomas might want to lay off the happy sauce for a while... no one is saying to burn fossil fuels to then take the electricity and capture CO2 and FT it to hydrocarbons that is just silly, use the hydrocarbons and go syngas to FT directly or hydrogenate over catalysts. This is about using electricity from Nuclear power or renewables to make liquid fuels. The title says it all "Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy" what part of nuclear and renewables don't y'all get. That said it seems that unless they get the electrolosis costs down only 98.5% 27/7 Nuclear 1.5-3 cent per kWh power is going to be even remotely economical. So lets build lots of modular nuclear plants that once the plant design is certified the greenies cannot sue anymore to stop its construction, build one plant design thats certified and be done with it, Hyperion is going to lead that push with there mini reactors that can be transported in NRC certified Fuel casks over land rail+truck & sea modes of transport once they get the cert done they can fordist the production process and crank them out by the hundreds and no one can stop them legally. Thank God we got some sense about or permitting and operating laws now the NRC must issue operator licenses for precertified plant designs and fringe greengroups cannot sue endlessly litigating up the plant costs to the point where investors wont build them. Score one for the winning team of American nuclear power industry. Hyperion is estimating with mas production the busbar cost will be 4-5 cents per kWh thats 3 buck petrol I for one would pay 3 bucks any day over $2.70 for retail petrol. As long as it's 100% American made pure petrol not the E10 rubbish we get here. Content in the knowledge that not a single drop was from the middle east and none of my hard earned capital goes to those who despise our western high standard of living lifestyles, and frankly are openly hostile to this Nation and our very lives. Without our petrodollars let them eat sand, pull every troop out and let them without our funds for imported food and desalination descend to savagery amongst themselves.
A properly run FT plant should have zero or almost zero toxic emissions. The only off gases would be water vapor, and CO2 which is not toxic when diluted out the stack, and the election yest was a clear as day rejection of this administration and the economic and climate policies. Yest was historic trumping even the bloodbath of 1994, not since 1938 have the American people rejected a admin as much. now the adults can make energy policy and coal to liquid is needed to replace sending billions to countries that are openly hostile to our way of life and our very lives. Most people in this country do not buy in to CO2 being a dangerous gas this was show last night too. The people have spoken and the consent has been removed to continue against the will of the people is to invite disaster as the 2nd amendment comes to play next.
EP- Cross heads good point steam has enormous torque loads even from 0 rpm wow thats a great idea large low speed marine Diesels still use them for that very reason to off load the cylinder wall there is no reason a scaled down version could not be put in a medium speed heavy duty ICE the only sacrifice is overall height of the engine but for medium/heavy duty whats 20 cm or so in overall engine height. So lets see a working test engine anything that keeps jobs and money in this country rather than sending it to people who want to exterminate us is a great idea.
The trade off is always wear rates to the rings and cylinder liners. downsizing increases the forces on the piston skirts where rotational torque is generated that is physics and unavoidable by operating at higher BMEP on smaller piston area to generate the same torque from the now smaller piston skirt area increases the force per cm squared and wear rates in piston engines is proportional to the force over area and sweep velocity of this loaded area against the wear surface in this case the cylinder wall or liner so smaller higher speed engines will wear at faster rates this is unavoidable via physics. improvements in synthetic oils and surface coatings might reduce the wear rates relative to cast iron and AlSi pistons but large engines at lower torque/low RPM loading relative to the maximum design point will ALWAYS outlast a small engine screaming at near peak torque and high RPM the physics of this is just that physics material sciences being equal on could put the advanced lube and coatings on a larger engine and still outlast the smaller one every day of the week. for the consumer who replace there car at 100k miles this might be acceptable but fleet operators go 500k plus and endurance is a key cost factor.
The solid acid is the key and what makes these cells so important. Why because they don't care about the ~10% CO gas in the reformate this reduces the cost of the reformer drastically, and allows any hydrocarbon to be used for fuel, be it Alcohols(C2-8),Methane,LPG,JP8&5(military applications),Jet A,Petrol,Gasoil,or any number of biooils and advanced fuels like DME,DMF pretty much if it has carbon and hydrogen a reformer can turn it to hydrogen rich syngas, with a water gas shift to keep the CO levels below 10% the cell is happy as a clam. make this at 15kw continuous and have a small pure 02 pressure boosting system using o2 air separating tech similar to what medical o2 machines use to make o2 in real time for the elderly, feeding a small medium pressure 20bar O2 tank to triple the peak power rating Air is only 20% O2;pulsing at slightly higher than atmo pressure 90+% O2 at the cell can triple its output in seconds for passing and hill climbing.
Forget PEM, Solid Acid Cells, and low temp thin film SOFC are the future as they do not care about ~10% CO gas in the reformate this reduces the cost of the reformer drastically, and allows any hydrocarbon to be used for fuel, be it Alcohols(C2-C8),Methane,LPG,JP8&5(military applications),Jet A,Petrol,Gasoil,or even biooils that are ashless like pyrolysis oils even oxygenated ones since the resulting CO is fuel not a poison, and solid fuels such as micronized ashless coal or torrified biomass assuming you design a gasifier/reformer with a cyclone solid removal step. It is only a matter of time before those 2 cell tech catch up in $/kw to small scale gen sets at 60% HHV eff, Vs ~35% for otto ice n ~43% diesel ICE
People seem to forget that this process needs syngas, removing coal via mtn top is only one way to get syngas the cheapest way is to use underground coal gasification, after you extract all the coal bed methane of course. Most of the Coal in North America is too deep to mine economically but is ideally suited for UCG. The Soviets and now Uzbekistan have used UCG since the 1970's 85% of the coal that is unmineable is endemically suited for UCG on the order of 1.2 Trillion Tons let that number sink in trillion with a capital T at the current production rate of 1.2~1.5 barrels of refined products per ton of coal this is over 100+ years of US energy needs even as the sole source of USA liquid fuels, the coal bed methane is also a significant source of energy as well small scale microchannel FT reactors can monetize these remote stranded CBM and subsequent syngas sources. Supply of water is not an issue as the FT process generates sterile fresh water as a byproduct, and the CBM dewatering process generates brine that can be flashed to steam for use in the hydrogasification of the coal at depth to produce the syngas product. The FT process is itself exothermic and generates significant quantities of steam the processes are synergistic. We lack the will as a nation to use our natural resources to there full potential it could be because the Saudi's have financial controlling in interest in all 6 major media networks. If the Greens would get out of the way we have sufficient reserves for hundreds of years of use here under our feet that technology is just now opening up for economic consumption. Tomorrow's election will usher in the adults again and progress will move forward on our energy situation, we need to before China calls our debt in and forces a debasement of our currency in a bidding war for oil on the world market that the Saudis will be all to happy to profit from.
what about MTBF of the downsized engine? Long Haul Class 8 low/medium speed large displacement engines go for a million miles TBO. They run at 1500-2000 rpm at peak torque, these engines will be screaming at 4000+RPM at full torque. Cylinder liner wear rates are directly proportional to peak torque and cylinder sweep velocity (rpm) operating ANY piston engine at near peak torque for most of the duty cycle will greatly increase ring and cylinder liner wear rates. This is physics I could go into a long spat about how rotational torque is only generated by side force of the piston skirt acting on the cylinder liner wall but anyone who has taken freshman physics should know this already and if not get a freshman physic text book. In physics there is no free lunch, drastically downsizing(increasing torque produced per cubic inch displacement) and upspeeding increasing RPM since work is a function of force(torque)*distance which is rotatinal in this case RPM an engine will increase the wear rates at the log of the piston skirt sweep rate over torque density per square centimeter of piston skirt area this is unavoidable. A perfect example is small petrol generators vs low speed diesel generators of similar size outputs a 10kw petrol motor genset is screaming at 3600 rpm and has a TBO of less than 2500 hrs a 10kw low speed diesel hums along at 900rpm and have TBO of 40000hrs+ again physics cannot be monkeyed with.
As for complexity a modern 6 speed automatic trans has at least 3 some times 4 epicyclic gear sets and each gear set has 3 to 4 wet clutches/ band clutches for a total of 12 or more wet clutches in a normal automatic trans, these trans drive millions of cars today without issue, I personally have had truck/ SUV auto trans that have gone over 200k miles on the original clutch packs, the key is regular fluid replacement and using a oversized trans fluid cooler heat is death to trans fluids, and the wet clutches the fluid supports. The gear set last almost indefinitely when you rebuild an automated trans your replace the clutch packs and band clutches and put the original epicyclic gears back I have done a few tranny rebuilds in my day anyone with a high school shop level education can do it. GM’s single epi gear set is childs play for them given the decades of experience doing automated transaxles the trick is synchronizing the clutches and that what computers do best keep the user out of the equation and computers can sync gears to <10rpm relative speed differences there should be little to no wear rates on the clutches if the computers do the job of the syncros.
GM left out the most important clutch and they did it on purpose, Clutch 4 should be on the sun gear to release the Motor1 and lock the sun gear fixed therefore allowing the ICE and the MG/2 to drive the ring gear which though the planets drive the planet carrier and the final output to the wheels solely. This would increase hwy efficiency even more as with the current setup energy (torque) has to be sent electrically from MG2 to M1 continuously at hwy speed. This is to keep the Ecvt concept and have this car qualify as an EV, had GM allowed the ICE to solely drive the wheels even at hwy speeds this would not be an EV and no subsidy cashcow from the feds. I would be a simple matter of engineering to add clutch on the sun gear and make sure the final drive ratio is optimized for the ICE minimum BSFC at hwy speeds say 75mph which is about the average people drive unless your in far West TX where the speed limits are 80 and people drive 90-100 mph anyway. MG2 is still in the torque path to the wheels which allows for charging of the pack and torque boost and regen braking while at hwy speeds. Using the MG2 to charge the pack can also keep the ICE at its most eff point which for most ICE is 75% max torque at WOT, they should have used multiair for the throttling of this engine or some other valvetronic means this improves hwy mileage significantly. Which is where the ICE should be doing its heavy lifting.
Texans have more producers than takers, one political think tank did the math that if Texas went on our own with a 21% Republic of Texas flat tax we could not only have a balance budget, provide every Texan over 65 with the current monthly equivalent of SS and have emergency healthcare all Texans. Why does our budget balance because we have welfare reform you cannot come to Texas and spend a life time freeloading on the backs of hard working Texans. We graciously give you 2 years to get retrained, reskilled, or relocated but in the end you have to GET BACK TO WORK.
Speaking of economy Texas added more private sector jobs this fiscal year than all the other 48 states combined. Why because were business friendly capitalists who are freemen and other freemen come here to prosper and excel, were on par to have an 8 billion dollar surplus this year in our budget thanks to Perry. Even in this O-economy, even with the Gulf disaster and the drilling ban. Texans are working hard and prospering this is in our blood we are doers not leeches. Those of us who have had families here since before this was even Texas as in 1800’s when Tejas was still part of New Spain have carved a shining example of what free people can do from some of the harshest environments known to man. It is our birthright to be freemen Texas was found on the blood and tears of freemen and will be saved by the blood and tears of yet another group of freemen. We don’t take kindly to people thousands of miles away stealing hard earned assets and capital in the name of social justice or what ever term they are using to justify redistribution of capital. It will and must be stopped or the economy as it has will continue to be trashed. Investors 75% of them BTW believe correctly that O is anti-business, and seeks to redistribute their assets so they are not investing and holding the assets out of reach of those who would take them. This is having a hugely downward effect on production and job creation. Texas being the last best hope in the USA for capitalism, and the most likely to succeed when the eventual balkanization comes. The term is irreconcilable differences its time for the divorce. This is one of the prime reason Texans want out we don’t need the USA not fiscally, not militarily, not culturally. This constitution states the feds are to protect us militarily and negotiate international trade well Texans can do both just fine without DC.
A large number of us Texans 35% at the last poll want to leave the union and go our own way, we have the economy, food production, natural resources, and are net out payers of federal taxes to mean for every dollar the feds take from us we only get about 60 cents back. Our budget would be balanced the instant we didn’t have to sent funds to DC. 250000 of us have pleaded to fight for independence if the natural born citizens vote for it imports need not apply, we have over 10 million armed citizens down here and close to 20 million firearms in our borders. A significant number of us are military veterans who have seen combat on one or two continents, and a disproportional number of our current military are Texans too they wont fight against us you can take that to the bank. As for behavior no one addressed the issue of the limoseen libs flying in private jets, being carted around in armored SUV and limos spewing CO2 at will all the while telling the hard working people of this country to limit our lifestyles and we have to drive vehicles that emit only X amount of CO2 which means smaller less safe vehicles while they themselves will not walk the walk the proper word is hypocrites, We Texans say you first lead by example and then you can mandate to us. The Giant is awake bank on it in the coming months if not then there a real possibility of armed conflict in this nation and our founding fathers knew these days would come and how a well armed population can and will change a govt that is ignoring the will of the vast majority of its citizens. THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED this is a right given by God no man can take it without risking bloodshed. This country has been ~40% conservative, ~30 moderate and ~20 left or progressive ~10% undecided over the last 40 years this is easily verified by a number of polls. This last cycle proved that people were pissed at GWB and punished the right, but by no means is this country a progressive nation, the left took this cycle it as a mandate oh were they so wrong when in reality the right sat out and the middle and undecided’s were pissed at GWB. Now the giant is awake we are a center right country of freemen have been for 200+ years people trying to change that better hope they don’t stop listening to the people of the consent will be removed, by force if necessary. Our Army and Marines would not stand a chance against 200 million plus civilian arms, the writing is already on the wall since last nov more arms have been sold in the USA to private citizens than are currently carried in all the armies in the world and more ammunition has been bought in that period than in the previous decade. Ammo factories are running 24-7 to keep up with demand the people are arming themselves as our founders told us to do in case we need to remove our consent. Down here we have a saying keep your powder dry and your mind clear.
"speed limit of 75 mph." not in Texas we have 80mph in places West Texas, and our larger open counties and the "common law" is 10 over is ignored and 15 over if you have a police union supporter sticker. The class 8 rigs run 75+ here too, getting on the road with a small car is just foolish, most people drive large pickup trucks or SUV's or full size luxury cars Lexus and BMW are the most popular. Every day we see small cars smashed if you can afford the safety of a large vehicle you drive it. My life is so worth losing 3-4 mpg or even 10 mpg to drive a large safe truck. I make enough that fuel is such a small part of my disposable income as to be negligible in comparison to my personal safety. If the Govt mandates smaller cars we will just buy commercial vehicles to drive and pay the licensing fees. I already right off my truck as its a class 3 vehicle I use for work. This is the reality of the USA those with money and power will never be forced to risk our lives at the whim of the proletariat. You can bet your life that the limousine politicians will not be driving in ecodeath traps oh no they will be in full sized Suburbans or limos while the rest of the unwashed masses are road kill. No thank you get out of your private jets and armored limos before you tell me the small biz owner to worry about my grams per mile. Lead by actions first then we the people will follow. November is almost here and the sleeping giant is now awake.
80+% of all coal is too deep to mine or too thin to make mining worth it. UGC tech especially with thin tube on coil rigs which can now reach depths of 3000 meters opens almost all of the unminable coal seams to gasification. In the USA alone there is over 1.6 Trillion tones of coal that is technically reachable with 3500 meter rigs this is enough for hundreds of years of use even at 100% of our annual 105 quad btu consumption rate. Using the industry standard of FT syn where 1.2 ton of coal equals 1bbl of oil equivalent in liquid form and .5 bbl in light hydrocarbon gases (C3-C5) that trillion in coal becomes a trillion barrel equivalent in liquid fuels. A couple of companies are working on using UCG syngas to liquids and others are using fuel cells or turbines for UCG to electricity the given price per btu of cleaned syngas is in the 2-4 dollar range for MMBTU this is half of the well head price for natural gas and is on par with lignite on a MMBTU basis. Deep coal seams are almost always topped with cap rocks, so if one desired to do so the burned out cavitys are perfect to store CO2 in a liquid state. If the coal gas (methane)+ CO2 did not leak out over millions of years the returned CO2 will not. to do UCG you have to first recover all the methane and CO2 in the formation and dewater it then send down your steam, h2 or o2 gas to begin the retort reactions. With the right price this process could be carbon neutral by putting the co2 back underground and exporting the power via high voltage, the water byproducts once cleaned with RO would be potable and free to release into the watersheds a win-win for the dry high plains basins. The small amount of RO permeate would be disposed of how all saline permeates are deep injection right back to the UGC cavities.
SJC- Twin turbos = macho too its all about acceleration and that means torque not peak horse power any motorhead knows this. If this motor has a lower and broader torque peak it will out accelerate a V8 any day of the week given equal gearing ratios. Plus the spooled up sound of turbos screaming out an open er modified exhaust is a sound of beauty. A lot of guys run turbo diesels with straight pipes just to have the turbo whine. jeffa- Light duty vehicles have to meet tier 2 bin one EPA standards and euro diesels are 100 times over the limits of t2b1 even at euro 5, to get to t2b1 the added cats, DPF and nox agents (urea) adds thousands of dollars to the engine costs in addition to the added cost of the diesel itself. Yes the tech exists but the upfront costs to meet the EPA regs is out of the light duty price range. Medium and heavy trucks F250, F350, 450 ,550 ect have different EPA regs and only have to have DPF nows NOx & SCR cats comes in 2012-2014. most gasoline engines are now meeting ULEV or SULEV EPA levels which are an order of magnitude cleaner than t2b1 soon T2B1 will go away and all light duty vehicles will have to meet at least ULEV standards diesels probably will never get to that level. no one has the right to emit 100-1000 times more pollution than there neighbor just for a few more mpg rational citizens have already decided this. So if you want diesels here you have to at least meet T2B1 and your still emitting 100 times the toxins as a ULEV. This is the reason Diesel do not have a large market share here. Go to europe as soon as you step off the plane you will smell the stink of diesel its upbiquitus in the EU takes a few hours for your nose to become immune but you are still breathing all kinds of PM2.5 and VOC's.
Toggle Commented Sep 24, 2010 on 3.5L EcoBoost for the F-150 at Green Car Congress
From their own public literature the cryomethod is retrofit-able and significantly cheaper than any other form of CCS tech, they publicly show a increase in LCOE of 3 cents a Kw/hr this is very small so small that using dirty cheap coal with this tech is much cheaper than natural gas power. Strictly from the environmental benefit of 100% capture of all the other nasties in coal fuel gas this is win-win. I as an earth scientist do want clean air to breathe and fish without mercury. The cryoprocess scrubs out Hg,SO,NO2,NOx PM2.5 the whole lot is process at low temps and condenses out, the only gases that comes out the stack is N2 and trace amounts of argon and the other noble gases not condensed. This would make coal the most benign source of cheap 24/7 power at least in air quality the CO2 benefit is just gravy. While I don't agree with AGW and yes this is most certainly in my scientific field you get that I am a Geoscientist right? My masters thesis was in marine palo-biology as oil is almost always found in sedimentary formations of palo-marine algae so I have done quite a bit of paloclimate research as only certain climatic conditions are favorable to these oil precursor algae you need paloclimate to know in what formations to look for oil by the depositional climate at the time plus a whole slew of other variables, heat curve over time, pressure curve over time did the sediments enter and stay in the oil window and for how long, is there a cap formation over the source rock ect. There is a reason that we scientists make mid 6 figures the educational level to get here is far beyond what most will ever achieve in a lifetime. That said arguing AGW is arguing beliefs which means it’s arguing religion as I am a fully qualified licensed Geoscientist, my professional stance in dissent is part of the scientific process. The fact that there is professional dissent means the debate is not closed and no consensus has been reached sorry but this is how science works, about 30000 other Geoscientists agree with me too. Thus the debate still is being waged much to the anger of the greens in know but enough of the banter though this is America we get to vote bring it to the ballot box if you convince enough people that your side is right with all the associated economic fallout; then you win pass all the laws you want, if not sorry but the citizens have spoken and time to go home this is not China where the leaders can go against the will of the people we have the 2nd amendment to remedy that problem. The consent of the government is a natural right given by God no man can take that away and to attempt to do so only invites war and bloodshed as men have the right to choose our form of government always.
My point is there is already a paying market for high pressure liquid CO2 in bulk, we get ours in 9000 gallon tanker trucks or rail cars depending on our site locality relative to rail lines and if we have the right of ways to lay temporary surface CO2 pipelines from a rail terminus to our site. CO2 is liquid at 10 MPA & <300K above that it’s a supercritical fluid its easy to store as a fluid supercritical or not. 300K is 80’F 9bar is ~1200 psi Ideally it would be nice to have a pipeline from a large coal plant to our sites this would slash our transportation costs for bulk CO2. As for the physics they have 3rd party verification and technical spec available for those who are willing to sigh none disclosure agreements and an investing prospectus arm chair scientists need not apply. I got an immediate reply, as we are a target market for them and I am a licensed Geoscientist in my state. The elegance of this technologies is leveraging the advances in heat exchanger and adiabatic compressor technologies of the last 5 years to eliminate a large portion of the energy necessary to extract and “liquefy” CO2 it comes down to the entropy of phase change for CO2 from gas to solid with a small amount of pumping of a liquid not a gas to final storage pressure elegant is just the right wording. Now if this ever going to go commercial is a matter of political will to capture CO2 not the technologies needed to do it. I don’t drink the koolaid for AGW but any source of cheap CO2 helps my bottom line and I’m all for that.
Before the usual CO2 Cassandra’s cry about using CO2 for oil recovery we are carbon negative it takes more CO2 in liquid form to push a barrel of oil out than the oil will release when burned and since oil reservoirs are always covered with a impermeable cap rock which by definition is impermeable to gases and liquids the CO2 is locked there for all time if the natural gas that is almost always found capping oil deposits has not leaked out in 50 million years the CO2 will stay in the space left over for just as long.