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I thought it was interesting that the largest burden as a percentage of income falls on the middle class, but it makes sense. Lower-income households benefit from programs like the Low Income Energy Rebate Program in the Waxman-Markey bill and the per-capita rebate in the cap dividend option. Middle-class households do not qualify for these and, in turn, absorb more of the cost. The upper class has a higher concentration of "shareholders" or owners of firms that receive accrued benefits from the relief of allocations. The middle class gets the short end of the stick. As Jessica said, it was refreshing to hear poor households are protected under all scenarios presented. It is nice to read about some policies that are directed directly or indirectly at benefiting lower-income households. This, coupled with the older demographic being harmed less by climate policy, is very fortunate to hear. The regional aspect of the study did not show conclusive evidence for me, but it would be interesting to see this on a global level. This would be hard because of different national policies but seeing climate policies compared from different regions of the world opposed to regions of America would be interesting.
Toggle Commented Mar 23, 2022 on Paper for Thursday at Jolly Green General
I found the paper regarding the pollution and cognition relationship by age in China to be very interesting. I am surprised that there are not more studies on the cognitive impairments pollution has on people, but this study proved to shed light on the issue. The paper brings up the economic cost associated with pollution effects and how this negative externality has been neglected by policy. Thinking about the adverse impact on a human capital level has to inflict uproar for change. The top 20 polluted cities in the world are in developing countries, and without some sort of environmental change, these countries are set up to fail. I have never thought about the cognitive effects that pollution might have, but after reading about them, I feel like the cognitive effects are just as if not more harmful than the physical effects. In order for countries to develop, the people in these countries need to develop, and with the levels of pollution, this study shows that cognitive ability will continue to decline. I also found it interesting that exposure to air pollution impedes men's verbal test scores more than women's. The total cost of air pollution is much more significant than people think, and it will be interesting to see how the trend continues as air pollution rises. I wonder if it is possible to reverse negative cognitive effects due to air pollution and if any money is going into that. Cutting down pollution in developing countries not only medically benefits the countries but can economically benefit these countries by the increase of human capital and cognitive ability.
Toggle Commented Mar 15, 2022 on Papers for Thursday at Jolly Green General
I honestly appreciated Schrag's realistic approach to the climate change situation, and he basically left it at, "It depends". No one knows what the future holds and what the outcomes to "solutions" hold. Although I appreciated the viewpoint and the realism of the article, it did leave me feeling worried about the state we are in. It sounds like no matter what solution we implement, and Schrag made it clear that there is no one solution fix-all for the situation, there really is not a solution at all. He says, "the first challenge we most confront in working towards a solution to future climate change is that any "solution" will be incomplete". Nothing we do will ever be enough and climate change is inevitable. This was highlighted by him saying even if we reduce our emissions to zero immediately (which obviously is the furthest thing from possible) it would take over 200 years to restore the atmosphere to pre-industrial conditions. Although mitigation tactics were mentioned in the article, it seems like an article I would not want a lot of the world reading. I feel like the realistic viewpoint of being too far gone to help but the possibility for adaption to new norms would make a lot of people confused and not care about making a difference. I think adaptation efforts need to be a point of stress over just "solutions" because it seems like that is our only hope. Every single "solution" presented was also followed by reasons why the strategy was hard to achieve. The part about there being no single strategy for how the world needs to address climate change resonated with me as well. I think there need to be different teams for different locations coming up with "solutions" or mitigation tactics. (There might be already I just do not know) I guess the problem with if we are going to be okay in regards to climate change goes back to the golden words, "It depends".
Toggle Commented Mar 9, 2022 on Papers for Thursday at Jolly Green General
After reading this I talked to Gus Wise and Mark Lamendola about their thoughts on the issue as a result of their love of fishing. Buffalo Creek, a local wild trout fishery is used by both fly fishermen and bait fishermen alike. Some fishermen are known to take fish for their own consumption. While there is aesthetic and consumption pleasure in this, I do not think it is sustainable action for the water source. Although it is a common resource, there is not enough fish to maintain the resource while also engaging in catch and keep fishing. This lowers the value of the resource and as a result, Gus and Mark cannot catch as many fish. Allie also brings up an important point that I was thinking about. Rules implemented on fisheries would have a hard time sticking I feel like. If there is not someone officially regulating these issues on the streams, what is to keep someone from abiding by them. Providing guidelines is a step in the right direction but finding ways to enforce them is a bigger problem as a result of it lying on self-compliance.
Toggle Commented Feb 9, 2022 on Paper for Thursday at Jolly Green General
Reading the article, I understand both ends of the spectrum regarding what China is doing to Brazil in terms of deforestation. On the surface, it looks like China and Brazil have a mutually beneficial relationship. China needs resources from Brazil, and in return, Brazil's economy directly increases due to this trading partnership. A ton of people are now benefiting from this in both countries, ranging from the workers in factories in Brazil to the millions of people in China benefiting from the agricultural resources gained from the Amazon. Speaking to Blakes's point, it is hard to figure out where to draw the line between economic prosperity and environmental prosperity. In the past 12 years since this article was written, I am curious to see if that range between economic and ecological prosperity has increased or decreased. What is the optimal level of Chinese intervention in the Amazon? I am curious if either government knows the answer to this question. It is clear that there are some positives to Chinese intervention in these areas, but the environmental tradeoff needs to be at a level that does not negatively affect the Amazon and the rest of the world. China has fewer environmental restrictions, so I feel like it is on the rest of the world to help make these decisions as a result of its global impact.
Toggle Commented Feb 2, 2022 on Reading for Thursday at Jolly Green General
I found the article on Belize interesting because it is somewhere I want to go. With much of the tourism spawning from the environmental attractions Belize presents, it makes sense to impose some sort of fee to keep the environment safe and in proper condition. Personally, I would be willing to pay even more than the 20 bucks required right now. I think people going on a vacation in Belize are spending a good amount of money, to begin with, ranging from flights to hotels and different attractions. At the end of the day, I do not see a fee as high as 30-50 dollars deterring tourists from visiting Belize. I asked one of my friends about Belize because she recently went, and she had no idea that there was even a fee when leaving. Although this might be a rare occurrence, I believe that the last thing someone is worried about when coming back from a vacation in Belize is paying 20 dollars to keep the environment they just spent a vacation on safe. I think when you are in a place like that paying 20 dollars is the least we can do to experience the conditions we are going for. Making the fee more transparent when booking flights and hotels might be something Belize can start doing just to make it apparent. I think someone searching for a vacation in Belize will not change plans when they find out there is a 20 dollar fee to experience what it has to offer. With the current price of 20$, 6M$ is going towards protecting the environment. It would be interesting to see what the optimal amount of funding would be and see if that is the amount that can be charged.
Toggle Commented Jan 25, 2022 on Readings for Thursday at Jolly Green General
Quiggin's article stuck out to me because it presented fundamental ways for change to occur, but it lies in the fact that those things will get done. There was a sense of hope reading that article. It was written in 2013, so it would be interesting to see an updated version from Quiggin talking about the progress (if any) that has been made in the last 8-9 years. He presented ways to achieve a kind of "utopian" society, and the question of achieving it lies in will we do it, not can we. Quiggin points out that our use of coal, gas, and oil could be reduced by 90 percent even while living standards increase. One of the solutions he points out lies in changing infrastructures that support existing technologies. This, coupled with changing our fixed assumptions about how energy systems must work, can result in drastic change for the better. Although this solution provides hope, the fact we are still having these conversations means his efforts and solutions probably were not put into place even at the surface level. Another thing that stuck out to me was the fact that the number of chronically undernourished people in the world has declined from nearly one billion in 1990 to 870 million today. This strikes me by surprise because I feel like we would have been moving in the wrong direction. Although this is correlated to less poverty, it is a sign of optimism for the future. Overall, reading this article scares me for the future but also gives a sense of hope in the fact that there are real viable solutions that could be done.
Toggle Commented Jan 19, 2022 on Readings for Thursday at Jolly Green General
This article was very insightful and one that I used for support on my final essay. What stuck out to me in particular was the emissions that lead to climate change. Our topic for the paper was taxing carbon emissions and this fit perfect into the economic point of view. Emissions thats lead to global warming have a negative effect on development on multiple levels. The challenge is what are realistic alternatives because as we talked about in class you get rewards from burning these fossil fuels like driving to see your family. etc. The issue that needs to be resolved is finding a balance or substitute for these emissions because we need them to survive. We also need to realize that if the climate continues to rise it will be almost impossible for development as a result of the negative externalities that come along with climate change. The fact that only a 2 degree C change can make the impacts laid out in the paper is actually crazy to think about. What is the best solution to this problem because time is running out and sooner or later if we do not find a solution development will be the least of our issues.
Toggle Commented Dec 5, 2019 on Last Blog Post for the Year at Jolly Green General
In Parker and Vogl's paper, "Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Economic Outcomes in the Next Generation? Evidence from Mexico", the authors dive into the findings of the Progresa Program and the long run impacts it has. The programs goal was to minimize poverty and increase the long term health and well being financially of children and families in Mexico. What stuck out to me the most was the outcomes of this program with respect to women. The effects were positive in both men and women but the effects were more drastic with women. Women staying in the program and staying in School led to,"estimated effects on female labor force participation exceeding one-quarter, and the estimated effects on female labor income exceeding one half". We have talked about and studied the correlation between female empowerment and development being one of the most crucial and driving forces of economic development as a whole. This study has to provide some sort of hope to developing countries and an incentive for more programs to be put into place. People are driven by results and the benefits that come along with it, so giving people an incentive is key to development. Why would someone do something if they knew they were not going to be successful or benefit from it? Given these people an incentive proves to lead to success not just for these individuals but economies and development as a whole. Implementing in this in other developing areas and countries can lead to great strides and improvement on overall development. This program is investing in human capital which is what needs to be done. We have proved that investing in human capital is what needs to happen. I really like the idea of the program and it creates real opportunity for improvement and development. Starting the program early is key as well. Investing in human capital at an early age translates to great development and positive outcomes in the future. Education and Women's empowerment are the means and the ends in development like Sen said. Everything relates back to that point in some shape or form.
Toggle Commented Nov 20, 2019 on Next Week at Jolly Green General
In the paper, "Interest Rates and in the North and Capital Flows in the South: Is There a Missing Link?”, the author lays out the idea that as US interest rates increase foreign investments do down. A couple things stuck out to me while reading this. The first being that they're are many underlying factors that can contribute to the foreign investments going down that are not pointed out clearly. The underlying theme that most of these papers have laid out is the fact that these developing countries have so many different factors holding them down that are out of their control that is almost seems impossible for them to ever succeed into a developed country. The fact that global credit conditions have had an important impact on the market for developing country debt is just one of many issues developing countries have to overcome. It seems like if one thing isn't holding a developing country back something else is and this cycle is just continuous until when though? Most of the findings and evidence from this if not all are from the 1900s and dated. I am curious to what some current examples may be or current findings in 2019. I also was very confused by a lot of what the paper was getting at but the one point I did clearly notice was the fact that developing countries do not control their own fate in many ways and what can be done to change that? Is there anything that can be done? Things countries like the US and Japan are doing effect developing countries in more ways than one so there isn't a clear answer to the question. All that can be done is tackle one issue at a time but I really do not know how it is possible to get these developing countries out the never ending cycle of failure.
Toggle Commented Nov 14, 2019 on For Thursday's Discussion at Jolly Green General
A common theme In our class thus far has been the relationship between investing in health and education and economic growth. The article, "The economic and social burden of malaria" speaks to this point on the health side. The article brings up an interesting point in, "Poverty may promote malaria transmission; malaria may cause poverty by impeding economic growth or casualty may run in either direction". We talked about this in an earlier study which showed that investing in health care with removing intestinal worms led to higher graduation rates and test scores which down the road leads to economic growth. The reason Poverty and Malaria are interrelated is because one is a factor or outcome of the other. Just like intestinal worms and graduation rates were interrelated. Investing in the fight against Malaria can lead to economic growth in subtropical and tropical regions. Malaria is a big problem and I remember getting a Malaria shot before I was able to go to India when I was younger. Everyone in the world should be getting the vaccination and the outcomes would be beneficial to everyone, not just the people who would be getting vaccinated. Another interesting point from the article is the quality quantity trade off with respect to the mortality rate of Malaria. The effects of malaria run further than just people dying, the high fertility rates that come about from the high child mortality rate leads to negative economy consequences. There is a relationship between high fertility rates and reduced investments in children. Not investing in health which in this case is Malaria also effects investment in education which are two huge factors in ultimate economic growth.
Toggle Commented Nov 6, 2019 on 3 readings for next week at Jolly Green General
While Reading the article, "The Economics of Being Poor" I kept thinking back to our earlier reading of "Economic Lives of the Poor" which described how poverty stricken societies spent their money. Both touched on how half of the money is spent on food which is a necessity along with these families having more people to feed. Shcultz says, "I shall then point out that most observers overrate the economic importance of land and greatly underrate the importance of the quality of human agents". This idea was very interesting to me because he was saying land is overrated. Technology is taking over even when it comes to the farmland. He says "mankind is not foreordained by ... cropland, It will be determined by the intelligent evolution of humanity." This idea goes along with his idea of investing in human capital. Knowledge and technology are drivers of economic growth even for the poor. Schultz says, "Child care, home and work experience, the acquisition of information and skills through schooling and in other ways consisting primarily of investment in health and schooling, can improve population quality". Improving population quality will directly benefit the economy and even in underdeveloped areas people are responding well to opportunities. Investing in people ultimately will lead to economic prosperity in even the poorest countries. People just need a chance and when we give them a chance they respond according to Schultz. Health and Education are drivers for this and if the emphasis worldwide turns to investing in health and education and in people the overall economy will benefit. Schultz also talked about investing in population quality which is what we have been talking about in class a lot. If the life expectancies of people worldwide increase their will be a direct correlation to economic growth.
Toggle Commented Oct 30, 2019 on Blog Post for Next Thursday at Jolly Green General
There were many overlaps in Dufflos, "Women Empowerment and Economic Development" and Sens ideas of empowerment and development. Women's empowerment should drive economic growth. A couple of things jumped out to me in the article, one being the findings from Khanna et al. 2003. This talked about how poor households in India on average spend much less on the healthcare of women as they do with men. The study showed that women are twice as likely to die from diarrhea than men. This speaks to the drastic difference in mortality rates from boys and girls in India. If women empowerment is a driver of economic development shouldn't women have at least the same chance to life as men do? The fact that women do not in many countries creates a discrepancy in the rate of women that can ultimately make an impact on society. This issue of the difference of treatment was put into reality when I actually went to India. My uncle who lives in India has an organization that aims at improving the lives of women in India. When I was younger and went to India I remember my uncle talking to my mom about it. I was very young at the time and did not realize why there was an organization aimed at improving the lives of women but not the lives of men so I asked my uncle why his organization isn't helping men either. I was around 10 at the time so obviously I had no idea of the major gender inequalities that existed. We got in the car and my uncle drove me a couple miles and told me to look around and see the difference in the homeless men and the homeless women. I was very young but even at that age I was able to see for the first time the difference in how the men and women were treated even if both were homeless. The women looked much more frail and helpless. The organization focused on mainly trafficked and ill women but at the time my uncle showing me the difference between the homeless men and the homeless women was the best way to get his point across to his 10 year old nephew. The paper also focuses on for real development to occur, women need to be occupying more political positions and policy actions that favor women need to occur. She talked about the long term vs short term effects for men and women. The long terms effects outweigh the short terms effect for both men and women if women occupy more political positions and policy actions are taken in favor of women. Women empowerment is a driver of economic growth and it starts with policies. The last point that really stuck out to me was the difference in child marriage age in developed countries vs non developed countries. Women should not be getting married at age 15 anywhere in the world. The fact that it is normal in some countries to be married around age 13 or 14 is crazy to me. In most of these cases women do not have a say in these either. Changing this and having women themself decide who they want to marry can drive empowerment of women which can lead to overall economic development.
"Growth Strategies" was a very interesting read that I really enjoyed. What stuck out to me the most which has been a common theme I have been trying to explore is that their is no one right way for a country to just develop. Sure theyre are several blueprints of countries that have prospered and developed over the years but the strategy that they used may and probably wont work for other countries. Finding the way to develop is the problem because theyre is no set of steps that can just develop a country. For example South Korea and Taiwan relied on public enterprises for their development when up until this point the key to development has been changing the country from the agricultural export front. Overall I just think theyre are so many different keys to developing a country and finding the perfect way to bring it all together to actually help the country develop is very hard. Another thing that was interesting to me was the Household Responsibility System. Certain things like this that actually help a country like China would never work in other places because the people would not go for it. It seems like for big change to actually happen the changes have to come from policies and from the top of the government. Development is something that does not have a concrete blueprint but theyre is a general path to follow, countries have to take individual steps along that path to actually prosper.
Toggle Commented Oct 2, 2019 on Rodrik article for Thursday at Jolly Green General
While reading this article I could not help but to keep thinking about the article we had to read last week about the poverty trapped countries. This article touched on making the switch from an agriculture based economy to manufacturing based economy. Almost all the lag behind countries rely on an agriculture based economy but even if they switched to a manufacturing based economy would they still be trapped? First I do not know how long it would take to completely change a countries main export and economic system but even if they did they are still competing with countless number of other on the rise countries. The trap is like a never ending circle and I think the way out lies way deeper than changing a countries main export. Krugman states, "The truth is, I fear, that there's not much that can be done about the kind of apparent intellectual waste that took place during the fall and rise of development economics. A temporary evolution of ignorance may be the price of progress, an inevitable part of what happens when we try to make sense of the world's complexity". What really can be done now to make up for what happened? He also states, "the advice is not to let important ideas slip by just because they haven't been formulated your way". I think this is a big thing in our development worldwide because people ignorance is always setting us back. We as humans believe our thinking is the right way to think but maybe the key to actual sustainable development is with the help of some of these models plus the ideas that may seem crazy at first but when we really dig deep into them can lead to big change.
Toggle Commented Sep 25, 2019 on Reading for next Thursday at Jolly Green General
The article, "Institutional Barriers and World Income Disparities" goes in depth on the reasons for income disparities between two groups of countries, the fast growing economies and the development laggards. A couple things stuck out to me while reading. The first was how similar the reasons were to why a certain country was either in the fast growing economies group or the development laggards. All of the fast growing economies had an export led open policy and some type of advancements in technology. The development laggards all had some form of corruption at the highest level and had agriculture at the head of their exports and in some cases their only export. For example Kenya and Ghana heavily rely on Coffee to fuel their exports and ultimately their economy while Côte d’Ivoire’s is in a similar boat but with cocoa as they're leading and basically only export. The agriculture driven economy is not able to function at a high productivity rate and income rate. There is a blueprint on how to be in the fast growing economy group but some of these countries just cant fullfil it. They know how and what they need to do but they physically cant because of the circumstances they are in which goes back to development as freedom. These nations do not have the freedom to be leading the export world because what they have to offer is not enough to boost there economy to where it needs to be. Its not just these two countries who suffer with agriculture as the main export it is almost all of the development laggards. What can we do for these nations and these nations exports to boost there economy? The corruption aspect also stuck out to me with these development laggards. How are the people of these nations suppose to thrive when the highest government officials are not putting them in a situation too. The social mobility is corrupt and something that needs to be addressed but at the same time I cant think of a way to fix either of these problems because I do not know if it is realistic to just change a countries exports or get rid of corruption within a nation.
While reading the article a couple things stuck out to me but in particle the analysis on Udaipur, India. Udaipur is a place I actually have been too because I have family who lives a hour outside of it. Udaipur is a place my mom goes to every other year to donate to a different school every time she goes. When I went to India when I was 13 years old my mom decided to take me and my sister with her to show us how hard these kids who were my age lives were. The experience was one that will stick with me and my sister forever. The school we decided to go to that year was a small middle school with around 100 kids probably. We donated money and bought every kid a new backpack, notebook pencils and a pair of shoes. We also put up a new basketball hoop in the playground because they're hoop was a bucket on a stick, I have never seen anybody more grateful than every single kid that day. The feeling and reactions these kids had by receiving these items is something I cant even put into words. The article talks about how the poorest households are larger on average and that was very apparent at just this one school. Almost every single kid had a sibling that went to that school and the school consisted of 4 grades. This was interesting to me because even with the lack of resources these poor households tend to have more people on their plate to provide basic needs for. I played basketball with the kids on their new hoop and seeing the joy in these kids faces was something more memorable than anything I have ever done. I wasnt able to communicate with these kids besides dialect on the most basic level as a result of the language barrier but even without understanding what these kids were saying we all knew exactly what they meant. This is something I want to continue doing down the road and eventually take my kids to show them how some people live. Hopefully by then with economic development the standards are somewhat better. The article also touched on how these poverty stricken communities and households tend to have enough money to buy more food than they actually do to not be starving but they decide to spent a lot of it on other stuff like tobacco alcohol and in Udaipur, festivals. I had the chance of seeing one of these festivals as the town of Udaipur, was celebrating Diwali while I was there. The money that was put into these festivals was definitely a good chunk of the money these people were making annually. This speaks to the capabilities of the town which attributes to the development. My mom went back to Udaipur last year and she did say that the level of education is rising since the last time she went and the level of basic needs for children was increasing definitely at least since the time I went. Hopefully this means we are moving in the right direction but I hope one day to go back and the level of poverty be much lower than what it was when I went.
Toggle Commented Sep 11, 2019 on Readings for next week at Jolly Green General
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Sep 10, 2019